3. Vinayapeyy±la½

201. Atthavaseti vuddhivisese ±nisa½savisese. Tesa½ pana sikkh±padapaññattik±raºatt± ±ha “dve k±raº±ni sandh±y±”ti. Atthoyeva v± atthavaso, dve atthe dve k±raº±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Atha v± attho phala½ tadadh²navuttit±ya vaso etass±ti atthavaso, k±raºanti evampettha attho daµµhabbo. Yath± “anabhijjh± dhammapadan”ti vutte anabhijjh± eko dhammakoµµh±soti attho hoti. Evamidh±pi sikkh±padanti sikkh±koµµh±so sikkh±ya eko padesoti ayamettha attho daµµhabboti ±ha “sikkh±pada½ paññattanti sikkh±koµµh±so µhapito”ti.
Saªghasuµµhu n±ma saªghassa suµµhubh±vo “suµµhu dev±”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 39) ±gataµµh±ne viya “suµµhu, bhante”ti vacanasampaµicchanabh±vo. Ten±ha “saªghasuµµhut±y±ti saªghassa suµµhubh±v±y±”ti-±di. Dummaªk³na½ puggal±na½ niggah±y±ti dummaªk³ n±ma duss²lapuggal±. Ye maªkuta½ ±p±diyam±n±pi dukkhena ±pajjanti, v²tikkama½ karont± v± katv± v± na lajjanti, tesa½ niggahatth±ya. Te hi sikkh±pade asati “ki½ tumhehi diµµha½, ki½ suta½, ki½ amhehi kata½, katarasmi½ vatthusmi½ katama½ ±patti½ ropetv± amhe niggaºhath±”ti saªgha½ viheµhessanti, sikkh±pade pana sati tesa½ saªgho sikkh±pada½ dassetv± dhammena vinayena satthus±sanena niggahessati. Tena vutta½ “dummaªk³na½ puggal±na½ niggah±y±”ti.
Pesal±na½ bhikkh³na½ ph±suvih±r±y±ti pesal±na½ piyas²l±na½ bhikkh³na½ ph±suvih±ratth±ya. Piyas²l± hi bhikkh³ kattabb±kattabba½ s±vajj±navajja½ vela½ mariy±da½ aj±nant± sikkhattayap±rip³riy± ghaµam±n± kilamanti, ubb±¼h± honti, kattabb±kattabba½ pana s±vajj±navajja½ vela½ mariy±dañca ñatv± sikkhattayap±rip³riy± ghaµent± na kilamanti, na ubb±¼h± honti. Tena tesa½ sikkh±padappaññ±pan± ph±suvih±r±ya sa½vattati. Yo v± dummaªk³na½ puggal±na½ niggaho, sveva etesa½ ph±suvih±ro. Duss²lapuggale niss±ya hi uposatho na tiµµhati, pav±raº± na tiµµhati, saªghakamm±ni nappavattanti, s±magg² na hoti, bhikkh³ anekagg± uddesaparipucch±kammaµµh±n±d²ni anuyuñjitu½ na sakkonti. Duss²lesu pana niggahitesu sabbopi aya½ upaddavo na hoti, tato pesal± bhikkh³ ph±su viharanti. Eva½ “pesal±na½ bhikkh³na½ ph±suvih±r±y±”ti ettha dvidh± attho veditabbo.
“Na vo aha½, cunda, diµµhadhammik±na½yeva ±sav±na½ sa½var±ya dhamma½ desem²”ti (d². ni. 3.182) ettha viv±dam³labh³t± kiles± ±sav±ti ±gat±.
“Yena dev³papatyassa, gandhabbo v± vihaªgamo;
yakkhatta½ yena gaccheyya½, manussattañca abbaje;
te mayha½ ±sav± kh²º±, viddhast± vina¼²kat±”ti. (A. ni. 4.36)–

Ettha tebh³maka½ kamma½ avases± ca akusal± dhamm±. Idha pana par³pav±davippaµis±ravadhabandhan±dayo ceva ap±yadukkhabh³t± ca n±nappak±r± upaddav± ±sav±ti ±ha– “diµµhadhamme imasmi½yeva attabh±ve v²tikkamapaccay± paµiladdhabb±nan”ti-±di. Yadi hi bhagav± sikkh±pada½ na paññ±peyya, tato asaddhammappaµisevana-adinn±d±nap±º±tip±t±dihetu ye uppajjeyyu½ par³pav±d±dayo diµµhadhammik± n±nappak±r± anatth±, ye ca tannimittameva niray±d²su nibbattassa paññavidhabandhanakammak±raº±divasena mah±dukkh±nubhavanappak±r± anatth±, te sandh±ya ida½ vutta½ “diµµhadhammik±na½ ±sav±na½ sa½var±ya sampar±yik±na½ ±sav±na½ paµigh±t±y±”ti. Diµµhadhammo vuccati paccakkho attabh±vo, tattha bhav± diµµhadhammik±. Samparetabbato pecca gantabbato sampar±yo, paraloko, tattha bhav± sampar±yik±.

Akusalaver±nanti p±º±tip±t±dipañcaduccarit±na½. T±ni verak±raºatt± “ver±n²”ti vuccanti, puggalesu pana uppajjam±n±ni ver±ni. Te eva v± dukkhadhamm±ti heµµh± vutt± vadhabandhan±dayo. Tesa½ pakkhupacchedanatth±y±ti tesa½ p±picch±na½ pakkhupacched±ya gaºabhojanasadisa½ sikkh±pada½ paññatta½. Paº¹itamanuss±nanti lokiyaparikkhakajan±na½. Te hi sikkh±padapaññattiy± sati sikkh±padapaññatti½ ñatv± v± yath±paññatta½ paµipajjam±ne bhikkh³ disv± v±– “y±ni vata loke mah±janassa rajjanadussanamuyhanaµµh±n±ni, tehi ime samaº± sakyaputtiy± ±rak± viharanti, dukkara½ vata karonti, bh±riya½ vata karont²”ti pas±da½ ±pajjanti vinayapiµake potthaka½ disv± micch±diµµhikatavedibr±hmaºo viya. Upar³paripas±dabh±v±y±ti bhiyyo bhiyyo pas±dupp±danattha½. Yepi hi s±sane pasann± kulaputt±, tepi sikkh±padapaññatti½ v± ñatv± yath±paññatta½ paµipajjam±ne bhikkh³ v± disv± “aho, ayy±, dukkarak±rino, ye y±vaj²va½ ekabhatta½ brahmacariya½ vinayasa½vara½ anup±lent²”ti bhiyyo bhiyyo pas²danti.
Saddhammassa ciraµµhitatthanti pariyattisaddhammo, paµipattisaddhammo, adhigamasaddhammoti tividhassapi saddhammassa ciraµµhitattha½. Tattha piµakattayasaªgahita½ sabbampi buddhavacana½ pariyattisaddhammo n±ma. Terasa dhutaguº±, cuddasa khandhakavatt±ni, dve-as²ti mah±vatt±ni, s²lasam±dhivipassan±ti aya½ paµipattisaddhammo n±ma. Catt±ro ariyamagg± catt±ri ca s±maññaphal±ni nibb±nañc±ti aya½ adhigamasaddhammo n±ma. So sabbo yasm± sikkh±padapaññattiy± sati bhikkh³ sikkh±padañca tassa vibhaªgañca tadatthajotanattha½ aññañca buddhavacana½ pariy±puºanti, yath±paññattañca paµipajjam±n± paµipatti½ p³retv± paµipattiy± adhigantabba½ lokuttaradhamma½ adhigacchanti, tasm± sikkh±padapaññattiy± ciraµµhitiko hoti.
Pañcavidhassapi vinayass±ti tadaªgavinay±divasena pañcappak±rassa vinayassa. Vinayaµµhakath±ya½ (p±r±. aµµha. 39) pana sikkh±padapaññattiy± sati sa½varavinayo ca pah±navinayo ca samathavinayo ca paññattivinayo c±ti catubbidhopi vinayo anuggahito hoti upatthambhito supatthambhito. Tena vutta½ “vinay±nuggah±y±”ti. Tattha sa½varavinayoti s²lasa½varo, satisa½varo, ñ±ºasa½varo, khantisa½varo, v²riyasa½varoti pañcavidhopi sa½varo yath±saka½ sa½varitabb±na½ vinetabb±nañca k±yaduccarit±d²na½ sa½varaºato sa½varo, vinayanato vinayoti vuccati. Pah±navinayoti tadaªgappah±na½, vikkhambhanappah±na½, samucchedappah±na½, paµippassaddhippah±na½, nissaraºappah±nanti pañcavidhampi pah±na½ yasm± c±gaµµhena pah±na½, vinayanaµµhena vinayo, tasm± pah±navinayoti vuccati. Samathavinayoti satta adhikaraºasamath±. Paññattivinayoti sikkh±padameva. Sikkh±padapaññattiy± hi vijjam±n±ya eva sikkh±padasambhavato sikkh±padasaªkh±to paññattivinayoti sikkh±padapaññattiy± anuggahito hoti.
202-230. Bhikkh³na½ pañc±ti nid±nap±r±jikasaªgh±dises±niyatavitth±ruddesavasena pañca bhikkh³na½ uddes±. Bhikkhun²na½ catt±roti bhikkh³na½ vuttesu aniyatuddesa½ µhapetv± avases± catt±ro.
Ehibhikkh³pasampad±ti “ehi bhikkh³”ti vacanamattena paññatta-upasampad±. Bhagav± hi ehibhikkhubh±v±ya upanissayasampanna½ puggala½ disv± rattapa½suk³lantarato suvaººavaººa½ dakkhiºahattha½ n²haritv± brahmaghosa½ nicch±rento “ehi bhikkhu, cara brahmacariya½ samm± dukkhassa antakiriy±y±”ti vadati. Tassa saheva bhagavato vacanena gihiliªga½ antaradh±yati, pabbajj± ca upasampad± ca ruhati, bhaº¹u k±s±vavasano hoti– eka½ niv±setv± eka½ p±rupitv± eka½ a½se µhapetv± v±ma-a½sak³µe ±sattan²luppalavaººamattik±patto.
“Tic²varañca patto ca, v±si s³ci ca bandhana½;
pariss±vanena aµµhete, yuttayogassa bhikkhuno”ti. (D². ni. aµµha. 1.215; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.294; 2.349; a. ni. aµµha. 2.4.198; p±r±. aµµha. 45 padabh±jan²yavaººan±; apa. aµµha. 1.avid³renid±nakath±; bu. va½. aµµha. 27.avid³renid±nakath±; j±. aµµha. 1.avid³renid±nakath±; mah±ni. aµµha. 206)–

Eva½ vuttehi aµµhahi parikkh±rehi sar²re paµimukkehiyeva vassasatikatthero viya iriy±pathasampanno buddh±cariyako buddhupajjh±yako samm±sambuddha½ vandam±noyeva tiµµhati.

Saraºagaman³pasampad±ti “buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±m²”ti-±din± nayena tikkhattu½ v±ca½ bhinditv± vuttehi t²hi saraºagamanehi anuññ±ta-upasampad±. Ov±d³pasampad±ti ov±dappaµiggahaºa-upasampad±. S± ca “tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘tibba½ me hirottappa½, paccupaµµhita½ bhavissati theresu navesu majjhimes³’ti. Evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘ya½ kiñci dhamma½ suºiss±mi kusal³pasa½hita½, sabba½ ta½ aµµhi½ katv± manasi karitv± sabbacetas± samann±haritv± ohitasoto dhamma½ suºiss±m²’ti, evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘s±tasahagat± ca me k±yagat±sati na vijahissat²’ti, evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabban”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154) imin± ov±dappaµiggahaºena mah±kassapattherassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
Pañhaby±karaº³pasampad± n±ma sop±kassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±. Bhagav± kira pubb±r±me anucaªkamanta½ sop±kas±maºera½ “uddhum±takasaññ±ti v±, sop±ka, r³pasaññ±ti v± ime dhamm± n±natth± n±n±byañjan±, ud±hu ekatth± byañjanameva n±nan”ti dasa asubhanissite pañhe pucchi. So by±k±si. Bhagav± tassa s±dhuk±ra½ datv± “kativassosi, tva½ sop±k±”ti pucchi. Sattavassoha½ bhagav±ti. Sop±ka, tva½ mama sabbaññutaññ±ºena saddhi½ sa½sanditv± pañhe by±k±s²ti ±raddhacitto upasampada½ anuj±ni. Aya½ pañhaby±karaº³pasampad±.
Ñatticatuttha-upasampad± n±ma bhikkh³na½ etarahi upasampad±. Garudhamm³pasampad±ti garudhammappaµiggahaºena upasampad±. S± ca mah±paj±patiy± aµµhagarudhammappaµiggahaºena anuññ±t± Ubhatosaªghe upasampad± n±ma bhikkhuniy± bhikkhunisaªghato ñatticatutthena, bhikkhusaªghato ñatticatutthen±ti imehi dv²hi kammehi anuññ±t± aµµhav±cik³pasampad±. D³tena upasampad± n±ma a¹¹hak±siy± gaºik±ya anuññ±t± upasampad±.
Ñattikamma½ nava µh±n±ni gacchat²ti katam±ni nava µh±n±ni gacchati? Os±raºa½, niss±raºa½, uposatho, pav±raº±, sammuti, d±na½, paµiggaha½, paccukka¹¹hana½, kammalakkhaºaññeva navamanti eva½ vutt±ni nava µh±n±ni gacchati. Tattha “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, itthann±mo itthann±massa ±yasmato upasampad±pekkho, anusiµµho so may±, yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, itthann±mo ±gaccheyya, ±gacch±h²ti vattabbo”ti (mah±va. 126) eva½ upasampad±pekkhassa os±raº± os±raº± n±ma.
“Suºantu me, ±yasmant±, aya½ itthann±mo bhikkhu dhammakathiko, imassa neva sutta½ ±gacchati, no suttavibhaªgo, so attha½ asallakkhetv± byañjanacch±y±ya attha½ paµib±hati. Yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, itthann±ma½ bhikkhu½ vuµµh±petv± avases± ima½ adhikaraºa½ v³pasameyy±m±”ti eva½ ubb±hikavinicchaye dhammakathikassa bhikkhuno niss±raº± niss±raº± n±ma.
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ajjuposatho pannaraso. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho uposatha½ kareyy±”ti eva½ uposathakammavasena µhapit± ñatti uposatho n±ma.
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ajja pav±raº± pannaras². Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho pav±reyy±”ti eva½ pav±raº±kammavasena µhapit± ñatti pav±raº± n±ma.
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, itthann±mo itthann±massa ±yasmato upasampad±pekkho. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±ma½ anus±seyyan”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, itthann±mo itthann±ma½ anus±seyy±”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±ma½ antar±yike dhamme puccheyyan”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, itthann±mo itthann±ma½ antar±yike dhamme puccheyy±”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±ma½ vinaya½ puccheyyan”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, itthann±mo itthann±ma½ vinaya½ puccheyy±”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±mena vinaya½ puµµho vissajjeyyan”ti, “yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, itthann±mo itthann±mena vinaya½ puµµho vissajjeyy±”ti eva½ att±na½ v± para½ v± sammannitu½ µhapit± ñatti sammuti n±ma.
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ida½ c²vara½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno nissaggiya½ saªghassa nissaµµha½. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho ima½ c²vara½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno dadeyy±”ti, “yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, ±yasmant± ima½ c²vara½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno dadeyyun”ti eva½ nissaµµhac²varapatt±d²na½ d±na½ d±na½ n±ma.
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, aya½ itthann±mo bhikkhu ±patti½ sarati vivarati utt±ni½ karoti deseti. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno ±patti½ paµiggaºheyyan”ti, “yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno ±pati½ paµiggaºheyyan”ti, tena vattabbo “passas²”ti? ¾ma pass±m²ti. “¾yati½ sa½vareyy±s²”ti eva½ ±pattippaµiggaho paµiggaho n±ma.
“Suºantu me, ±yasmant± ±v±sik±, yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, id±ni uposatha½ kareyy±ma, p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±ma, ±game k±le pav±reyy±m±”ti, te ce, bhikkhave, bhikkh³ bhaº¹anak±rak± kalahak±rak± saªghe adhikaraºak±rak± ta½ k±la½ anuvaseyyu½, ±v±sikena bhikkhun± byattena paµibalena ±v±sik± bhikkh³ ñ±petabb± “suºantu me, ±yasmant± ±v±sik±, yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, id±ni uposatha½ kareyy±ma, p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±ma, ±game juºhe pav±reyy±m±”ti eva½ kat± pav±raº± paccukka¹¹han± n±ma.
Sabbeheva ekajjha½ sannipatitabba½, sannipatitv± byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena saªgho ñ±petabbo “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, amh±ka½ bhaº¹anaj±t±na½ kalahaj±t±na½ viv±d±pann±na½ viharata½ bahu ass±maºaka½ ajjh±ciººa½ bh±sitaparikkanta½. Sace maya½ im±hi ±patt²hi aññamañña½ k±ress±ma, siy±pi ta½ adhikaraºa½ kakkha¼att±ya v±¼att±ya bhed±ya sa½vatteyya. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho ima½ adhikaraºa½ tiºavatth±rakena v³pasameyya µhapetv± thullavajja½, µhapetv± gihipaµisa½yuttan”ti eva½ tiºavatth±rakasamathe kat± sabbapaµham± sabbasaªg±hikañatti kammalakkhaºa½ n±ma.
Ñattidutiya½ kamma½ satta µh±n±ni gacchat²ti katam±ni satta µh±n±ni gacchati? Os±raºa½ niss±raºa½, sammuti, d±na½, uddharaºa½, desana½, kammalakkhaºaññeva sattamanti eva½ vutt±ni satta µh±n±ni gacchati. Tattha va¹¹hassa licchavino pattanikkujjanavasena khandhake vutt± niss±raº±, tasseva pata-ukkujjanavasena vutt± os±raº± ca veditabb±. S²m±sammuti tic²varena avippav±sasammuti santhatasammuti bhattuddesakasen±sanagg±h±pakabhaº¹±g±rika c²varappaµigg±haka-c²varabh±jaka-y±gubh±jaka-phalabh±jaka-khajjabh±jaka-appamattakavissajjaka s±µiyagg±h±paka-pattagg±h±paka-±r±mikapesaka-s±maºerapesakasammut²ti et±sa½ sammut²na½ vasena sammuti veditabb±. Kaµhinac²varad±namatakac²varad±navasena d±na½ veditabba½. Kaµhinuddh±raºavasena uddh±ro veditabbo. Kuµivatthuvih±ravatthudesan±vasena desan± veditabb±. Y± pana tiºavatth±rakasamathe sabbasaªg±hikañattiñca ekekasmi½ pakkhe ekeka½ ñattiñc±ti tissopi ñattiyo µhapetv± puna ekasmi½ pakkhe ek±, ekasmi½ pakkhe ek±ti dvepi ñattidutiyakammav±c± vutt±. T±sa½ vasena kammalakkhaºa½ veditabba½.
Ñatticatutthakamma½ satta µh±n±ni gacchat²ti katam±ni satta µh±n±ni gacchati? Os±raºa½, niss±raºa½, sammuti, d±na½, niggaha½, samanubh±sana½, kammalakkhaºaññeva sattamanti eva½ vutt±ni satta µh±n±ni gacchati. Tattha tajjan²yakamm±d²na½ sattanna½ kamm±na½ vasena niss±raº±, tesa½yeva ca kamm±na½ paµippassambhanavasena os±raº± veditabb±. Bhikkhunov±dakasammutivasena sammuti veditabb±. Pariv±sad±nam±nattad±navasena d±na½ veditabba½. M³l±yapaµikassanakammavasena niggaho veditabbo. Ukkhitt±nuvattak±, aµµha y±vatatiyak±, ariµµho, caº¹ak±¼² ca imete y±vatatiyak±ti im±sa½ ek±dasanna½ samanubh±san±na½ vasena samanubh±san± veditabb±. Upasampadakamma-abbh±nakammavasena kammalakkhaºa½ veditabba½.
Dhammasammukhat±ti-±d²su yena dhammena, yena vinayena, yena satthus±sanena saªgho kamma½ karoti, aya½ dhammasammukhat±, vinayasammukhat±, satthus±sanasammukhat±. Tattha dhammoti bh³tavatthu. Vinayoti codan± ceva s±raº± ca. Satthus±sana½ n±ma ñattisampad± ceva anus±vanasampad± ca. Y±vatik± bhikkh³ kammappatt±, te ±gat± honti, chand±rah±na½ chando ±haµo hoti, sammukh²bh³t± nappaµikkosanti, aya½ saªghasammukhat±. Yassa saªgho kamma½ karoti, tassa sammukh²bh±vo puggalasammukhat±. Sesamettha vuttanayatt± utt±natthameva.

Iti manorathap³raºiy± aªguttaranik±ya-aµµhakath±ya

Dukanip±tavaººan±ya anutt±natthad²pan± samatt±.

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samm±sambuddhassa.

Aªguttaranik±ye

Tikanip±ta-µ²k±