Da¼hataraniviµµh± vicikicch± kaªkh±. N±tisa½sappana½ matibhedamatta½ vimati. Assaddhiya½ vin±seti bhagavat± bh±sitatt± sammukh± cassa paµiggahitatt± khalitadurutt±diggahaºados±bh±vato ca. Ettha ca pañcam±dayo tisso atthayojan± ±k±r±di-atthesu aggahitavisesameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± dassit±, tato par± catasso ±k±ratthameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± vibh±vit±, pacchim± pana tisso yath±kkama½ ±k±rattha½ nidassanattha½ avadh±raºatthañca eva½-sadda½ gahetv± yojit±ti daµµhabba½.
Eka-saddo aññaseµµha-asah±yasaªkh±d²su dissati. Tath± hesa “sassato att± ca loko ca, idameva sacca½ moghamaññanti ittheke abhivadant²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.27) aññatthe dissati, “cetaso ekodibh±van”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.228; p±r±. 11) seµµhe, “eko v³pakaµµho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.405; 2.215; ma. ni. 1.80; sa½. ni. 3.63; c³¼ava. 445) asah±ye “ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.29) saªkh±ya½. Idh±pi saªkh±yanti dassento ±ha– “ekanti gaºanaparicchedaniddeso”ti. K±lañca samayañc±ti yuttak±lañca paccayas±maggiñca. Khaºoti ok±so. Tath±gatupp±d±diko hi maggabrahmacariyassa ok±so tappaccayappaµil±bhahetutt±. Khaºo eva ca samayo. Yo khaºoti ca samayoti ca vuccati, so eko ev±ti hi attho. Mah±samayoti mah±sam³ho. Samayopi khoti sikkh±padap³raºassa hetupi. Samayappav±daketi diµµhippav±dake. Tattha hi nisinn± titthiy± attano attano samaya½ pavadant²ti. Atth±bhisamay±ti hitappaµil±bh±. Abhisametabboti abhisamayo, abhisamayo attho abhisamayaµµhoti p²¼an±d²ni abhisametabbabh±vena ek²bh±va½ upanetv± vutt±ni. Abhisamayassa v± paµivedhassa visayabh³to attho abhisamayaµµhoti t±neva tath± ekattena vutt±ni. Tattha p²¼ana½ dukkhasaccassa ta½samaªgino hi½sana½ avipph±rikat±karaºa½. Sant±po dukkhadukkhat±divasena santapana½ paridahana½.
Tattha sahak±rik±raºe sanijjha½ sameti samavet²ti samayo, samav±yo. Sameti sam±gacchati ettha maggabrahmacariya½ tad±dh±rapuggaleh²ti samayo, khaºo. Sameti ettha, etena v± sa½gacchati satto, sabh±vadhammo v± sahaj±t±d²hi, upp±d±d²hi v±ti samayo, k±lo. Dhammappavattimattat±ya atthato abh³topi hi k±lo dhammappavattiy± adhikaraºa½ karaºa½ viya ca kappan±mattasiddhena r³pena vohar²yat²ti. Sama½, saha v± avayav±na½ ayana½ pavatti avaµµh±nanti samayo, sam³ho yath± “samud±yo”ti. Avayavasah±vaµµh±nameva hi sam³hoti. Avasesapaccay±na½ sam±game eti phala½ etasm± uppajjati pavattati c±ti samayo, hetu yath± “samudayo”ti. Sameti sa½yojanabh±vato sambaddho eti attano visaye pavattati, da¼haggahaºabh±vato v± sa½yutt± ayanti pavattanti satt± yath±bhinivesa½ eten±ti samayo, diµµhi. Diµµhisa½yojanena hi satt± ativiya bajjhant²ti. Samiti saªgati samodh±nanti samayo, paµil±bho. Samassa y±na½, samm± v± y±na½ apagamoti samayo, pah±na½. Abhimukha½ ñ±ºena samm± etabbo abhisametabboti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²to sabh±vo. Abhimukhabh±vena samm± eti gacchati bujjhat²ti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±v±vabodho. Eva½ tasmi½ tasmi½ atthe samayasaddassa pavatti veditabb±. Samayasaddassa atthuddh±re abhisamayasaddassa ud±haraºa½ vuttanayena veditabba½. Ass±ti samayasaddassa. K±lo attho samav±y±d²na½ atth±na½ idha asambhavato, desadesakaparis±na½ viya suttassa nid±nabh±vena k±lassa apadisitabbato ca.
Kasm± panettha aniyamitavaseneva k±lo niddiµµho, na utusa½vacchar±divasena niyametv±ti ±ha– “tattha kiñc±p²”ti-±di. Utusa½vacchar±divasena niyama½ akatv± samayasaddassa vacane ayampi guºo laddho hot²ti dassento “ye v± ime”ti-±dim±ha. S±maññajotan± hi visese avatiµµhat²ti. Tattha diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo devasika½ jh±nasam±patt²hi v²tin±manak±lo, visesato sattasatt±h±ni. Suppak±s±ti dasasahassilokadh±tuy± pakampana-obh±sap±tubh±v±d²hi p±kaµ±. Yath±vuttabhedesu eva samayesu ekadesa½ pak±rantarehi saªgahetv± dassetu½ “yo c±yan”ti-±dim±ha. Tath± hi ñ±ºakiccasamayo attahitappaµipattisamayo ca abhisambodhisamayo, ariyatuºh²bh±vasamayo diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo, karuº±kiccaparahitappaµipattidhammikath±samayo desan±samayoyeva.
Karaºavacanena niddeso katoti sambandho. Tatth±ti abhidhammavinayesu. Tath±ti bhummakaraºehi. Adhikaraºattho ±dh±rattho. Bh±vo n±ma kiriy±, kiriy±ya kiriyantaralakkhaºa½ bh±venabh±valakkhaºa½. Tattha yath± k±lo sabh±vadhammaparicchinno saya½ paramatthato avijjam±nopi ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±to taªkhaºappavatt±na½ tato pubbe parato ca abh±vato “pubbaºhe j±to, s±yanhe gacchat²”ti ca ±d²su, sam³ho ca avayavavinimutto avijjam±nopi kappan±mattasiddho avayav±na½ ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±p²yati “rukkhe s±kh±, yavar±siya½ sambh³to”ti-±d²su, eva½ idh±p²ti dassento ±ha– “adhikaraºa½…pe… dhamm±nan”ti. Yasmi½ k±le, dhammapuñje v± k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½ eva k±le, dhammapuñje ca phass±dayopi hont²ti ayañhi tattha attho. Yath± “g±v²su duyham±n±su gato, duddh±su ±gato”ti dohanakiriy±ya gamanakiriy± lakkh²yati, eva½ idh±pi “yasmi½ samaye, tasmi½ samaye”ti ca vutte “sat²”ti ayamattho viññ±yam±no eva hoti padatthassa satt±virah±bh±vatoti samayassa satt±kiriy±ya cittassa upp±dakiriy±, phass±d²na½ bhavanakiriy± ca lakkh²yat²ti. Yasmi½ samayeti yasmi½ navame khaºe, yasmi½ yonisomanasik±r±dihetumhi, paccayasamav±ye v± sati k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva khaºe hetumhi paccayasamav±ye ca phass±dayopi hont²ti ubhayattha samayasadde bhummaniddeso kato lakkhaºabh³tabh±vayuttoti dassento ±ha– “khaºa…pe… lakkh²yat²”ti.
Hetu-attho karaºattho ca sambhavati “annena vasati, ajjhenena vasati, pharasun± chindati, kud±lena khaºat²”ti-±d²su viya. V²tikkamañhi sutv± bhikkhusaªgha½ sannip±t±petv± otiººe vatthusmi½ ta½ puggala½ paµipucchitv± vigarahitv± ca ta½ ta½ vatthu½ otiººak±la½ anatikkamitv± teneva k±lena sikkh±pad±ni paññ±pento bhagav± viharati sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no tatiyap±r±jik±d²su viya.
Accantameva ±rambhato paµµh±ya y±va desan±niµµh±na½ parahitappaµipattisaªkh±tena karuº±vih±rena. Tadatthajotanatthanti accantasa½yogatthajotanattha½. Upayogavacananiddeso kato yath± “m±sa½ ajjhet²”ti. Por±º±ti aµµhakath±cariy±. Abhil±pamattabhedoti vacanamattena viseso. Tena suttavinayesu vibhattibyattayo katoti dasseti.
Id±ni “bhagav±”ti imassa attha½ dassento ±ha– “bhagav±ti gar³”ti-±di. Bhagav±ti vacana½ seµµhanti seµµhav±caka½ vacana½, seµµhaguºasahacaraºa½ seµµhanti vutta½. Atha v± vuccat²ti vacana½, attho. Yasm± yo “bhagav±”ti vacanena vacan²yo attho, so seµµhoti attho. Bhagav±ti vacanamuttamanti etth±pi eseva nayo. G±ravayuttoti garubh±vayutto garuguºayogato. Garukaraºa½ v± s±tisaya½ arahat²ti g±ravayutto, g±rav±rahoti attho. Sipp±disikkh±pak± gar³ honti, na ca g±ravayutt±, aya½ pana t±diso na hoti, tasm± gar³ti vatv± g±ravayuttoti vuttanti keci. Vuttoyeva, na idha vattabbo visuddhimaggassa imiss± aµµhakath±ya ekadesabh±vatoti adhipp±yo.
Dhammasar²ra½ paccakkha½ karot²ti “yo vo, ±nanda, may± dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto so vo mamaccayena satth±”ti (d². ni. 2.216) vacanato dhammassa satthubh±vapariy±yo vijjat²ti katv± vutta½. Vajirasaªgh±tasam±nak±yo parehi abhejjasar²ratt±. Na hi bhagavato r³pak±ye kenaci sakk± antar±yo k±tunti. Desan±sampatti½ niddisati vakkham±nassa sakalasuttassa evanti niddisanato. S±vakasampatti½ niddisati paµisambhid±pattena pañcasu µh±nesu bhagavat± etadagge µhapitena may± mah±s±vakena suta½, tañca kho may± suta½, na anussutika½, na parampar±bhatanti imassa atthassa d²panato. K±lasampatti½ niddisati “bhagav±”ti padassa sannidh±ne payuttassa samayasaddassa k±lassa buddhupp±dappaµimaº¹itabh±vad²panato Buddhupp±daparam± hi k±lasampad±. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Kappakas±ye kaliyuge, buddhupp±do aho mahacchariya½;
hut±vahamajjhe j±ta½, samuditamakarandamaravindan”ti. (D². ni. µ². 1.1; sa½. ni. µ². 1.1.1 devat±sa½yutta).
Bhagav±ti desakasampatti½ niddisati guºavisiµµhasattuttamagarug±rav±dhivacanabh±vato.
Eva½n±make nagareti katha½ paneta½ nagara½ eva½n±maka½ j±tanti? Vuccate, yath± k±kandassa isino niv±saµµh±ne m±pit± nagar² k±kand², m±kandassa niv±saµµh±ne m±pit± m±kand², kusambassa niv±saµµh±ne m±pit± kosamb²ti vuccati, eva½ savatthassa isino niv±saµµh±ne m±pit± nagar² s±vatth²ti vuccati. Eva½ t±va akkharacintak± vadanti. Aµµhakath±cariy± pana bhaºanti– “ya½ kiñci manuss±na½ upabhogaparibhoga½, sabbamettha atth²”ti s±vatthi. Satthasam±yoge ca ‘ki½ bhaº¹amatth²’ti pucchite ‘sabbamatth²’ti vacanamup±d±ya s±vatthi.
“Sabbad± sabb³pakaraºa½, s±vatthiya½ samohita½;
tasm± sabbamup±d±ya, s±vatth²ti pavuccati. (Ma. ni. aµµha. 1.14; khu. p±. aµµha. 5.maªgalasuttavaººan±; ud±. aµµha. 5; paµi. ma. 2.1.184).
“Kosal±na½ pura½ ramma½, dassaneyya½ manorama½;
dasahi saddehi avivitta½, annap±nasam±yuta½.
“Vuddhi½ vepullata½ patta½, iddha½ ph²ta½ manorama½;
±¼akamand±va dev±na½, s±vatthipuramuttaman”ti. (Ma. ni. aµµha. 1.14; khu. p±. aµµha. 5.maªgalasuttavaººan±).
Avisesen±ti na visesena, vih±rabh±vas±maññen±ti attho. Iriy±pathavih±ro…pe… vih±res³ti iriy±pathavih±ro dibbavih±ro brahmavih±ro ariyavih±roti etesu cat³su vih±resu. Samaªgiparid²pananti samaªgibh±vaparid²pana½. Etanti viharat²ti eta½ pada½. Tath± hi ta½ “idhekacco gihisa½saµµho viharati sahanand² sahasok²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.241) iriy±pathavih±re ±gata½, “yasmi½ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva k±mehi paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharat²”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 499; vibha. 624) dibbavih±re, “so mett±sahagatena cetas± eka½ disa½ pharitv± viharat²”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.556; 3.308; ma. ni. 1.77, 459, 509; 2.309, 315, 451, 471; 3.230, vibha. 642, 643) brahmavih±re, “so khoha½, aggivessana, tass±yeva kath±ya pariyos±ne tasmi½yeva purimasmi½ sam±dhinimitte ajjhattameva citta½ saºµhapemi sannis±demi ekodi½ karomi, sam±dah±mi, yena suda½ niccakappa½ vihar±m²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.387) ariyavih±re.