8. Tikaººasuttavaººan±

59. Aµµhame dur±sad±ti durupasaªkaman±. Garah± muccissat²ti mayi eva½ kathente samaºo gotamo kiñci kathessati, eva½ me vacanamattampi na laddhanti aya½ garah± muccissat²ti. Paº¹it±ti paº¹iccena samann±gat±. Dh²r±ti dhitisampann±. Byatt±ti parav±damaddanasamatthena veyyattiyena samann±gat±. Bahussut±ti b±husaccavanto. V±dinoti v±dimaggakusal±. Sammat±ti bahuno janassa s±dhusammat±. Paº¹it±di-±k±raparicchedanti tesa½ tevijj±na½ paº¹it±k±r±di-±k±rapariccheda½. ¾k±rasaddo k±raºapariy±yo, paricchedasaddo parim±ºatthoti ±ha “ettakena k±raºen±”ti.
Yath±ti yen±k±rena, yena k±raºen±ti attho. Ten±ha “yath±ti k±raºavacanan”ti. “Dv²hipi pakkheh²”ti vatv± te pakkhe sar³pato dassento “m±tito ca pitito c±”ti ±ha. Tesa½ pakkh±na½ vasenassa suj±tata½ dassetu½ “yassa m±t±”ti-±di vutta½. Janakajanik±bh±vena vin±pi loke m±t±pitusamaññ± dissati, idha pana s± orasaputtavaseneva icchit±ti dassetu½ “sa½suddhagahaºiko”ti vutta½. Gabbha½ gaºh±ti dh±ret²ti gahaº², gabbh±sayasaññito m±tukucchippadeso. Yath±bhuttassa ±h±rassa vip±canavasena gaºhanato acha¹¹anato gahaº², kammajatejodh±tu.
Pit± ca m±t± ca pitaro, pit³na½ pitaro pit±mah±, tesa½ yugo pit±mahayugo, tasm± “y±va sattam± pit±mahayug± pit±mahadvand±”ti evamettha attho daµµhabbo. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana dvanda½ aggahetv± “yuganti ±yuppam±ºa½ vuccat²”ti vutta½. Yuga-saddassa ca atthakath± dassit± “pit±mahoyeva pit±mahayugan”ti. Pubbapuris±ti purisaggahaºañcettha ukkaµµhaniddesavasena katanti daµµhabba½. Evañhi “m±tito”ti p±¼ivacana½ samatthita½ hoti. Akkhittoti akkhepo. Anavakkhittoti saddhath±lip±k±d²su anavakkhitto na cha¹¹ito. J±tiv±den±ti hetumhi karaºavacananti dassetu½ “kena k±raºen±”ti-±di vutta½. Ettha ca “ubhato…pe… pit±mahayug±”ti etena br±hmaºassa yonidos±bh±vo dassito sa½suddhagahaºikat±kittanato. “Akkhitto”ti imin± kiriy±par±dh±bh±vo. Sa½suddhaj±tik±pi hi satt± kiriy±par±dhena khepa½ p±puºanti. “Anupakkuµµho”ti imin± ayuttasa½sagg±bh±vo. Ayuttasa½saggañhi paµicca satt± suddhaj±tik± kiriy±par±dharahit±pi akkosa½ labhanti.
Tanti garah±vacana½. Mante parivattet²ti vede sajjh±yati, pariy±puº±t²ti attho. Mante dh±ret²ti yath±-adh²te mante asammuµµhe katv± hadaye µhapeti.
Oµµhapahatakaraºavasen±ti atth±vadh±raºavasena. Sanighaº¹ukeµubh±nanti ettha vacan²yav±cakabh±vena attha½ saddañca khaº¹ati bhindati vibhajja dasset²ti nikhaº¹u, so eva idha kha-k±rassa gha-k±ra½ katv± “nighaº¹³”ti vutto. Kiµati gameti kiriy±divibh±ga½, ta½ v± anavasesapariy±d±nato gamento p³ret²ti keµubha½. Vevacanappak±sakanti pariy±yasaddad²paka½, ekekassa atthassa anekapariy±yavacanavibh±vakanti attho. Nidassanamattañceta½ anekesampi atth±na½ ekasaddavacan²yat±vibh±vanavasenapi tassa ganthassa pavattatt±. Vac²bhed±dilakkhaº± kiriy± kapp²yati vikapp²yati eten±ti kiriy±kappo, so pana vaººapadasambandhapadatth±divibh±gato bahukappoti ±ha “kiriy±kappavikappo”ti. Idañca m³lakiriy±kappagantha½ sandh±ya vutta½. So hi mah±visayo satasahassaparim±ºo nam±cariy±dippakaraºa½. Ýh±nakaraº±divibh±gato nibbacanavibh±gato ca akkhar± pabhed²yanti eteh²ti akkharappabhed±, sikkh±niruttiyo. Etesanti catunna½ ved±na½.
Padanti catubbidha½, pañcavidha½ v± pada½, ta½ pada½ k±yat²ti padako, teyeva v± vede padaso k±yat²ti padako. Tadavasesanti vutt±vasesa½ v±kya½. Ett±vat± saddaby±karaºa½ vatv± puna “by±karaºan”ti atthaby±karaºam±ha. Ta½ ta½ sadda½ tadatthañca by±karoti by±cikkhati eten±ti by±karaºa½, saddasattha½. ¾yati½ hita½ tena loko na yatati na ²hat²ti lok±yata½. Tañhi gantha½ niss±ya satt± puññakiriy±ya cittampi na upp±denti.
As²ti mah±s±vak±ti aññ±sikoº¹añño, vappo, bhaddiyo, mah±n±mo, assaji, n±¼ako, yaso, vimalo, sub±hu, puººaji, gavampati, uruvelakassapo, nad²kassapo, gay±kassapo, s±riputto, mah±moggall±no, mah±kassapo, mah±kacc±no, mah±koµµhiko, mah±kappino, mah±cundo, anuruddho, kaªkh±revato, ±nando, nandako, bhagu, nandiyo, kimilo, bhaddiyo, r±hulo, s²vali, up±li, dabbo, upaseno, khadiravaniyarevato, puººo mant±niputto, puººo sun±parantako, soºo kuµikaººo, soºo ko¼iviso, r±dho, subh³ti, aªgulim±lo, vakkali, k±¼ud±y², mah±-ud±y², pilindavaccho, sobhito, kum±rakassapo, raµµhap±lo, vaªg²so, sabhiyo, selo, upav±ºo, meghiyo, s±gato, n±gito, lakuº¹akabhaddiyo, piº¹olo bh±radv±jo, mah±panthako, c³¼apanthako, b±kulo, kuº¹adh±no, d±ruc²riyo, yasojo, ajito tissametteyyo, puººako, mettagu, dhotako, upas²vo, nando, hemako, todeyyo, kappo, jatukaºº², bhadr±vudho, udayo, posalo, moghar±j±, piªgiyoti ete as²ti mah±s±vak± n±ma.
Kasm± panete eva ther± “mah±s±vak±”ti vuccant²ti? Abhin²h±rassa mahantabh±vato. Tath± hi dve aggas±vak±pi mah±s±vakesu antogadh±. Te hi s±vakap±ramiñ±ºassa matthakappattiy± s±vakesu aggadhamm±dhigamena aggaµµh±ne µhit±pi abhin²h±ramahantat±s±maññena “mah±s±vak±”tipi vuccanti, itare pana pakatis±vakehi s±tisaya½ mah±bhin²h±r±. Tath± hi te padumuttarassa bhagavato k±le katapaºidh±n±, tato eva s±tisaya½ abhiññ±sam±patt²su vasino pabhinnappaµisambhid± ca. K±ma½ sabbepi arahanto s²lavisuddhi-±dike samp±detv± cat³su satipaµµh±nesu suppatiµµhitacitt± satta bojjhaªge yath±bh³ta½ bh±vetv± maggappaµip±µiy± anavasesato kilese khepetv± aggaphale patiµµhahanti, tath±pi yath± saddh±vimuttato diµµhippattassa, paññ±vimuttato ca ubhatobh±gavimuttassa pubbabh±gabh±van±visesasiddho maggabh±van±viseso, eva½ abhin²h±ramahantattapubbayogamahantatt± hi sasant±ne s±tisayassa guºavisesassa nipph±ditatt± s²l±d²hi guºehi mahant± s±vak±ti mah±s±vak±. Tesuyeva pana ye bodhipakkhiyadhammesu p±mokkhabh±vena dhurabh³t±na½ samm±diµµhisaªkapp±d²na½ s±tisaya½ kicc±nubh±vanipphattiy± k±raºabh³t±ya tajj±bhin²h±r±bhin²haµ±ya sakkacca½ nirantara½ cirak±lasambh±vit±ya samm±paµipattiy± yath±kkama½ paññ±ya sam±dhismiñca ukkaµµhap±ramippattiy± savisesa½ sabbaguºehi aggabh±ve µhit±, te s±riputtamoggall±n±. Itare aµµhasattati ther± s±vakap±ramiy± matthake sabbas±vak±na½ aggabh±vena aµµhitatt± “mah±s±vak±”icceva vuccanti. Pakatis±vak± pana abhin²h±ramahantatt±bh±vato pubbayogamahantatt±bh±vato ca “satthus±vak±”icceva vuccanti. Te pana aggas±vak± viya mah±s±vak± viya ca na parimit±, atha kho anekasat± anekasahass±.
Vayat²ti vayo, ±dimajjhapariyos±nesu katthaci aparikilamanto avitth±yanto te ganthe sant±neti paºet²ti attho. Dve paµisedh± pakati½ gament²ti dassetu½ “avayo na hot²”ti vatv± tattha avaya½ dassetu½ “avayo n±ma…pe… na sakkot²”ti vutta½.
Idh±ti imasmi½ sutte. Etanti “vivicceva k±meh²”ti-±divacana½. Tatiyavijj±dhigam±ya paµipattikkamo visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.70) s±tisaya½ vitth±rito, tath± idha avattuk±mat±ya bhayabheravasutt±d²su (ma. ni. 1.34 ±dayo) viya saªkhepato ca vattuk±mat±ya “dvinna½ vijj±na”micceva vutta½.
Vijj±ti pubbeniv±sappaµicch±dakassa mohakkhandhassa vijjanaµµhenapi vijj±. Moho paµicch±dakaµµhena tamoti vuccati tamo viy±ti katv±. K±tabbato karaºa½, obh±sova karaºa½ obh±sakaraºa½, attano paccayehi obh±sabh±vena nibbattetabbaµµhen±ti attho. Aya½ atthoti ayameva adhippetattho. Pasa½s±vacananti tasseva atthassa thoman±vacana½ paµipakkhavidhamanapavattivises±na½ bodhanato. Yojan±ti pasa½s±vasena vuttapad±na½ atthadassanavasena vuttapadassa ca yojan±. Avijj± vihat±ti etena vijjanaµµhena vijj±ti ayampi attho d²pitoti daµµhabba½. Yasm± vijj± uppann±ti etena vijj±paµipakkh± avijj±, paµipakkhat± cass± pah±tabbabh±vena vijj±ya ca pah±yakabh±ven±ti dasseti. Itarasmimpi padadvayeti “tamo vihato, ±loko uppanno”ti padadvayepi. Eseva nayoti yath±vuttayojana½ atidisati. Tatth±ya½ yojan±– eva½ adhigatavijjassa tamo vihato viddhasto. Kasm±? Yasm± ±loko uppanno ñ±º±loko p±tubh³toti. Pesitattass±ti yath±dhippetatthasiddhippatti½ vissaµµhacittassa, paµhamavijj±dhigam±ya pesitacittass±ti vutta½ hoti.
Vipassan±p±dakanti imin± tassa jh±nacittassa nibbedhabh±giyatam±ha. Vipassan± tividh± vipassakapuggalabhedena. Mah±bodhisatt±nañhi paccekabodhisatt±nañca vipassan± cint±mayañ±ºasa½va¹¹hitatt± sayambhuñ±ºabh³t±, itaresa½ sutamayañ±ºasa½va¹¹hitatt± paropadesasambh³t±. S± “µhapetv± nevasaññ±n±saññ±yatana½ avasesar³p±r³pajjh±n±na½ aññatarato vuµµh±y±”ti-±din± anekadh± ar³pamukhavasena catudh±tuvavatth±ne vutt±na½ tesa½ tesa½ dh±tupariggahamukh±na½ aññataramukhavasena ca anekadh±va visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.306) n±n±nayato vibh±vit±. Mah±bodhisatt±na½ pana catuv²satikoµisatasahassamukhena pabhedagamanato n±n±naya½ sabbaññutaññ±ºasannissayassa ariyamaggañ±ºassa adhiµµh±nabh³ta½ pubbabh±gañ±ºagabbha½ gaºh±penta½ parip±ka½ gacchanta½ paramagambh²ra½ saºhasukhumatara½ anaññas±dh±raºa½ vipassan±ñ±ºa½ hoti, ya½ aµµhakath±su “mah±vajirañ±ºan”ti vuccati. Yassa ca pavattivibh±gena catuv²satikoµisatasahassappabhedassa p±dakabh±vena sam±pajjiyam±n± catuv²satikoµisatasahassasaªkh± devasika½ satthu va¼añjanakasam±pattiyo vuccanti, sv±ya½ buddh±na½ vipassan±c±ro paramatthamañj³s±ya½ visuddhimaggasa½vaººan±ya½ (visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.144) dassito, atthikehi tato gahetabboti. Idha pana s±vak±na½ vipassan±c±ra½ sandh±ya “vipassan±p±dakan”ti vutta½.
K±ma½ heµµhimamaggañ±º±nipi ±sav±na½ khepanañ±º±ni eva, anavasesato pana tesa½ khepana½ aggamaggañ±ºenev±ti ±ha “arahattamaggañ±ºatth±y±”ti. ¾savavin±sanatoti ±sav±na½ nissesa½ samucchindanato. ¾sav±na½ khaye ñ±ºa½ ±savakkhayañ±ºanti dassento “tatra ceta½ ñ±ºan”ti vatv± “khaye”ti ±dh±re bhumma½, na visayeti dassento “tattha pariy±pannatt±”ti ±ha. Abhin²harat²ti abhimukha½ n²harati, yath± magg±bhisamayo hoti, savana½ tadabhimukha½ pavatteti. Ida½ dukkhanti dukkhassa ariyasaccassa tad± bhikkhun± paccakkhato gahitabh±vadassana½. Ettaka½ dukkhanti tassa paricchijja gahitabh±vadassana½. Na ito bhiyyoti tassa anavasesato gahitabh±vadassana½. Ten±ha “sabbampi dukkhasaccan”ti-±di. Sarasalakkhaºapaµivedhen±ti sabh±vasaªkh±tassa lakkhaºassa asammohato paµivijjhanena. Asammohapaµivedhoti ca yath± tasmi½ ñ±ºe pavatte pacch± dukkhasaccassa sar³p±diparicchede sammoho na hoti, tath± pavatti. Tenev±ha “yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti. Dukkha½ samudeti etasm±ti dukkhasamudayo. Ya½ µh±na½ patv±ti ya½ nibb±na½ maggassa ±rammaºapaccayaµµhena k±raºabh³ta½ ±gamma. Patv±ti ca tadubhayavato puggalassa pavattiy±ti katv± vutta½. Patv±ti v± p±puºanahetu. Appavattinti appavattinimitta½. Te v± na pavattanti etth±ti appavatti, nibb±na½. Tass±ti dukkhanirodhassa. Samp±pakanti sacchikiriy±vasena sammadeva p±paka½.
Kilesavasen±ti ±savasaªkh±takilesavasena. Yasm± ±sav±na½ dukkhasaccapariy±yo tappariy±pannatt± sesasacc±nañca ta½samuday±dipariy±yo atthi, tasm± vutta½ “pariy±yato”ti. Dassento sacc±n²ti yojan±. ¾sav±nañcettha gahaºa½ “±sav±na½ khayañ±º±y±”ti ±raddhatt±. Tath± hi “k±m±sav±pi citta½ vimuccat²”ti-±din± ±savavimuttis²seneva sabbakilesavimutti vutt±. “Ida½ dukkhanti yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±t²”ti-±din± missakamaggo idha kathitoti “saha vipassan±ya koµippatta½ magga½ kathes²”ti vutta½. J±nato passatoti imin± pariññ±sacchikiriy±bh±van±bhisamay± vutt±. Vimuccat²ti imin± pah±n±bhisamayo vuttoti ±ha “imin± maggakkhaºa½ dasset²”ti. J±nato passatoti v± hetuniddeso. Ya½ j±nanahetu k±m±sav±pi citta½ vimuccat²ti yojan±. Dhamm±nañhi sam±nak±lik±nampi paccayapaccayuppannat± sahaj±takoµiy± labbhati. Bhav±savaggahaºeneva ettha bhavar±gassa viya bhavadiµµhiy±pi samavarodhoti diµµh±savassapi saªgaho daµµhabbo.
Kh²º± j±t²ti-±d²hi padehi. Tass±ti paccavekkhaºañ±ºassa. Bh³minti pavattiµµh±na½. Yen±dhipp±yena “katam± panass±”ti-±din± codan± kat±, ta½ vivaranto “na t±vass±”ti-±dim±ha Tattha na t±vassa at²t± j±ti kh²º± maggabh±van±y±ti adhipp±yo. Tattha k±raºam±ha “pubbeva kh²ºatt±”ti. Na an±gat± assa j±ti kh²º±ti yojan±. Na an±gat±ti ca an±gatabh±vas±mañña½ gahetv± lesena codeti. Ten±ha “an±gate v±y±m±bh±vato”ti. An±gataviseso panettha adhippeto, tassa khepane v±y±mo labbhateva. Ten±ha “y± pana maggass±”ti-±di. Ekacatupañcavok±rabhaves³ti bhavattayaggahaºa½ vuttanayena anavasesato j±tiy± kh²ºabh±vadassanattha½. Tanti yath±vutta½ j±ti½. Soti kh²º±savo bhikkhu.
Brahmacariyav±so n±ma idha maggabrahmacariyassa nibbattanamev±ti ±ha “parivutthan”ti. Samm±diµµhiy± cat³su saccesu pariññ±dikiccas±dhanavasena pavattam±n±ya samm±saªkapp±d²nampi dukkhasacce pariññ±bhisamay±nuguº± pavatti, itaresu ca saccesu nesa½ pah±n±bhisamay±divasena pavatti p±kaµ± eva. Tena vutta½ “cat³su saccesu cat³hi maggehi pariññ±pah±nasacchikiriy±bh±van±bhisamayavasen±”ti. Puthujjanakaly±ºak±dayoti ±di-saddena sattasekha½ saªgaºh±ti.
Itthatt±y±ti ime pak±r± ittha½, tabbh±vo itthatta½, tadatthanti vutta½ hoti. Te pana pak±r± ariyamaggaby±p±rabh³t± pariññ±dayo idh±dhippet±ti ±ha “eva½so¼asavidhakiccabh±v±y±”ti. Te hi magga½ paccavekkhato magg±nubh±vena p±kaµ± hutv± upaµµhahanti, pariññ±d²su ca pah±nameva padh±na½ tadatthatt± itaresanti ±ha “kilesakkhay±ya v±”ti. Pah²nakilesapaccavekkhaºavasena v± eta½ vutta½. Dutiyavikappe itthatt±y±ti nissakke sampad±navacananti ±ha “itthabh±vato”ti Aparanti an±gata½. Ime pana carimakattabh±vasaªkh±t± pañcakkhandh±. Pariññ±t± tiµµhant²ti etena tesa½ appatiµµhata½ dasseti. Apariññ±m³lak± hi patiµµh±. Yath±ha “kaba¼²k±re ce, bhikkhave, ±h±re atthi r±go, atthi nand², atthi taºh±, patiµµhita½ tattha viññ±ºa½ viru¼han”ti-±di (sa½. ni. 2.64; kath±. 296; mah±ni. 7). Tenev±ha– “chinnam³lak± rukkh± viy±”ti-±di.
Yass±ti puthujjanassa. Tassa hi s²la½ kad±ci va¹¹hati, kad±ci h±yati. Sekkh±pi pana s²lesu parip³rak±rinova, asekkhesu vattabbameva natthi. Ten±ha “kh²º±savass±”ti-±di. Vasippattanti vas²bh±vappatta½. Suµµhu sam±hitanti aggaphalasam±dhin± sammadeva sam±hita½. Dhitisampannanti aggaphaladhitiy± samann±gata½. Maccu½ jahitv± µhitanti ±yati½ punabbhav±bh±vato vutta½. Katha½ punabbhav±bh±voti ±ha “sabbe p±padhamme pajahitv± µhitan”ti. Sabbassapi ñeyyadhammassa catusaccantogadhatt± vutta½ “buddhanti catusaccabuddhan”ti. Buddhas±vak±ti s±vakabuddh± namassanti, pageva itar± paj±. Itar± hi paj± s±vakepi namassanti. Iti ettakena µh±nena samm±sambuddhassa vasena g±th±na½ attha½ vatv± id±ni s±vakassapi vasena attha½ yojetv± dassetu½ “atha v±”ti-±di vutta½. S±vakopi gotamo mukhanibbattena sampattena sambandhena, yato sabbepi ariyas±vak± bhagavato orasaputt±ti vuccant²ti.
Nivussat²ti niv±so, nivuttho khandhasant±noti ±ha “nivutthakkhandhaparamparan”ti. Aveti, aved²ti p±µhadvayenapi pubbeniv±sañ±ºassa kiccasiddhi½yeva dasseti. Ekattak±ya-ekattasaññibh±vas±maññato vehapphal±pi ettheva saªgaha½ gacchant²ti “cha k±m±vacare, nava brahmaloke”icceva vutta½. Itare pana apacurabh±vato na vutt±. Ekacc±na½ avisayabh±vato ca avacana½ daµµhabba½. J±ti kh²yati eten±ti j±tikkhayo, arahattanti ±ha “arahatta½ patto”ti. “Abhiññ±y±”ti vattabbe yak±ralopena “abhiññ±”ti niddeso katoti ±ha “j±nitv±”ti. Kiccavos±nen±ti cat³hi maggehi kattabbassa so¼asavidhassa kiccassa pariyos±nena. Vositoti pariyosito, niµµhitoti attho. Moneyyena samann±gatoti k±yamoneyy±d²hi samann±gato. Lapita½ lapat²ti lapital±pano. Attapaccakkhato ñatv±ti imin± tesa½ vijj±na½ paµiladdhabh±va½ d²peti.

Tikaººasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.