8. Tikaººasuttavaººan±

59. Aµµhame tikaººoti tassa n±ma½. Upasaªkam²ti “samaºo kira gotamo paº¹ito, gacchiss±mi tassa santikan”ti cintetv± bhuttap±tar±so mah±janaparivuto upasaªkami. Bhagavato sammukh±ti dasabalassa purato nis²ditv±. Vaººa½ bh±sat²ti kasm± bh±sati? So kira ito pubbe tath±gatassa santika½ agatapubbo. Athassa etadahosi– “buddh± n±ma dur±sad±, mayi paµhamatara½ akathente katheyya v± na v±. Sace na kathessati, atha ma½ sam±gamaµµh±ne kathenta½ eva½ vakkhanti ‘tva½ idha kasm± kathesi, yena te samaºassa gotamassa santika½ gantv± vacanamattampi na laddhan’ti. Tasm± ‘eva½ me aya½ garah± muccissat²”’ti maññam±no bh±sati. Kiñc±pi br±hmaº±na½ vaººa½ bh±sati, tath±gatassa pana ñ±ºa½ ghaµµess±m²ti adhipp±yeneva bh±sati. Evampi tevijj± br±hmaº±ti tevijjakabr±hmaº± eva½paº¹it± eva½dh²r± eva½byatt± eva½bahussut± eva½v±dino, eva½sammat±ti attho. Itip²ti imin± tesa½ paº¹it±di-±k±rapariccheda½ dasseti. Ettakena k±raºena paº¹it±…pe… ettakena k±raºena sammat±ti ayañhi ettha attho.
Yath± katha½ pana br±hmaº±ti ettha yath±ti k±raºavacana½, katha½ pan±ti pucch±vacana½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– katha½ pana, br±hmaºa, br±hmaº± tevijja½ paññ±penti. Yath± eva½ sakk± hoti j±nitu½, ta½ k±raºa½ vadeh²ti. Ta½ sutv± br±hmaºo “j±nanaµµh±neyeva ma½ samm±sambuddho pucchi, no aj±nanaµµh±ne”ti attamano hutv± idha, bho gotam±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha ubhatoti dv²hipi pakkhehi. M±tito ca pitito c±ti yassa m±t± br±hmaº², m±tu m±t± br±hmaº², tass±pi m±t± br±hmaº². Pit± br±hmaºo, pitu pit± br±hmaºo, tass±pi pit± br±hmaºo, so ubhato suj±to m±tito ca pitito ca. Sa½suddhagahaºikoti yassa sa½suddh± m±tu gahaº², kucch²ti attho. “Samavep±kiniy± gahaºiy±”ti pana ettha kammajatejodh±tu gahaº²ti vuccati.
Y±va sattam± pit±mahayug±ti ettha pitu pit± pit±maho, pit±mahassa yuga½ pit±mahayuga½. Yuganti ±yuppam±ºa½ vuccati. Abhil±pamattameva ceta½, atthato pana pit±mahoyeva pit±mahayuga½. Tato uddha½ sabbepi pubbapuris± pit±mahaggahaºeneva gahit±. Eva½ y±va sattamo puriso, t±va sa½suddhagahaºiko, atha v± akkhitto anupakkuµµho j±tiv±den±ti dasseti. Akkhittoti “apanetha eta½, ki½ imin±”ti eva½ akkhitto anavakkhitto. Anupakkuµµhoti na upakkuµµho, na akkosa½ v± ninda½ v± pattapubbo. Kena k±raºen±ti? J±tiv±dena. “Itipi h²naj±tiko eso”ti evar³pena vacanen±ti attho.
Ajjh±yakoti ida½ “na d±nime jh±yanti, na d±nime jh±yant²ti kho, v±seµµha, ajjh±yak± ajjh±yak±teva tatiya½ akkhara½ upanibbattan”ti (d². ni. 3.132) eva½ paµhamakappikak±le jh±navirahit±na½ br±hmaº±na½ garahavacana½ uppanna½. Id±ni pana ta½ ajjh±yat²ti ajjh±yako, mante parivattet²ti imin± atthena pasa½s±vacana½ katv± voharanti. Mante dh±ret²ti mantadharo.
Tiººa½ ved±nanti irubbedayajubbedas±mabbed±na½. Oµµhapahatakaraºavasena p±ra½ gatoti p±rag³. Saha nighaº¹un± ca keµubhena ca sanighaº¹ukeµubh±na½. Nighaº¹³ti n±manighaº¹urukkh±d²na½ vevacanapak±sakasattha½. Keµubhanti kiriy±kappavikappo kav²na½ upak±r±ya sattha½. Saha akkharappabhedena s±kkharappabhed±na½. Akkharappabhedoti sikkh± ca nirutti ca. Itih±sapañcam±nanti ±thabbaºaveda½ catuttha½ katv± itiha ±sa, itiha ±s±ti ²disavacanapaµisa½yutto pur±ºakath±saªkh±to khattavijj±saªkh±to v± itih±so pañcamo etesanti itih±sapañcam±. Tesa½ itih±sapañcam±na½ ved±na½.
Pada½ tadavasesañca by±karaºa½ adh²yati vedeti c±ti padako veyy±karaºo. Lok±yata½ vuccati vitaº¹av±dasattha½. Mah±purisalakkhaºanti mah±puris±na½ buddh±d²na½ lakkhaºad²paka½ dv±dasasahassaganthapam±ºa½ sattha½, yattha so¼asasahassag±th±padaparim±º± buddhamant± n±ma ahesu½, yesa½ vasena “imin± lakkhaºena samann±gat± buddh± n±ma honti imin± paccekabuddh±, dve aggas±vak±, as²ti mah±s±vak±, buddham±t±, buddhapit±, aggupaµµh±k±, aggupaµµh±yik±, r±j± cakkavatt²”ti aya½ viseso ñ±yati. Anavayoti imesu lok±yatamah±purisalakkhaºesu an³no parip³rak±r², avayo na hot²ti vutta½ hoti. Avayo n±ma yo t±ni atthato ca ganthato ca sandh±retu½ na sakkoti. Atha v± anavayoti anu avayo, sandhivasena uk±ralopo. Anu avayo paripuººasippoti attho.
Tena ti ida½ bhagav± na½ ±y±canta½ disv± “id±nissa pañha½ kathetu½ k±lo”ti ñatv± ±ha. Tassattho– yasm± ma½ ±y±casi, tasm± suº±h²ti. Vivicceva k±meh²ti-±di visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.70) vitth±ritameva. Idha paneta½ tissanna½ vijj±na½ pubbabh±gapaµipattidassanattha½ vuttanti veditabba½. Tattha dvinna½ vijj±na½ anupadavaººan± ceva bh±van±nayo ca visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 2.402 ±dayo) vitth±ritova.
Paµham± vijj±ti paµhama½ uppann±ti paµham±, viditakaraºaµµhena vijj±. Ki½ vidita½ karoti? Pubbeniv±sa½. Avijj±ti tasseva pubbeniv±sassa aviditakaraºaµµhena tappaµicch±dako moho vuccati. Tamoti sveva moho paµicch±dakaµµhena tamoti vuccati. ¾lokoti s±yeva vijj± obh±sakaraºaµµhena ±lokoti vuccati. Ettha ca vijj± adhigat±ti aya½ attho Sesa½ pasa½s±vacana½. Yojan± panettha ayamassa vijj± adhigat±, athassa adhigatavijjassa avijj± vihat± vinaµµh±ti attho. Kasm±? Yasm± vijj± uppann±. Itarasmimpi padadvaye eseva nayo. Yath± tanti ettha yath±ti opamma½, tanti nip±tamatta½. Satiy± avippav±sena appamattassa. V²riy±t±pena ±t±pino. K±ye ca j²vite ca anapekkhat±ya pahitattassa. Pesitattass±ti attho. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yath± appamattassa ±t±pino pahitattassa viharato avijj± vihaññeyya, vijj± uppajjeyya. Tamo vihaññeyya, ±loko uppajjeyya, evameva tassa avijj± vihat± vijj± uppann±. Tamo vihato, ±loko uppanno. Etassa tena padh±n±nuyogassa anur³pameva phala½ laddhanti.
Cut³pap±takath±ya½ vijj±ti dibbacakkhuñ±ºavijj±. Avijj±ti satt±na½ cutipaµisandhippaµicch±dik± avijj±. Sesa½ vuttanayameva.
Tatiyavijj±ya so eva½ sam±hite citteti vipassan±p±daka½ catutthajjh±nacitta½ veditabba½. ¾sav±na½ khayañ±º±y±ti arahattamaggañ±ºatth±ya. Arahattamaggo hi ±savavin±sanato ±sav±na½ khayoti vuccati, tatra ceta½ ñ±ºa½ tattha pariy±pannatt±ti. Citta½ abhininn±met²ti vipassan±citta½ abhin²harati. So ida½ dukkhanti evam±d²su ettaka½ dukkha½, na ito bhiyyoti sabbampi dukkhasacca½ sarasalakkhaºappaµivedhena yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti paµivijjhati, tassa ca dukkhassa nibbattika½ taºha½ “aya½ dukkhasamudayo”ti, tadubhayampi ya½ µh±na½ patv± nirujjhati ta½ tesa½ apavatti½ nibb±na½ “aya½ dukkhanirodho”ti. Tassa ca samp±paka½ ariyamagga½ “aya½ dukkhanirodhag±min² paµipad±”ti sarasalakkhaºappaµivedhena yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti paµivijjhat²ti evamattho veditabbo.
Eva½ sar³pato sacc±ni dassetv± id±ni kilesavasena pariy±yato dassento ime ±sav±ti-±dim±ha. Tassa eva½ j±nato eva½ passatoti tassa bhikkhuno eva½ j±nantassa eva½ passantassa. Saha vipassan±ya koµippatta½ magga½ kathesi. K±m±sav±ti k±m±savato. Vimuccat²ti imin± maggakkhaºa½ dasseti. Maggakkhaºe hi citta½ vimuccati, phalakkhaºe vimutta½ hoti. Vimuttasmi½ vimuttamiti ñ±ºanti imin± paccavekkhaºañ±ºa½ dasseti. Kh²º± j±t²ti-±d²hi tassa bh³mi½. Tena hi ñ±ºena so paccavekkhanto kh²º± j±t²ti-±d²ni paj±n±ti. Katam± panassa j±ti kh²º±, kathañca na½ paj±n±t²ti? Na t±vassa at²t± j±ti kh²º± pubbeva kh²ºatt±, na an±gat±, an±gate v±y±m±bh±vato, na paccuppann±, vijjam±natt±. Y± pana maggassa abh±vitatt± uppajjeyya ekacatupañcavok±rabhavesu ekacatupañcakkhandhappabhed± j±ti, s± maggassa bh±vitatt± anupp±dadhammata½ ±pajjanena kh²º±. Ta½ so maggabh±van±ya pah²nakilese paccavekkhitv± kiles±bh±ve vijjam±nampi kamma½ ±yati-appaµisandhika½ hot²ti j±nanto paj±n±ti.
Vusitanti vuttha½ parivuttha½, kata½ carita½ niµµhitanti attho. Brahmacariyanti maggabrahmacariya½. Puthujjanakaly±ºakena hi saddhi½ satta sekkh± brahmacariyav±sa½ vasanti n±ma, kh²º±savo vutthav±so. Tasm± so attano brahmacariyav±sa½ paccavekkhanto “vusita½ brahmacariyan”ti paj±n±ti. Kata½ karaº²yanti cat³su saccesu cat³hi maggehi pariññ±pah±nasacchikiriy±bh±van±bhisamayavasena so¼asavidhampi kicca½ niµµh±pitanti attho. Puthujjanakaly±ºak±dayo hi ta½ kicca½ karonti, kh²º±savo katakaraº²yo. Tasm± so attano karaº²ya½ paccavekkhanto “kata½ karaº²yan”ti paj±n±ti. N±para½ itthatt±y±ti puna itthabh±v±ya, eva½ so¼asavidhakiccabh±v±ya kilesakkhay±ya v± maggabh±van±kicca½ me natth²ti paj±n±ti. Atha v± itthatt±y±ti itthabh±vato, imasm± eva½ pak±r± id±ni vattam±nakkhandhasant±n± apara½ khandhasant±na½ mayha½ natthi, ime pana pañcakkhandh± pariññ±t± tiµµhanti chinnam³lak± rukkh± viya. Te carimakaviññ±ºanirodhena anup±d±no viya j±tavedo nibb±yissant²ti paj±n±ti. Idha vijj±ti arahattamaggañ±ºavijj±. Avijj±ti catusaccappaµicch±dik± avijj±. Sesa½ vuttanayameva.
Anucc±vacas²lass±ti yassa s²la½ k±lena h±yati, k±lena va¹¹hati, so ucc±vacas²lo n±ma hoti. Kh²º±savassa pana s²la½ ekantava¹¹hitameva. Tasm± so anucc±vacas²lo n±ma hoti. Vas²bh³tanti vasippatta½. Susam±hitanti suµµhu sam±hita½, ±rammaºamhi suµµhapita½. Dh²ranti dhitisampanna½. Maccuh±yinanti maccu½ jahitv± µhita½. Sabbappah±yinanti sabbe p±padhamme pajahitv± µhita½. Buddhanti catusaccabuddha½. Antimadehinanti sabbapacchimasar²radh±rina½. Ta½ namassanti gotamanti ta½ gotamagotta½ buddhas±vak± namassanti. Atha v± gotamabuddhassa s±vakopi gotamo, ta½ gotama½ devamanuss± namassant²ti attho.
Pubbeniv±santi pubbenivutthakkhandhaparampara½. Yovet²ti yo aveti avagacchati. Yoved²tipi p±µho. Yo avedi, vidita½ p±kaµa½ katv± µhitoti attho. Sagg±p±yañca passat²ti cha k±m±vacare nava brahmaloke catt±ro ca ap±ye passati. J±tikkhaya½ pattoti arahatta½ patto. Abhiññ±vositoti j±nitv± kiccavos±nena vosito. Mun²ti moneyyena samann±gato kh²º±savamuni. Et±h²ti heµµh± niddiµµh±hi pubbeniv±sañ±º±d²hi. N±ñña½ lapital±pananti yo panañño tevijjoti aññehi lapitavacanamattameva lapati, tamaha½ tevijjoti na vad±mi, attapaccakkhato ñatv± parassapi tisso vijj± kathentamev±ha½ tevijjoti vad±m²ti attho. Kalanti koµµh±sa½. N±gghat²ti na p±puº±ti. Id±ni br±hmaºo bhagavato kath±ya pasanno pasann±k±ra½ karonto abhikkantanti-±dim±ha.