Nettinayavaººan±

Id±ni pakaraºanayena p±¼iy± atthavaººana½ kariss±ma. S± pana atthasa½vaººan± yasm± desan±ya samuµµh±nappayojanabh±janesu piº¹atthesu ca niddh±ritesu sukar± hoti suviññeyy± ca, tasm± suttadesan±ya samuµµh±n±d²ni paµhama½ niddh±rayiss±ma. Tattha samuµµh±na½ n±ma desan±nid±na½, ta½ s±dh±raºamas±dh±raºanti duvidha½. Tattha s±dh±raºampi ajjhattikab±hirabhedato duvidha½. Tattha s±dh±raºa½ ajjhattikasamuµµh±na½ n±ma lokan±thassa mah±karuº±. T±ya hi samuss±hitassa bhagavato veneyy±na½ dhammadesan±ya citta½ udap±di, ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “sattesu ca k±ruññata½ paµicca buddhacakkhun± loka½ volokes²”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.283; mah±va. 9; sa½. ni. 1.173). Ettha ca het±vatth±yapi mah±karuº±ya saªgaho daµµhabbo y±vadeva sa½s±ramahoghato saddhammadesan±hatthad±nehi sattasant±raºattha½ taduppattito. Yath± ca mah±karuº±, eva½ sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ dasabalañ±º±dayo ca desan±ya abbhantarasamuµµh±nabh±vena vattabb±. Sabbañhi ñeyyadhamma½ tesa½ desetabb±k±ra½ satt±nañca ±say±nusay±di½ y±th±vato j±nanto bhagav± µh±n±µµh±n±d²su kosallena veneyyajjh±say±nur³pa½ vicittanayadesana½ pavattes²ti. B±hira½ pana s±dh±raºa½ samuµµh±na½ dasasahassamah±brahmapariv±rassa sahampatibrahmuno ajjhesana½. Tadajjhesanuttarak±lañhi dhammagambh²rat±paccavekkhaº±janita½ appossukkata½ paµippassambhetv± dhammass±m² dhammadesan±ya uss±haj±to ahosi. As±dh±raºampi abbhantarab±hirabhedato duvidhameva. Tattha abbhantara½ y±ya mah±karuº±ya yena ca desan±ñ±ºena ida½ sutta½ pavattita½, tadubhaya½ veditabba½. B±hira½ pana r³pagaruk±na½ puggal±na½ ajjh±sayo. Sv±yamattho aµµhakath±ya½ vutto eva.
Payojanampi s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºato duvidha½. Tattha s±dh±raºa½ y±va anup±d±parinibb±na½ vimuttirasatt± bhagavato desan±ya. Tenev±ha– “etadatth± kath±, etadatth± mantan±”ti-±di. As±dh±raºa½ pana tesa½ r³pagaruk±na½ puggal±na½ r³pe chandar±gassa jah±pana½, ubhayampeta½ b±hirameva. Sace pana veneyyasant±nagatampi desan±balasiddhisaªkh±ta½ payojana½ adhipp±yasamijjhanabh±vato yath±dhippetatthasiddhiy± mah±k±ruºikassa bhagavatopi payojanamev±ti gaºheyya, imin± pariy±yenassa abbhantarat±pi siy±.
Apica tesa½ r³pagaruk±na½ puggal±na½ r³pasmi½ vijjam±nassa ±d²navassa y±th±vato anavabodho imiss± desan±ya samuµµh±na½, tadavabodho payojana½. So hi im±ya desan±ya bhagavanta½ payojeti tannipph±danapar±ya½ desan±ti katv±. Yañhi desan±ya s±dhetabba½ phala½, ta½ ±kaªkhitabbatt± desaka½ desan±ya payojet²ti payojananti vuccati. Tath± tesa½ puggal±na½ tadaññesañca veneyy±na½ r³pamukhena pañcasu up±d±nakkhandhesu ±d²navadassanañcettha payojana½. Tath± sa½s±racakkanivattisaddhammacakkappavattisassat±dimicch±v±danir±karaºa½ samm±v±dapurekkh±ro akusalam³lasam³hanana½ kusalam³lasam±ropana½ ap±yadv±rapidahana½ saggamaggadv±ravivaraºa½ pariyuµµh±nav³pasamana½ anusayasamuggh±tana½ “mutto mocess±m²”ti purimapaµiññ±visa½v±dana½ tappaµipakkham±ramanorathavisa½v±dana½ titthiyadhammanimmathana½ buddhadhammapatiµµh±pananti evam±d²nipi payojan±ni idha veditabb±ni.
Yath± te puggal± r³pagaruk±, eva½ tadaññe ca sakk±yagaruk± sakk±yasmi½ all²n± saªkhatadhamm±na½ samm±sambuddhassa ca paµipatti½ aj±nant± asaddhammassavanas±dh±raºaparicariyamanasik±rapar± saddhammassavanadh±raºaparicayappaµivedhavimukh± ca bhavavippamokkhesino veneyy± imiss± desan±ya bh±jana½.
Piº¹att± cettha r³paggahaºena r³padh±tur³p±yatanar³pakkhandhapariggaºhana½ r³pamukhena catudhamm±na½ vaµµattayavicchedan³p±yo ±savogh±divivecana½ abhinandananiv±raºasaªgatikkamo viv±dam³laparicc±go sikkhattay±nuyogo pah±nattayad²pan± samathavipassan±nuµµh±na½ bh±van±sacchikiriy±siddh²ti evam±dayo veditabb±.
Ito para½ pana so¼asa h±r± dassetabb±. Tattha “r³pan”ti sahaj±t± tassa nissayabh³t± tappaµibaddh± ca sabbe r³p±r³padhamm± taºh±vajj± dukkhasacca½. Ta½samuµµh±pik± tad±rammaº± ca taºh± samudayasacca½. Tadubhayesa½ appavatti nirodhasacca½. Nirodhappaj±nan± paµipad± maggasacca½. Tattha samudayena ass±do, dukkhena ±d²navo, magganirodhehi nissaraºa½, r³p±rammaºassa akusalacittassa kusalacittassa ca pariy±d±na½ phala½. Yañhi desan±ya s±dhetabba½ payojana½, ta½ phalanti vuttov±yamattho. Tadattha½ hida½ sutta½ bhagavat± desitanti. Yath± ta½ kusalacitta½ na pariy±diyati, eva½ paµisaªkh±nabh±van±balapariggahit± indriyesu guttadv±rat± up±yo. Purisassa kusalacittapariy±d±nenassa r³passa aññar³p±s±dh±raºat±dassan±padesena atthak±mehi tato citta½ s±dhuka½ rakkhitabba½. Ayamettha bhagavato ±ºatt²ti aya½ desan±h±ro. Ass±d±disandassanavibh±vanalakkhaºo hi desan±h±ro. Vuttañheta½ nettippakaraºe
“Ass±d±d²navat±, nissaraºampi ca phala½ up±yo ca;
±ºatt² ca bhagavato, yog²na½ desan±h±ro”ti. (Netti. 4 niddesav±ra).
Des²yati sa½vaºº²yati et±ya suttatthoti desan±, desan±ya sahacaraºato v± desan±. Nanu ca aññepi h±r± desan±saªkh±tassa suttassa atthasa½vaººan±to desan±ya sahac±rino v±ti? Saccameta½, aya½ pana h±ro yebhuyyena yath±rutavaseneva viññ±yam±no desan±ya saha carat²ti vattabbata½ arahati, na tath±pare. Na hi ass±d±d²navanissaraº±disandassanarahit± suttadesan± atthi. Ki½ pana tesa½ ass±d±d²na½ anavases±na½ vacana½ desan±h±ro, ud±hu ekacc±nanti? Niravases±na½yeva. Yasmiñhi sutte ass±d±d²navanissaraº±ni sar³pato ±gat±ni, tattha vattabbameva natthi. Yattha pana ekadesena ±gat±ni, na ca sar³pena, tattha an±gata½ atthavasena niddh±retv± h±ro yojetabbo.
Saya½ samantacakkhubh±vato ta½dassanena sabh±vato ca “ahan”ti vutta½. Bhikkhanas²lat±diguºayogato abhimukh²karaºatthañca, “bhikkhave”ti vutta½. Att±bh±vato aparat±dassanatthañca “aññan”ti vutta½. Ekassa anupalabbhadassanattha½ anekabh±vappaµisedhanatthañca “ekar³pamp²”ti vutta½. T±disassa r³passa abh±vato adassanato ca “na samanupass±m²”ti vutta½. Tassa pacc±masanato aniyamato ca “yan”ti vutta½. Id±ni vuccam±n±k±rapar±masanato tadaññ±k±ranisedhanato ca “evan”ti vutta½. Visabh±gindriyavatthuto sabh±gavatthusmi½ tadabh±vato ca “purisass±”ti vutta½. Nimittagg±hassa vatthubh±vato tath± parikappitatt± ca “citta½ pariy±d±ya tiµµhat²”ti vutta½. Evanti vutt±k±rapar±masanatthañceva nidassanatthañca “yath±”ti vutta½. Attano paccakkhabh±vato bhikkh³na½ paccakkhakaraºatthañca “idan”ti vutta½. Itthisant±napariy±pannato tappaµibaddhabh±vato ca “itthir³pan”ti vuttanti eva½ anupadavicayato vicayo h±ro. Vic²yanti etena, ettha v± padapañh±dayoti vicayo, viciti eva v± tesanti vicayo. Padapucch±vissajjanapubb±par±nuggahana½ ass±d±d²nañca visesaniddh±raºavasena pavicayalakkhaºo hi vicayo h±ro. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Ya½ pucchitañca vissajjitañca, suttassa y± ca anug²ti;
suttassa yo pavicayo, h±ro vicayoti niddiµµho”ti. (Netti. 4 niddesav±ra).
An±dimati sa½s±re itthipuris±na½ aññamaññar³p±bhir±mat±ya “itthir³pa½ purisassa citta½ pariy±d±ya tiµµhat²”ti yujjat²ti aya½ yuttih±ro. Byañjanatth±na½ yutt±yuttavibh±gavibh±vanalakkhaºo hi yuttih±ro. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Sabbesa½ h±r±na½, y± bh³m² yo ca gocaro tesa½;
yutt±yuttiparikkh±, h±ro yutt²ti niddiµµho”ti. (Netti. 4 niddesav±ra).
Yutt²ti ca upapatti s±dhanayutti, idha pana yuttivic±raº± yutti uttarapadalopena “r³pabhavo r³pan”ti yath±. Yuttisahacaraºato v± yutti.
Itthir³pa½ ayoniso olokiyam±na½ indriyesu aguttadv±rat±ya padaµµh±na½, s± kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ abh±van±ya padaµµh±na½, s± sabbassapi sa½kilesapakkhassa parivuddhiy± padaµµh±na½. Byatirekato pana itthir³pa½ yoniso olokiyam±na½ satipaµµh±nabh±van±ya padaµµh±na½, s± bojjhaªg±na½ bh±van±p±rip³riy± padaµµh±na½, s± vijj±vimutt²na½ p±rip³riy± padaµµh±na½, kusalassa cittassa pariy±d±na½ sammoh±bhinivesassa padaµµh±na½, so saªkh±r±na½ padaµµh±na½, saªkh±r± viññ±ºass±ti sabba½ ±vattati bhavacakka½. Byatirekato pana kusalassa cittassa apariy±d±na½ tesa½ tesa½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ upp±d±ya p±rip³riy± padaµµh±nanti aya½ t±va avisesato nayo. Visesato pana s²lassa apariy±d±na½ avippaµis±rassa padaµµh±na½, avippaµis±ro p±mojjass±ti-±din± y±va anup±d±parinibb±na½ netabba½. Aya½ padaµµh±no h±ro. Sutte ±gatadhamm±na½ padaµµh±nabh³te dhamme tesañca padaµµh±nabh³teti sambhavato padaµµh±nabh³tadhammaniddh±raºalakkhaºo hi padaµµh±no h±ro. Vuttañceta½–
“Dhamma½ deseti jino, tassa ca dhammassa ya½ padaµµh±na½;
iti y±va sabbadhamm±, eso h±ro padaµµh±no”ti. (Netti. 4 niddesav±ra).
Padaµµh±nanti ±sannak±raºa½. Idha pana padaµµh±navic±raº± padaµµh±noti-±di yuttih±re vuttanayeneva veditabba½.
Ekar³panti ca r³p±yatanaggahaºena channampi b±hir±na½ ±yatan±na½ gahaºa½ b±hir±yatanabh±vena ekalakkhaºatt±. Cittanti man±yatanaggahaºena channampi ajjhattik±na½ ±yatan±na½ gahaºa½ ajjhattik±yatanabh±vena ekalakkhaºatt±. Eva½ khandhadh±t±divasenapi ekalakkhaºat± vattabb±. Aya½ lakkhaºo h±ro. Lakkh²yanti etena, ettha v± ekalakkhaºadhamm± avutt±pi ekaccavacanen±ti lakkhaºo. Sutte an±gatepi dhamme vuttappak±re ±gate viya niddh±retv± y± sa½vaººan±, so lakkhaºo h±ro. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Vuttamhi ekadhamme, ye dhamm± ekalakkhaº± keci;
vutt± bhavanti sabbe, so h±ro lakkhaºo n±m±”ti. (Netti. 4 niddesav±ra).
Nid±ne imiss± desan±ya r³pagaruk±na½ puggal±na½ r³pasmi½ an±d²navadassit± vutt±, “katha½ nu kho ime ima½ desana½ sutv± r³pe ±d²navadassanamukhena sabbasmimpi khandhapañcake sabbaso chandar±ga½ pah±ya sakalavaµµadukkhato mucceyyu½, pare ca tattha patiµµh±peyyun”ti ayamettha bhagavato adhipp±yo. Padanibbacana½ nirutta½, ta½ “evan”ti-±dinid±napad±na½ “n±han”ti-±dip±¼ipad±nañca aµµhakath±ya½ tass± l²natthavaººan±ya ca vuttanay±nus±rena sukaratt± na vitth±rayimha.
Padapadatthadesan±desan±nikkhepasuttasandhivasena pañcavidh± sandhi. Tattha padassa padantarena sambandho padasandhi. Padatthassa padatthantarena sambandho padatthasandhi, yo “kiriy±k±rakasambandho”ti vuccati. N±n±nusandhikassa suttassa ta½ta½anusandh²hi sambandho, ek±nusandhikassa ca pubb±parasambandho desan±sandhi, y± aµµhakath±ya½ “pucch±nusandhi, ajjh±say±nusandhi, yath±nusandh²”ti tidh± vibhatt±. Ajjh±sayo cettha attajjh±sayo parajjh±sayoti dvidh± veditabbo. Desan±nikkhepasandhi catunna½ suttanikkhep±na½ vasena veditabb±. Suttasandhi idha paµhamanikkhepavaseneva veditabb±. “Kasm± panettha idameva cittapariy±d±nasutta½ paµhama½ nikkhittan”ti n±yamanuyogo katthaci na pavattati. Apica ime satt± an±dimati sa½s±re paribbhamant± itthipuris± aññamaññesa½ pañcak±maguºasaªkh±tar³p±bhir±m±, tattha itth² purisassa r³pe satt± giddh± gadhit± lagg± laggit± ±satt±, s± cass± tattha ±satti dubbivecan²y± Tath± puriso itthiy± r³pe, tattha ca dassanasa½saggo garutaro itaresañca m³labh³to. Teneva hi bhagav± “katha½ nu kho m±tug±me paµipajjitabban”ti (d². ni. 2.203) puµµho “adassanamev±”ti avoca. Tasm± bhagav± pañcasu k±maguºesu r³pe chandar±gah±panattha½ idameva sutta½ paµhama½ desesi. Nibb±n±dhigam±ya paµipattiy± ±di res± paµipatt²ti. Ya½ pana ekiss± desan±ya desanantarena sa½sandana½, ayampi desan±sandhi. S± idha eva½ veditabb±. “N±ha½, bhikkhave…pe… tiµµhat²”ti aya½ desan±. “Ye kho, bhikkhave, cakkhuviññeyy± r³p± iµµh± kant± man±p± piyar³p± k±m³pasa½hit± rajan²y± tañce bhikkhu abhinandati abhivadati ajjhos±ya tiµµhati, tassa ta½ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhos±ya tiµµhato uppajjanti aneke p±pak± akusal± dhamm±”ti (sa½. ni. 4.118) im±ya desan±ya sa½sandati. Tath± “r³pe maññati, r³pesu maññati, r³pato maññati, r³pa½ ‘me’ti maññati. R³pa½, bhikkhave, anabhij±na½ aparij±na½ avir±jaya½ appajaha½ abhabbo dukkhakkhay±y±”ti (sa½. ni. 4.112) evam±d²hi desan±hi sa½sandat²ti aya½ catuby³ho h±ro. Viy³h²yanti vibh±gena piº¹²yanti etena, ettha v±ti by³ho, nibbacan±d²na½ catunna½ by³hoti catuby³ho, catunna½ v± by³ho etth±ti catuby³ho. Nibbacan±dhipp±y±d²na½ catunna½ vibh±galakkhaºo hi catuby³ho h±ro. Vuttañheta½–