15. Aµµh±nap±¼i (paµhamavagga)

(15) 1. Aµµh±nap±¼i-paµhamavaggavaººan±

268. Aµµh±nap±¼ivaººan±ya½ avijjam±na½ µh±na½ aµµh±na½, natthi µh±nanti v± aµµh±na½. Anavak±soti etth±pi eseva nayo. Tadatthanigamanameva hi “neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²”ti vacananti. Ten±ha– “ubhayenap²”ti-±di. Yanti k±raºatthe paccattavacana½. Hetu-attho cettha k±raºatthoti ±ha– “yanti yena k±raºen±”ti. Ukkaµµhaniddesenettha diµµhisampatti veditabb±ti vutta½– “maggadiµµhiy± sampanno”ti. Kuto pan±yamattho labbhat²ti? Liªgato, liªga½ cetassa niccato upagamanappaµikkhepo. Catubh³makes³ti ida½ catutthabh³makasaªkh±r±na½ ariyas±vakassa visayabh±v³pagamanato vutta½, na pana te ±rabbha niccato upagamanasabbh±vato. Vakkhati hi “tadabh±ve catutthabh³makasaªkh±r± pan±”ti-±din±. Abhisaªkhatasaªkh±ra-abhisaªkharaºakasaªkh±r±na½ sappadesatt± nippadesasaªkh±raggahaºattha½ “saªkhatasaªkh±res³”ti vutta½, lokuttarasaªkh±r±na½ pana nivattane k±raºa½ sayameva vakkhati. Eta½ k±raºa½ natth²ti tath± upagamane setugh±to natthi. Tejussadatt±ti sa½kilesavidhamanatejassa adhikabh±vato. Tath± hi te gambh²rabh±vena duddas± akusal±na½ ±rammaºa½ na hont²ti. Ida½ pana pakaraºavasena vutta½. Appah²navipall±s±nañhi sant±nesu kusaladhamm±nampi te ±rammaºa½ na honti.
269. Asukhe sukhanti vipall±so ca idha sukhato upagamanassa µh±nanti dassento “ekanta…pe… attadiµµhivasen±”ti padh±nadiµµhim±ha. G³thanti g³thaµµh±na½, diµµhiy± nibb±nassa avisayabh±vo heµµh± vutto ev±ti kasiº±dipaººattisaªgahatthanti vutta½.
270. Paricchedoti paricchindana½ paricchijja tassa gahaºa½. Sv±ya½ yesu nicc±dito upagamana½ sambhavati, tesa½ vasenayeva k±tabboti dassento “sabbav±resu v±”ti-±dim±ha. Sabbav±res³ti “niccato upagaccheyy±”ti-±din± ±gatesu sabbesu suttapadesu. Puthujjano h²ti hi-saddo hetu-attho. Yasm± ya½ ya½ saªkh±ra½ puthujjano nicc±divasena gaºh±ti, ta½ ta½ ariyas±vako anicc±divasena gaºhanto y±th±vato j±nanto ta½ g±ha½ ta½ diµµhi½ vissajjeti, tasm± yattha g±ho, tattha vissajjan±ti catubh³makasaªkh±r± idha saªkh±raggahaºena na gayhant²ti attho.
271. Puttasambandhena m±tupitusamaññ± dattakittim±divasenapi puttavoh±ro loke dissati, so ca kho pariy±yen±ti nippariy±yena siddha½ ta½ dassetu½– “janik±va m±t±, janakova pit±”ti vutta½. Tath± ±nantariyakammassa adhippetatt± “manussabh³tova kh²º±savo arah±ti adhippeto”ti vutta½. “Aµµh±nametan”ti-±din± “m±tu-±d²na½yeva j²vit± voropane ariyas±vakassa abhabbabh±vadassanato tadañña½ ariyas±vako j²vit± voropet²ti ida½ atthato ±pannamev±”ti maññam±no vadati– “ki½ pana ariyas±vako añña½ j²vit± voropeyy±”ti? “Aµµh±nameta½ anavak±so, ya½ diµµhisampanno puggalo sañcicca p±ºa½ j²vit± voropeyya, neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²”ti vacanato “etampi aµµh±nan”ti vutta½. Tenev±ha– “sace h²”ti-±di. Eva½ sante kasm± “m±taran”ti-±din± visesetv± vuttanti ±ha– “puthujjanabh±vassa pan±”ti-±di. Tattha balad²panatthanti saddh±dibalasamann±gamad²panattha½. Ariyamaggen±gatasaddh±dhibalavasena hi ariyas±vako t±disa½ s±vajja½ na karoti.
275. Pañcahi k±raºeh²ti idamettha nipph±dak±ni tesa½ pubbabh±giy±ni ca k±raº±ni k±raºabh±vas±maññena ekajjha½ gahetv± vutta½, na pana sabbesa½ sam±nayogakkhamatt±. ¾k±reh²ti k±raºehi. Anuss±vanen±ti anur³pa½ s±vanena. Bhedassa anur³pa½ yath± bhedo hoti, eva½ bhinditabb±na½ bhikkh³na½ attano vacanassa s±vanena viññ±panena. Ten±ha– “nanu tumhe”ti-±di. Kaººam³le vac²bheda½ katv±ti etena p±kaµa½ katv± bhedakaravatthud²pana½ voh±ro, tattha attano nicchitamattha½ rahassavasena viññ±pana½ anuss±vananti dasseti.
Kammameva uddeso v± pam±ºanti tehi saªghabhedasiddhito vutta½, itare pana tesa½ sambh±rabh³t±. Ten±ha– “voh±r±”ti-±di. Tatth±ti voharaºe. Cuti-anantara½ phala½ anantara½ n±ma, tasmi½ anantare niyutt±ni, tannibbattanena anantarakaraºas²l±ni, anantarappayojan±ni c±ti ±nantariy±ni, t±ni eva kamm±n²ti ±nantariyakamm±ni.
Kammatoti “eva½ ±nantariyakamma½ hoti, eva½ ±nantariyakammasadisan”ti eva½ kammavibh±gato. Dv±ratoti k±yadv±rato. Kappaµµhitiyatoti “ida½ kappaµµhitiyavip±ka½, ida½ na kappaµµhitiyavip±kan”ti eva½ kappaµµhitiyavibh±gato. P±kas±dh±raº±d²h²ti “idamettha vipaccati, ida½ na vipaccat²”ti vipaccanavibh±gato, gahaµµhapabbajit±na½ s±dh±raº±s±dh±raºato, ±di-saddena vedan±divibh±gato ca.
Kammato t±va vinicchayo vuccat²ti sambandho. Yasm± manussattabh±ve µhitasseva kusaladhamm±na½ tikkhavisadabh±v±patti, yath± tiººa½ bodhisatt±na½ bodhittayanibbattiya½, eva½ manussabh±ve µhitasseva edis±na½ akusaladhamm±nampi tikkhavisadabh±v±patt²ti ±ha– “manussabh³tassev±”ti. P±katikamanuss±nampi ca kusaladhamm±na½ visesappatti vim±navatthu-aµµhakath±ya½ vuttanayeneva veditabb±. Yath±vutto ca attho sam±naj±tiyassa vikopane garutaro, na tath± vij±tiyass±ti vutta½– “manussabh³ta½ m±tara½ v± pitara½ v±”ti. Liªgaparivatte ca so eva ekakammanibbatto bhavaªgappabandho j²vitindriyapabandho ca, na aññoti ±ha– “api parivattaliªgan”ti. Arahatta½ pattepi eseva nayo. Tassa vip±kanti-±di kammassa ±nantariyabh±vasamatthana½. Catukkoµiyañcettha sambhavati. Tattha paµham± koµi dassit±, itar±su visaªketabh±va½ dassetu½– “yo pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Yadipi tattha visaªketo, kamma½ pana garutara½ ±nantariyasadisa½ bh±yitabbanti ±ha– “bh±riya½…pe… tiµµhat²”ti. Aya½ pañhoti ñ±panicch±nibbatt± kath±.
Abhisandhin±ti adhipp±yena. ¾nantariya½ phusat²ti maraº±dhipp±yeneva ±nantariyavatthuno vikopitatt± vutta½. ¾nantariya½ na phusat²ti ±nantariyavatthu-abh±vato ±nantariya½ na hoti. Sabbattha hi purima½ abhisandhicitta½ appam±ºa½, vadhakacitta½ pana tad±rammaºa½ j²vitindriyañca ±nantariyabh±ve pam±ºanti daµµhabba½. Saªg±macatukka½ sampattavasena yojetabba½. Yo hi parasen±ya aññañca yodha½ pitarañca kamma½ karonte disv± yodhassa usu½ khipati “eta½ vijjhitv± mama pitara½ vijjhissat²”ti, yath±dhipp±ya½ gate pitugh±tako hoti. “Yodhe viddhe mama pit± pal±yissat²”ti khipati, usu½ ayath±dhipp±ya½ gantv± pitara½ m±reti, voh±ravasena pitugh±takoti vuccati, ±nantariya½ pana natth²ti. Coracatukka½ pana yo “cora½ m±ress±m²”ti coravesena gacchanta½ pitara½ m±reti, ±nantariya½ phusat²ti-±din± yojetabba½. Tenev±ti teneva payogena. Arahantagh±tako hotiyev±ti arahato m±ritatt± vutta½, puthujjanasseva ta½ dinna½ hot²ti etth±yamadhipp±yo– yath± vadhakacetan± paccuppann±rammaº±pi pabandhavicchedanavasena j²vitindriya½ ±rammaºa½ katv± pavattati, na eva½ c±gacetan±. S± hi cajitabbavatthu½ ±rammaºa½ katv± cajanamattameva hoti, aññasantakabh±vakaraºañca tassa cajana½, tasm± yassa ta½ santaka½ kata½, tasseva dinna½ hot²ti.
Lohita½ samosarat²ti abhigh±tena pakuppam±na½ sañcita½ hoti. Mahantataranti garutara½. Sar²rappaµijaggane viy±ti satthur³pak±yappaµijaggane viya.
Asannipatiteti ida½ s±maggiyad²pana½. Bhedo ca hot²ti saªghassa bhedo ca hoti. Vaµµat²ti saññ±y±ti “²disa½ karaºa½ saªghabhed±ya na hot²”ti saññ±ya. Tath± navato ³naparis±y±ti navato ³naparis±ya karontassa tath±ti yojetabba½. Tath±ti ca imin± “na ±nantariyakamman”ti ima½ ±ka¹¹hati, na pana “bhedova hot²”ti ida½. Heµµhimantena hi navannameva vasena saªghabhedo. Dhammav±dino anavajj±ti yath±dhamma½ anavaµµh±nato. Saªghabhedassa pubbabh±go saªghar±ji.
K±yadv±rameva p³renti k±yakammabh±veneva lakkhitabbato. Saºµhahantehi kappe…pe… muccat²ti ida½ kappaµµhakath±ya (kath±. 654 ±dayo) na sameti. Tattha hi aµµhakath±ya (kath±. aµµha. 654-657) vutta½– “±p±yikoti ida½ sutta½ ya½ so eka½ kappa½ as²tibh±ge katv± tato ekabh±gamatta½ k±la½ tiµµheyya, ta½ ±yukappa½ sandh±ya vuttan”ti. Kappavin±seyev±ti ca ±yukappavin±se ev±ti atthe sati natthi virodho. Ettha ca saºµhahanteti idampi “sveva vinassissat²”ti viya abh³taparikappavasena vutta½. Ekadivasameva niraye paccati, tato para½ kapp±bh±ve ±yukappassapi abh±vatoti avirodhato atthayojan± daµµhabb±. Ses±n²ti saªghabhedato aññ±ni ±nantariyakamm±ni.
Yadi t±ni ahosikammasaªkha½ gacchanti, eva½ sati katha½ nesa½ ±nantariyat± cuti-anantara½ vip±kad±n±bh±vato. Atha sati phalad±ne cuti-anantaro eva etesa½ phalak±lo, na aññoti phalak±laniyamena niyatat± icchit±, na phalad±naniyamena. Evampi niyataphalak±l±na½ aññesampi upapajjavedan²y±na½ diµµhadhammavedan²y±nañca niyatat± ±pajjeyya, tasm± vip±kadhammadhamm±na½ paccayantaravikalat±d²hi avipaccam±n±nampi attano sabh±vena vip±kadhammat± viya balavat± ±nantariyena vip±ke dinne avipaccam±n±nampi ±nantariy±na½ phalad±ne niyatasabh±v± ±nantariyasabh±v± ca pavatt²ti attano sabh±vena phalad±naniyameneva niyat± ±nantariyat± ca veditabb±. Avassañca ±nantariyasabh±v± tato eva niyatasabh±v± ca tesa½ pavatt²ti sampaµicchitabbameta½, aññassa balavato ±nantariyassa abh±ve sati cuti-anantara½ ekantena phalad±nato.
Nanu eva½ aññesampi upapajjavedan²y±na½ aññasmi½ vip±kad±yake asati cuti-anantarameva ekantena phalad±nato niyatasabh±v± ±nantariyasabh±v± ca pavatti ±pajjat²ti? N±pajjati asam±naj±tikena cetopaºidhivasena upagh±takena ca nivattetabbavip±katt± anantare ekantaphalad±yakatt±bh±v±, na pana ±nantariy±na½ paµhamajjh±n±d²na½ dutiyajjh±n±d²ni viya asam±naj±tika½ phalanivattaka½ atthi sabb±nantariy±na½ av²ciphalatt±, na ca heµµh³papatti½ icchato s²lavato cetopaºidhi viya upar³papattijanakakammaphala½ ±nantariyaphala½ nivattetu½ samattho cetopaºidhi atthi anicchantasseva av²cip±tanato, na ca ±nantariyopagh±taka½ kiñci kamma½ atthi, tasm± tesa½yeva anantare ekantavip±kajanakasabh±v± pavatt²ti. Anek±ni ca ±nantariy±ni kat±ni ekantena vip±ke niyatasabh±vatt± uparat±vipaccanasabh±v±saªkatt± nicchit±ni sabh±vato niyat±neva. Tesu pana sam±nasabh±vesu ekena vip±ke dinne itar±ni attan± kattabbakiccassa teneva katatt± na dutiya½ tatiyampi ca paµisandhi½ karonti, na samatthat±vigh±tatt±ti natthi tesa½ ±nantariyakat±nivatti, garugarutarabh±vo pana tesa½ labbhatev±ti saªghabhedassa siy± garutarabh±voti “yena…pe… vipaccat²”ti ±ha. Ekassa pana aññ±ni upatthambhak±ni hont²ti daµµhabb±ni. Paµisandhivasena vipaccat²ti vacanena itaresa½ pavattivip±kad±yit± anuññ±t± viya dissati. No v± tath± s²lavat²ti yath± pit± s²lav±, tath± s²lavat² no v± hot²ti yojan±. Sace m±t± s²lavat², m±tugh±to paµisandhivasena vipaccat²ti yojan±.
Pakatattoti anukkhitto. Sam±nasa½v±sakoti ap±r±jiko. Sam±nas²m±yanti ekas²m±ya½.
276. Satthu kicca½ k±tu½ asamatthoti ya½ satth±r± k±tabbakicca½ anus±san±di, na½ k±tu½ asamatthoti bhagavanta½ paccakkh±ya. Añña½ titthakaranti añña½ satth±ra½. Vuttañheta½–
“Tittha½ j±nitabba½, titthakaro j±nitabbo, titthiy± j±nitabb±, titthiyas±vak± j±nitabb±. Tattha tittha½ n±ma dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo. Ettha hi satth± taranti uplavanti ummujjanimujja½ karonti, tasm± titthanti vuccanti. T±dis±na½ diµµh²na½ upp±det± titthakaro n±ma p³raºakassap±diko. Tassa laddhi½ gahetv± pabbajit± titthiy± n±ma. Te hi titthe j±t±ti titthiy±. Yath±vutta½ v± diµµhigatasaªkh±ta½ tittha½ etesa½ atth²ti titthik± titthik± eva titthiy±. Tesa½ paccayad±yak± titthiyas±vak±ti veditabb±”ti (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.140).
277. Abhij±ti-±d²su pakampanadevat³pasaªkaman±din± j±tacakkav±¼ena sam±nayogakkhama½ dasasahassaparim±ºa½ cakkav±¼a½ j±tikhetta½. Saraseneva ±º±pavattanaµµh±na½ ±º±khetta½. Visayabh³ta½ µh±na½ visayakhetta½. Dasasahass² lokadh±t³ti im±ya lokadh±tuy± saddhi½ ima½ lokadh±tu½ pariv±retv± µhit± dasasahass² lokadh±tu. Tattak±na½yeva j±tikhettabh±vo dhammat±vasena veditabbo. “Pariggahavasen±”ti keci, “sabbesa½yeva buddh±na½ tattaka½yeva j±tikhetta½ tanniv±s²na½yeva devat±na½ dhamm±bhisamayo”ti ca vadanti. M±tukucchi okkamanak±l±d²na½ channa½ eva gahaºa½ nidassanamatta½ mah±bhin²h±r±dik±lepi tassa pakampanassa labbhanato. ¾º±khetta½ n±ma ya½ ekajjha½ sa½vaµµati vivaµµati ca, ±º± pavattati ±º±ya tanniv±sidevat±na½ siras± sampaµicchanena, tañca kho kevala½ buddh±na½ ±nubh±veneva, na adhipp±yavasena. Adhipp±yavasena pana “y±vat± v± pana ±kaªkheyy±”ti (a. ni. 3.81) vacanato tato parampi ±º± vatteyyeva.
Na uppajjant²ti pana atth²ti “na me ±cariyo atthi, sadiso me na vijjat²”ti-±di½ (ma. ni. 1.285; mah±va. 11; kath±. 405) imiss± lokadh±tuy± µhatv± vadantena bhagavat± “ki½ pan±vuso, s±riputta, atthetarahi aññe samaº± v± br±hmaº± v± bhagavat± samasam± sambodhiyanti, eva½ puµµho aha½, bhante, ‘no’ti vadeyyan”ti (d². ni. 3.161) vatv± tassa k±raºa½ dassetu½– “aµµh±nameta½ anavak±so, ya½ ekiss± lokadh±tuy± dve arahanto samm±sambuddh± apubba½ acarima½ uppajjeyyun”ti ima½ sutta½ (a. ni. 1.277; vibha. 809; ma. ni. 3.129; mi. pa. 5.1.1) ±harantena dhammasen±patin± ca buddhakhettabh³ta½ ima½ lokadh±tu½ µhapetv± aññattha anuppatti vutt± hot²ti adhipp±yo.
Ekatoti saha, ekasmi½ k±leti attho, so pana k±lo katha½ paricchinnoti carimabhave paµisandhiggahaºato paµµh±ya y±va dh±tuparinibb±n±ti dassento, “tatth±”ti-±dim±ha. Anacchariyatt±ti dv²supi uppajjam±nesu acchariyatt±bh±vatoti attho. Dv²supi uppajjam±nesu anacchariyat±, kimaªga½ pana bah³s³ti dassento, “yadi c±”ti-±dim±ha. Buddh± n±ma majjhe bhinnasuvaººa½ viya ekasadis±ti tesa½ desan±pi ekaras± ekadh±ti ±ha– “desan±ya ca vises±bh±vato”ti Etenapi anacchariyattameva s±dheti. Viv±dabh±vatoti etena viv±d±bh±vattha½ dve buddh± ekato na uppajjant²ti dasseti. Eta½ k±raºanti eta½ anacchariyat±dik±raºa½. Tatth±ti milindapañhe.
Eka½ eva buddha½ dh±ret²ti ekabuddhadh±raº². Etena eva½sabh±v± ete buddhaguº±, yena dutiyabuddhaguºe dh±retu½ asamatth± aya½ lokadh±t³ti dasseti. Paccayavisesanipphann±nañhi guºadhamm±na½ bh±riyo viseso mah±pathaviy±pi dussahoti sakk± viññ±tu½. Tath± hi abhisambodhisamaye upagatassa lokan±thassa guºabh±ra½ bodhirukkhassa t²supi dis±su mah±pathav² sandh±retu½ n±sakkhi. Tasm± “na dh±reyy±”ti vatv± tameva adh±raºa½ pariy±yantarehi pak±sento “caleyy±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha caleyy±ti paripphandeyya. Kampeyy±ti pavedheyya Nameyy±ti ekapassena nameyya. Onameyy±ti os²deyya. Vinameyy±ti vividha½ ito cito ca nameyya. Vikireyy±ti v±tena thusamuµµhi viya vippakireyya. Vidhameyy±ti vinasseyya. Viddha½seyy±ti sabbaso viddhast± bhaveyya. Tath±bh³t± ca na katthaci tiµµheyy±ti ±ha– “na µh±namupagaccheyy±”ti.
Id±ni tattha nidassana½ dassento, “yath±, mah±r±j±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha eke puriseti ekasmi½ purise. Samup±dik±ti sama½ uddha½ pajjati pavattat²ti samup±dik±, udakassa upari sama½ g±min²ti attho. “Samupp±dik±”tipi paµhanti, ayamevattho. Vaººen±ti saºµh±nena. Pam±ºen±ti ±rohena. Kisath³len±ti kisath³labh±vena, pariº±hen±ti attho. Dvinnamp²ti dvepi, dvinnampi v± sar²rabh±ra½.
Ch±dentanti rocenta½ ruci½ upp±denta½. Tandikatoti tena bhojanena tandibh³to. Anonamitadaº¹aj±toti y±vadattha½ bhojanena onamitu½ asakkuºeyyat±ya anonamanadaº¹o viya j±to. Saki½ bhutto vameyy±ti ekampi ±lopa½ ajjhoharitv± vameyy±ti attho.
Atidhammabh±rena pathav² calat²ti dhammena n±ma pathav² tiµµheyya. S± ki½ teneva calati vinassat²ti adhipp±yena pucchati. Puna thero “ratana½ n±ma loke kuµumba½ sandh±renta½ abhimatañca lokena attano garusabh±vat±ya sakaµabhaªgassa k±raºa½ atibh±rabh³ta½ diµµha½. Eva½ dhammo ca hitasukhavisesehi ta½samaªg²na½ dh±rento abhimato ca viññ³na½ gambh²rappameyyabh±vena garusabh±vatt± atibh±rabh³to pathav²calanassa k±raºa½ hot²”ti dassento, “idha, mah±r±ja, dve sakaµ±”ti-±dim±ha Eteneva tath±gatassa m±tukucchi-okkaman±dik±le pathav²kampanak±raºa½ sa½vaººitanti daµµhabba½. Ekass±ti ekasm±, ekassa v± sakaµassa ratana½, tasm± sakaµ± gahetv±ti attho.
Os±ritanti ucc±rita½, vuttanti attho. Aggoti sabbasattehi aggo. Jeµµhoti vuddhataro. Seµµhoti pasatthataro. Visiµµhehi s²l±d²hi guºehi samann±gatatt± visiµµho. Uggatatamoti uttamo. Pavaroti tasseva vevacana½. Natthi etassa samoti asamo. Asam± pubbabuddh±, tehi samoti asamasamo. Natthi etassa paµisamo paµipuggaloti appaµisamo. Natthi etassa paµibh±goti appaµibh±go. Natthi etassa paµipuggaloti appaµipuggalo.
Sabh±vapakatik±ti sabh±vabh³t± akittim± pakati. K±raºamahantatt±ti k±raº±na½ mahantat±ya, mahantehi buddhakaradhammehi p±ramisaªkh±tehi k±raºehi buddhaguº±na½ nibbattitoti vutta½ hoti. Pathav²-±d²ni mahant±ni vatth³ni, mahant± cakkav±¼±dayo attano attano visaye ekek±va, eva½ samm±sambuddhopi mahanto attano visaye eko eva. Ko ca tassa visayo? Buddhabh³mi, y±vataka½ v± ñeyya½. “¾k±so viya anantavisayo bhagav± eko eva hot²”ti vadanto paracakkav±¼esupi dutiyassa buddhassa abh±va½ dasseti.
Imin±va paden±ti “ekiss± lokadh±tuy±”ti imin± eva padena. Dasa cakkav±¼asahass±ni gahit±n²ti j±tikhett±pekkh±ya gahit±ni. Ekacakkav±¼enev±ti imin± eva ekacakkav±¼ena, na yena kenaci. Yath± “imasmi½yeva cakkav±¼e uppajjant²”ti vutte imasmimpi cakkav±¼e jambud²pe eva, tatth±pi majjhimadese ev±ti paricchinditu½ vaµµati, eva½ “ekiss± lokadh±tuy±”ti j±tikhette adhippetepi imin±va cakkav±¼ena paricchinditu½ vaµµati.

Paµhamavaggavaººan± niµµhit±.