10. Uposathasuttavaººan±

71. Dasame tadahuposatheti tasmi½ ahu uposathe ta½ divasa½ uposathe, pannarasika-uposathadivaseti vutta½ hoti. Upasaªkam²ti uposathaªg±ni adhiµµh±ya gandham±l±dihatth± upasaªkami. Hand±ti vavassaggatthe nip±to. Div± divass±ti divasassa div± n±ma majjhanho, imasmi½ µhite majjhanhike k±leti attho. Kuto nu tva½ ±gacchas²ti ki½ karont² vicaras²ti pucchati. Gop±lakuposathoti gop±lakehi saddhi½ upavasana-uposatho. Nigaºµhuposathoti nigaºµh±na½ upavasana-uposatho. Ariyuposathoti ariy±na½ upavasana-uposatho. Seyyath±pi vis±kheti yath± n±ma, vis±khe. S±yanhasamaye s±mik±na½ g±vo niyy±tetv±ti gop±lak± hi devasikavetanena v± pañc±hadas±ha-addham±sam±sacham±sasa½vaccharaparicchedena v± g±vo gahetv± rakkhanti. Idha pana devasikavetanena rakkhanta½ sandh±yeta½ vutta½– niyy±tetv±ti paµicch±petv± “et± vo g±vo”ti datv±. Iti paµisañcikkhat²ti attano geha½ gantv± bhuñjitv± mañce nipanno eva½ paccavekkhati. Abhijjh±sahagaten±ti taºh±ya sampayuttena. Eva½ kho, vis±khe, gop±lakuposatho hot²ti ariyuposathova aya½, aparisuddhavitakkat±ya pana gop±laka-uposathaµµh±ne µhito. Na mahapphaloti vip±kaphalena na mahapphalo. Na mah±nisa½soti vip±k±nisa½sena na mah±nisa½so. Na mah±jutikoti vip±kobh±sena na mah±-obh±so. Na mah±vipph±roti vip±kavipph±rassa amahantat±ya na mah±vipph±ro.
Samaºaj±tik±ti samaº±yeva. Para½ yojanasatanti yojanasata½ atikkamitv± tato para½. Tesu daº¹a½ nikkhip±h²ti tesu yojanasatato parabh±gesu µhitesu sattesu daº¹a½ nikkhipa, nikkhittadaº¹o hohi. N±ha½ kvacani kassaci kiñcanatasminti aha½ katthaci kassaci parassa kiñcanatasmi½ na homi. Kiñcana½ vuccati palibodho, palibodho na hom²ti vutta½ hoti. Na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatatth²ti mam±pi kvacani anto v± bahiddh± v± katthaci ekaparikkh±repi kiñcanat± natthi, palibodho natthi, chinnapalibodhohamasm²ti vutta½ hoti. Bhogeti mañcap²µhay±gubhatt±dayo. Adinna½yeva paribhuñjat²ti punadivase mañce nipajjantopi p²µhe nis²dantopi y±gu½ pivantopi bhatta½ bhuñjantopi te bhoge adinneyeva paribhuñjati. Na mahapphaloti nipphalo. Byañjanameva hi ettha s±vasesa½, attho pana niravaseso. Eva½ upavutthassa hi uposathassa appamattakampi vip±kaphala½ iµµha½ kanta½ man±pa½ n±ma natthi. Tasm± nipphalotveva veditabbo. Sesapadesupi eseva nayo.
Upakkiliµµhassa cittass±ti ida½ kasm± ±ha? Sa½kiliµµhena hi cittena upavuttho uposatho na mahapphalo hot²ti dassitatt± visuddhena cittena upavutthassa mahapphalat± anuññ±t± hoti. Tasm± yena kammaµµh±nena citta½ visujjhati, ta½ cittavisodhanakammaµµh±na½ dassetu½ idam±ha Tattha upakkamen±ti paccattapurisak±rena, up±yena v±. Tath±gata½ anussarat²ti aµµhahi k±raºehi tath±gataguºe anussarati. Ettha hi itipi so bhagav±ti so bhagav± itipi s²lena, itipi sam±dhin±ti sabbe lokiyalokuttar± buddhaguº± saªgahit±. Arahanti-±d²hi p±µiyekkaguº±va niddiµµh±. Tath±gata½ anussarato citta½ pas²dat²ti lokiyalokuttare tath±gataguºe anussarantassa cittupp±do pasanno hoti.
Cittassa upakkiles±ti pañca n²varaº±. Kakkanti ±malakakakka½. Tajja½ v±y±manti tajj±tika½ tadanucchavika½ kakkena makkhanagha½sanadhovanav±y±ma½. Pariyodapan± hot²ti suddhabh±vakaraºa½ hoti. Kiliµµhasmi½ hi s²se pas±dhana½ pas±dhetv± nakkhatta½ k²¼am±no na sobhati, parisuddhe pana tasmi½ pas±dhana½ pas±dhetv± nakkhatta½ k²¼am±no sobhati, evameva kiliµµhacittena uposathaªg±ni adhiµµh±ya uposatho upavuttho na mahapphalo hoti, parisuddhena pana cittena uposathaªg±ni adhiµµh±ya upavuttho uposatho mahapphalo hot²ti adhipp±yena evam±ha. Brahmuposatha½ upavasat²ti brahm± vuccati samm±sambuddho, tassa guº±nussaraºavasena aya½ uposatho brahmuposatho n±ma, ta½ upavasati. Brahmun± saddhi½ sa½vasat²ti samm±sambuddhena saddhi½ sa½vasati. Brahmañcassa ±rabbh±ti samm±sambuddha½ ±rabbha.
Dhamma½ anussarat²ti sahatantika½ lokuttaradhamma½ anussarati. Sottinti kuruvindakasotti½. Kuruvindakap±s±ºacuººena hi saddhi½ l±kha½ yojetv± maºike katv± vijjhitv± suttena ±vuºitv± ta½ maºi kal±papanti½ ubhato gahetv± piµµhi½ gha½senti, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “sottiñca paµicc±”ti. Cuººanti nh±n²yacuººa½. Tajja½ v±y±manti ubbaµµanagha½sanadhovan±dika½ tadanur³pav±y±ma½. Dhammuposathanti sahatantika½ navalokuttaradhamma½ ±rabbha upavutthatt± aya½ uposatho “dhammuposatho”ti vutto. Idh±pi pariyodapan±ti pade µhatv± purimanayeneva yojan± k±tabb±.
Saªgha½ anussarat²ti aµµhanna½ ariyapuggal±na½ guºe anussarati. Usmañca paµicc±ti dve tayo v±re g±h±pita½ usuma½ paµicca. Usañc±tipi p±µho, ayamevattho Kh±ranti ch±rika½. Gomayanti gomutta½ v± ajalaº¹ik± v±. Pariyodapan±ti idh±pi purimanayeneva yojan± k±tabb±. Saªghuposathanti aµµhanna½ ariyapuggal±na½ guºe ±rabbha upavutthatt± aya½ uposatho “saªghuposatho”ti vutto.
S²l±n²ti gahaµµho gahaµµhas²l±ni, pabbajito pabbajitas²l±ni. Akhaº¹±n²ti-±d²na½ attho visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.21) vitth±ritova. V±laº¹upakanti assav±lehi v± makaciv±l±d²hi v± kata½ aº¹upaka½. Tajja½ v±y±manti telena temetv± malassa tintabh±va½ ñatv± ch±rika½ pakkhipitv± v±laº¹upakena gha½sanav±y±mo. Idha pariyodapan±ti pade µhatv± eva½ yojan± k±tabb± kiliµµhasmiñhi ±d±se maº¹itapas±dhitopi attabh±vo olokiyam±no na sobhati, parisuddhe sobhati. Evameva kiliµµhena cittena upavuttho uposatho na mahapphalo hoti, parisuddhena pana mahapphalo hot²ti. S²luposathanti attano s²l±nussaraºavasena upavuttho uposatho s²luposatho n±ma. S²lena saddhinti attano pañcas²ladasas²lena saddhi½. S²lañcassa ±rabbh±ti pañcas²la½ dasas²lañca ±rabbha.
Devat± anussarat²ti devat± sakkhiµµh±ne µhapetv± attano saddh±diguºe anussarati. Ukkanti uddhana½. Loºanti loºamattik±. Gerukanti gerukacuººa½. N±¼ikasaº¹±santi dhamanan±¼ikañceva parivattanasaº¹±sañca. Tajja½ v±y±manti uddhane pakkhipanadhamanaparivattan±dika½ anur³pa½ v±y±ma½. Idha pariyodapan±ti pade µhatv± eva½ yojan± veditabb±– sa½kiliµµhasuvaººamayena hi pas±dhanabhaº¹ena pas±dhit± nakkhatta½ k²¼am±n± na sobhanti, parisuddhasuvaººamayena sobhanti. Evameva sa½kiliµµhacittassa uposatho na mahapphalo hoti, parisuddhacittassa mahapphalo. Devatuposathanti devat± sakkhiµµh±ne µhapetv± attano guºe anussarantena upavuttha-uposatho devatuposatho n±ma. Sesa½ imesu buddh±nussati-±d²su kammaµµh±nesu ya½ vattabba½ siy±, ta½ sabba½ visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.123 ±dayo) vuttameva.
P±º±tip±tanti p±ºavadha½. Pah±y±ti ta½ p±º±tip±tacetan±saªkh±ta½ duss²lya½ pajahitv±. Paµivirat±ti pah²nak±lato paµµh±ya tato duss²lyato orat± virat±va. Nihitadaº¹± nihitasatth±ti par³pagh±tatth±ya daº¹a½ v± sattha½ v± ±d±ya avattanato nikkhittadaº¹± ceva nikkhittasatth± c±ti attho. Ettha ca µhapetv± daº¹a½ sabbampi avasesa½ upakaraºa½ satt±na½ vihi½sanabh±vato satthanti veditabba½. Ya½ pana bhikkh³ kattaradaº¹a½ v± dantakaµµhav±si½ v± pipphalaka½ v± gahetv± vicaranti, na ta½ par³pagh±tatth±ya. Tasm± nihitadaº¹± nihitasatth±tveva saªkha½ gacchanti. Lajj²ti p±pajigucchanalakkhaº±ya lajj±ya samann±gat±. Day±pann±ti daya½ mettacittata½ ±pann±. Sabbap±ºabh³tahit±nukamp²ti sabbe p±ºabh³te hitena anukampak±, t±ya eva day±pannat±ya sabbesa½ p±ºabh³t±na½ hitacittak±ti attho. Ahampajj±ti ahampi ajja. Imin±pi aªgen±ti imin±pi guºaªgena. Arahata½ anukarom²ti yath± purato gacchanta½ pacchato gacchanto anugacchati n±ma, eva½ ahampi arahantehi paµhama½ kata½ ima½ guºa½ pacch± karonto tesa½ arahant±na½ anukaromi. Uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissat²ti eva½ karontena may± arahatañca anukata½ bhavissati, uposatho ca upavuttho bhavissati.
Adinn±d±nanti adinnassa parapariggahitassa ±d±na½, theyya½ corikanti attho. Dinnameva ±diyant²ti dinn±d±y². Cittenapi dinnameva paµikaªkhant²ti dinnap±µikaªkh². Thenet²ti theno, na thenena athenena. Athenatt±yeva sucibh³tena. Attan±ti attabh±vena, athena½ sucibh³ta½ attabh±va½ katv± viharant²ti vutta½ hoti.
Abrahmacariyanti aseµµhacariya½. Brahma½ seµµha½ ±c±ra½ carant²ti brahmac±r². ¾r±c±r²ti abrahmacariyato d³r±c±r². Methun±ti r±gapariyuµµh±navasena sadisatt± methunak±ti laddhavoh±rehi paµisevitabbato methunoti saªkha½ gat± asaddhamm±. G±madhamm±ti g±mav±s²na½ dhamm±.
Mus±v±d±ti alikavacan± tucchavacan±. Sacca½ vadant²ti saccav±d². Saccena sacca½ sa½dahanti ghaµµent²ti saccasandh±, na antarantar± mus± vadant²ti attho Yo hi puriso kad±ci mus±v±da½ vadati, kad±ci sacca½. Tassa mus±v±dena antaritatt± sacca½ saccena na ghaµ²yati. Tasm± na so saccasandho. Ime pana na t±dis±, j²vitahetupi mus± avatv± saccena sacca½ sa½dahantiyev±ti saccasandh±. Thet±ti thir±, µhitakath±ti attho. Eko puggalo haliddir±go viya thusar±simhi nikh±takh±ºu viya assapiµµhe µhapitakumbhaº¹amiva ca na µhitakatho hoti. Eko p±s±ºalekh± viya indakh²lo viya ca µhitakatho hoti, asin± s²sa½ chindantepi dve kath± na katheti. Aya½ vuccati theto. Paccayik±ti pattiy±yitabbak±, saddh±yik±ti attho. Ekacco hi puggalo na paccayiko hoti, “ida½ kena vutta½, asukena n±m±”ti vutte “m± tassa vacana½ saddahath±”ti vattabbata½ ±pajjati. Eko paccayiko hoti, “ida½ kena vutta½, asuken±”ti vutte “yadi tena vutta½, idameva pam±ºa½, id±ni paµikkhipitabba½ natthi, evameva½ idan”ti vattabbata½ ±pajjati. Aya½ vuccati paccayiko. Avisa½v±dak± lokass±ti t±ya saccav±dit±ya loka½ na visa½v±dent²ti attho.
Sur±merayamajjapam±daµµh±nanti sur±merayamajj±na½ p±nacetan±saªkh±ta½ pam±dak±raºa½. Ekabhattik±ti p±tar±sabhatta½ s±yam±sabhattanti dve bhatt±ni. Tesu p±tar±sabhatta½ antomajjhanhikena paricchinna½, itara½ majjhanhikato uddha½ anto-aruºena. Tasm± antomajjhanhike dasakkhattu½ bhuñjam±n±pi ekabhattik±va honti. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “ekabhattik±”ti. Rattibhojana½ ratti, tato uparat±ti ratt³parat±. Atikkante majjhanhike y±va s³riyatthaªgaman± bhojana½ vik±labhojana½ n±ma, tato viratatt± virat± vik±labhojan±.
S±sanassa ananulomatt± vis³ka½ paµ±ºibh³ta½ dassananti vis³kadassana½, attan± naccananacc±pan±divasena naccañca g²tañca v±ditañca, antamaso may³ranaccan±divasen±pi pavatt±na½ nacc±d²na½ vis³kabh³ta½ dassanañc±ti naccag²tav±ditavis³kadassana½. Nacc±d²ni hi attan± payojetu½ v± parehi payoj±petu½ v± payutt±ni passitu½ v± neva bhikkh³na½, na bhikkhun²na½ vaµµanti.
M±l±d²su m±l±ti ya½kiñci puppha½. Gandhanti ya½kiñci gandhaj±ta½. Vilepananti chavir±gakaraºa½. Tattha pi¼andhanto dh±reti n±ma, ³naµµh±na½ p³rento maº¹eti n±ma, gandhavasena chavir±gavasena ca s±diyanto vibh³seti n±ma. Ýh±na½ vuccati k±raºa½, tasm± y±ya duss²lyacetan±ya t±ni m±l±dh±raº±d²ni mah±jano karoti, tato paµivirat±ti attho. Ucc±sayana½ vuccati pam±º±tikkanta½, mah±sayana½ akappiyattharaºa½, tato paµivirat±ti attho.
K²vamahapphaloti kittaka½ mahapphalo. Sesapadesupi eseva nayo. Pah³tarattaratan±nanti pah³tena rattasaªkh±tena ratanena samann±gat±na½, sakalajambud²patala½ bheritalasadisa½ katv± kaµippam±ºehi sattahi ratanehi p³rit±nanti attho. Issariy±dhipaccanti issarabh±vena v± issariyameva v± ±dhipacca½, na ettha s±hasikakammantipi issariy±dhipacca½. Rajja½ k±reyy±ti evar³pa½ cakkavattirajja½ k±reyya. Aªg±nanti-±d²ni tesa½ janapad±na½ n±m±ni. Kala½ n±gghati so¼asinti eka½ ahoratta½ upavuttha-uposathe puñña½ so¼asabh±ge katv± tato eka½ bh±gañca na agghati. Ekarattuposathassa so¼asiy± kal±ya ya½ vip±kaphala½, ta½yeva tato bahutara½ hot²ti attho. Kapaºanti parittaka½.
Abrahmacariy±ti aseµµhacariyato. Ratti½ na bhuñjeyya vik±labhojananti uposatha½ upavasanto rattibhojanañca div±vik±labhojanañca na bhuñjeyya. Mañce cham±ya½va sayetha santhateti muµµhihatthap±dake kappiyamañce v± sudh±diparikammakat±ya bh³miya½ v± tiºapaººapal±l±d²ni santharitv± kate santhate v± sayeth±ti attho. Eta½ hi aµµhaªgikam±huposathanti eva½ p±º±tip±t±d²ni asam±carantena upavuttha½ uposatha½ aµµhahi aªgehi samann±gatatt± aµµhaªgikanti vadanti. Ta½ pana upavasantena “sve uposathiko bhaviss±m²”ti ajjeva “idañca idañca kareyy±th±”ti ±h±r±dividh±na½ vic±retabba½. Uposathadivase p±tova bhikkhussa v± bhikkhuniy± v± dasas²lalakkhaºaññuno up±sakassa v± up±sik±ya v± santike v±ca½ bhinditv± uposathaªg±ni sam±d±tabb±ni. P±¼i½ aj±nantena pana “buddhapaññatta½ uposatha½ adhiµµh±m²”ti adhiµµh±tabba½. Añña½ alabhantena attan±pi adhiµµh±tabba½, vac²bhedo pana k±tabboyeva Uposatha½ upavasantena par³parodhapaµisa½yutt± kammant± na vic±retabb±, ±yavayagaºana½ karontena na v²tin±metabba½, gehe pana ±h±ra½ labhitv± niccabhattikabhikkhun± viya paribhuñjitv± vih±ra½ gantv± dhammo v± sotabbo, aµµhati½s±ya ±rammaºesu aññatara½ v± manasik±tabba½.
Sudassan±ti sundaradassan±. Obh±sayanti obh±sayam±n±. Anupariyant²ti vicaranti. Y±vat±ti yattaka½ µh±na½. Antalikkhag±ti ±k±saªgam±. Pabh±sant²ti jotanti pabh± muñcanti. Dis±virocan±ti sabbadis±su virocam±n±. Atha v± pabh±sant²ti dis±hi dis± obh±santi. Virocan±ti virocam±n±. Ve¼uriyanti maº²ti vatv±pi imin± j±timaºibh±va½ dasseti. Ekavassikave¼uvaººañhi ve¼uriya½ j±timaºi n±ma. Ta½ sandh±yevam±ha. Bhaddakanti laddhaka½. Siªg²suvaººanti gosiªgasadisa½ hutv± uppannatt± eva½ n±maka½ suvaººa½. Kañcananti pabbateyya½ pabbate j±tasuvaººa½. J±tar³panti satthuvaººasuvaººa½. Haµakanti kipillik±hi n²haµasuvaººa½. N±nubhavant²ti na p±puºanti. Candappabh±ti s±mi-atthe paccatta½, candappabh±y±ti attho. Upavassuposathanti upavasitv± uposatha½. Sukhudray±n²ti sukhaphal±ni sukhavedan²y±ni. Saggamupenti µh±nanti saggasaªkh±ta½ µh±na½ upagacchanti, kenaci anindit± hutv± devaloke uppajjant²ti attho. Sesamettha ya½ antarantar± na vutta½, ta½ vutt±nus±reneva veditabbanti.

Mah±vaggo dutiyo.