1. R³p±divaggavaººan±

Nid±navaººan±

Vibh±gavant±na½ sabh±vavibh±vana½ vibh±gadassanavaseneva hot²ti paµhama½ t±va nip±tasuttavasena vibh±ga½ dassetu½ “tattha aªguttar±gamo n±m±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tatth±ti “aªguttar±gamassa attha½ pak±sayiss±m²”ti yadida½ vutta½, tasmi½ vacane, “yassa attha½ pak±sayiss±m²”ti paµiññ±ta½, so aªguttar±gamo n±ma nip±tasuttavasena eva½ vibh±goti attho. Atha v± tatth±ti “aªguttaranissita½ atthan”ti etasmi½ vacane yo aªguttar±gamo vutto, so nip±tasutt±divasena edisoti attho.
Id±ni ta½ ±dito paµµh±ya sa½vaººituk±mo attano sa½vaººan±ya paµhamamah±saªg²tiya½ nikkhitt±nukkamena pavattabh±vadassanattha½ “tassa nip±tesu…pe… vutta½ nid±nam±d²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha yath±paccaya½ tattha tattha desitatt± paññattatt± ca vippakiºº±na½ dhammavinay±na½ saªgahetv± g±yana½ kathana½ saªg²ti. Etena ta½ta½sikkh±pad±na½ sutt±nañca ±dipariyos±nesu antarantar± ca sambandhavasena µhapita½ saªg²tik±ravacana½ saªgahita½ hoti. Saªg²yam±nassa atthassa mahantat±ya p³jan²yat±ya ca mahat² saªg²ti mah±saªg²ti, paµham± mah±saªg²ti paµhamamah±saªg²ti, tass± pavattik±lo paµhamamah±saªg²tik±lo, tasmi½ paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le. Nidad±ti desana½ desak±l±divasena avidita½ vidita½ katv± nidasset²ti nid±na½. Yo lokiyehi upoggh±toti vuccati, sv±yamettha “eva½ me sutan”ti-±diko gantho veditabbo. Na “sanid±n±ha½, bhikkhave, dhamma½ desem²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.126) viya ajjh±say±didesanuppattihetu. Tenev±ha– “eva½ me sutanti-±dika½ ±yasmat± ±nandena paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le vutta½ nid±nam±d²”ti.
1. “S± panes±”ti-±din± b±hiranid±ne vattabba½ atidisitv± id±ni abbhantaranid±na½ ±dito paµµh±ya sa½vaººitu½ “ya½ panetan”ti vutta½. Tattha yasm± sa½vaººana½ karontena sa½vaººetabbe dhamme pad±ni padavibh±ga½ tadatthañca dassetv± tato para½ piº¹atth±dinidassanavasena ca sa½vaººan± k±tabb±, tasm± pad±ni t±va dassento “evanti nip±tapadan”ti-±dim±ha Tattha padavibh±goti pad±na½ viseso, na padaviggaho. Atha v± pad±ni ca padavibh±go ca padavibh±go, padaviggaho ca padavibh±go ca padavibh±goti v± ekasesavasena padapadaviggah± padavibh±gasaddena vutt±ti veditabba½. Tattha padaviggaho “jetassa vana½ jetavanan”ti-±din± sam±sapadesu daµµhabbo.
Atthatoti padatthato. Ta½ pana padattha½ atthuddh±rakkamena paµhama½ eva½-saddassa dassento “eva½-saddo t±v±”ti-±dim±ha. Avadh±raº±d²ti ettha ±di-saddena idamatthapucch±parim±º±di-atth±na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. Tath± hi “eva½gat±ni puthusipp±yatan±ni, evam±d²n²”ti-±d²su ida½-saddassa atthe eva½-saddo. Gata-saddo hi pak±rapariy±yo, tath± vidh±k±ra-sadd± ca. Tath± hi vidhayuttagatasadde lokiy± pak±ratthe vadanti. “Eva½ su te sunh±t± suvilitt± kappitakesamass³ ±mukkamaºikuº¹al±bharaº± od±tavatthavasan± pañcahi k±maguºehi samappit± samaªg²bh³t± paric±renti seyyath±pi tva½ etarahi s±cariyakoti. No hida½, bho gotam±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.286) pucch±ya½. “Eva½ lahuparivatta½ (a. ni. 1.48), evam±yupariyanto”ti (d². ni. 1.244; p±r±. 12) ca ±d²su parim±ºe.
Nanu ca “eva½ su te sunh±t± suvilitt± evam±yupariyanto”ti ettha eva½-saddena pucchan±k±raparim±º±k±r±na½ vuttatt± ±k±rattho eva eva½-saddoti? Na, visesasabbh±vato. ¾k±ramattav±cako hi eva½-saddo ±k±ratthoti adhippeto yath± “eva½ by±kho”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.234; p±ci. 417; c³¼ava. 65), na pana ±k±ravisesav±cako. Evañca katv± “eva½ j±tena maccen±”ti-±d²ni (dha. pa. 53) upam±di-ud±haraº±ni upapann±ni honti. Tath± hi “yath± hi…pe… bahun”ti (dha. pa. 53) ettha pupphar±siµµh±niyato manuss³papattisappuris³panissayasaddhammassavanayonisomanasik±rabhogasampatti ±did±n±dipuññakiriy±hetusamud±yato sobh±sugandhat±diguºayogato m±l±guºasadisiyo pah³t± puññakiriy± maritabbasabh±vat±ya maccena sattena kattabb±ti jotitatt± pupphar±sim±l±guº±va upam±. Tesa½ upam±k±ro yath±-saddena aniyamato vuttoti “eva½-saddo upam±k±ranigamanattho”ti vattu½ yutta½, so pana upam±k±ro niyamiyam±no atthato upam±va hot²ti ±ha– “upam±ya½ ±gato”ti. Tath± “eva½ imin± ±k±rena abhikkamitabban”ti-±din± upadisiyam±n±ya samaºas±rupp±ya ±kappasampattiy± yo tattha upadisan±k±ro, so atthato upadeso ev±ti vutta½– “eva½ te…pe… upadese”ti. Tath± evameta½ bhagav±, evameta½ sugat±ti ettha bhagavat± yath±vuttamattha½ avipar²tato j±nantehi kata½ tattha sa½vijjam±naguº±na½ pak±rehi ha½sana½ udaggat±karaºa½ sampaha½sana½, yo tattha sampaha½san±k±roti yojetabba½.
Evameva½ pan±yanti ettha garahaº±k±roti yojetabba½, so ca garahaº±k±ro “vasal²”ti-±dikhu½sanasaddasannidh±nato idha eva½-saddena pak±sitoti viññ±yati. Yath± cettha, eva½ upam±k±r±dayopi upam±divasena vutt±na½ pupphar±si-±disadd±na½ sannidh±natoti daµµhabba½. Eva½, bhanteti khoti-±d²su pana dhammassa s±dhuka½ savanamanasik±rena niyojitehi bhikkh³hi attano tattha µhitabh±vassa paµij±nanavasena vuttatt± ettha eva½-saddo vacanasampaµicchanattho vutto, tena “eva½, bhante, s±dhu bhante, suµµhu bhante”ti vutta½ hoti. Evañca vadeh²ti “yath±ha½ vad±mi, eva½ samaºa½ ±nanda½ vadeh²”ti vadan±k±ro id±ni vattabbo eva½-saddena nidass²yat²ti nidassanattho vutto. Eva½ noti etth±pi tesa½ yath±vuttadhamm±na½ ahitadukkh±vahabh±ve sanniµµh±najananattha½ anumatiggahaºavasena “no v±, katha½ vo ettha hot²”ti pucch±ya kat±ya “eva½ no ettha hot²”ti vuttatt± tad±k±rasanniµµh±na½ eva½-saddena vibh±vitanti viññ±yati. So pana tesa½ dhamm±na½ ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattan±k±ro niyamiyam±no avadh±raºattho hot²ti ±ha– “eva½ no ettha hot²ti-±d²su avadh±raºe”ti.
N±n±nayanipuºanti ekattan±natta-aby±p±ra-eva½dhammat±saªkh±t±, nandiy±vaµµatipukkhalas²havikk²¼ita-aªkusadis±locanasaªkh±t± v± ±dh±r±dibhedavasena n±n±vidh± nay± n±n±nay±. Nay± v± p±¼igatiyo, t± ca paññatti-±divasena sa½kilesabh±giy±dilokiy±ditadubhayavomissakat±divasena kusal±divasena khandh±divasena saªgah±divasena samayavimutt±divasena padh±n±divasena kusalam³l±divasena tikapaµµh±n±divasena ca n±nappak±r±ti n±n±nay±, tehi nipuºa½ saºha½ sukhumanti n±n±nayanipuºa½. ¾sayova ajjh±sayo, te ca sassat±dibhedena tattha ca apparajakkhat±dibhedena ca aneke, attajjh±say±dayo eva v± samuµµh±na½ uppattihetu etass±ti anekajjh±sayasamuµµh±na½. Atthabyañjanasampannanti atthabyañjanaparipuººa½ upanetabb±bh±vato. Saªk±sanapak±sanavivaraºavibhajana-utt±n²karaºapaññattivasena chahi atthapadehi akkharapadabyañjan±k±raniruttiniddesavasena chahi byañjanapadehi ca samann±gatanti v± attho daµµhabbo.
Vividhap±µih±riyanti ettha p±µih±riyapadassa vacanattha½ “paµipakkhaharaºato r±g±dikiles±panayanato ca p±µih±riyan”ti vadanti. Bhagavato pana paµipakkh± r±g±dayo na santi ye haritabb±. Puthujjan±nampi vigat³pakkilese aµµhaguºasamann±gate citte hatapaµipakkhe iddhividha½ pavattati, tasm± tattha pavattavoh±rena ca na sakk± idha “p±µih±riyan”ti vatthu½. Sace pana mah±k±ruºikassa bhagavato veneyyagat± ca kiles± paµipakkh±, tesa½ haraºato “p±µih±riyan”ti vutta½, eva½ sati yuttameta½. Atha v± bhagavato ca s±sanassa ca paµipakkh± titthiy±, tesa½ haraºato p±µih±riya½. Te hi diµµhiharaºavasena ca diµµhippak±sane asamatthabh±vena ca iddhi-±desan±nus±san²hi harit± apan²t± hont²ti. “Paµ²”ti v± aya½ saddo “pacch±”ti etassa attha½ bodheti “tasmi½ paµipaviµµhamhi, añño ±gañchi br±hmaºo”ti-±d²su (su. ni. 985; c³¼ani. p±r±yanavaggo, vatthug±th± 4) viya, tasm± sam±hite citte vigat³pakkilese katakiccena pacch± haritabba½ pavattetabbanti paµih±riya½, attano v± upakkilesesu catutthajjh±namaggehi haritesu pacch± haraºa½ paµih±riya½, iddhi-±desan±nus±saniyo ca vigat³pakkilesena katakiccena ca sattahitattha½ puna pavattetabb±, haritesu ca attano upakkilesesu parasatt±na½ upakkilesaharaº±ni hont²ti paµih±riy±ni bhavanti. Paµih±riyameva p±µih±riya½, paµih±riye v± iddhi-±desan±nus±sanisamud±ye bhava½ ekameka½ p±µih±riyanti vuccati. Paµih±riya½ v± catutthajjh±na½ maggo ca paµipakkhaharaºato, tattha j±ta½, tasmi½ v± nimittabh³te, tato v± ±gatanti p±µih±riya½. Tassa pana iddhi-±dibhedena visayabhedena ca bahuvidhassa bhagavato desan±ya½ labbham±natt± ±ha– “vividhap±µih±riyan”ti.
Na aññath±ti bhagavato sammukh± sut±k±rato na aññath±ti attho, na pana bhagavato desit±k±rato. Acinteyy±nubh±v± hi bhagavato desan±. Evañca katv± “sabbappak±rena ko samattho viññ±tun”ti ida½ vacana½ samatthita½ bhavati, dh±raºabaladassanañca na virujjhati sut±k±r±virujjhanassa adhippetatt±. Na hettha atthantarat±parih±ro dvinna½ atth±na½ ekavisayatt±, itarath± thero bhagavato desan±ya sabbath± paµiggahaºe samattho asamattho c±ti ±pajjeyy±ti.
“Yo paro na hoti, so att±”ti eva½ vutt±ya niyakajjhattasaªkh±t±ya sasantatiya½ vattanato tividhopi me-saddo kiñc±pi ekasmi½yeva atthe dissati, karaºasampad±nas±miniddesavasena pana vijjam±nabheda½ sandh±y±ha– “me-saddo t²su atthesu dissat²”ti.
Kiñc±pi upasaggo kiriya½ viseseti, jotakabh±vato pana satipi tasmi½ suta-saddo eva ta½ tamattha½ vadat²ti anupasaggassa suta-saddassa atthuddh±re sa-upasaggassa gahaºa½ na virujjhat²ti dassento “sa-upasaggo ca anupasaggo c±”ti ±ha. Ass±ti sutasaddassa. Kammabh±vas±dhan±ni idha sutasadde sambhavant²ti vutta½– “upadh±ritanti v± upadh±raºanti v± attho”ti. May±ti atthe sat²ti yad± me-saddassa kattuvasena karaºaniddeso, tad±ti attho. Mam±ti atthe sat²ti yad± sambandhavasena s±miniddeso, tad±.
Sutasaddasanniµµh±ne payuttena eva½-saddena savanakiriy±jotakena bhavitabbanti vutta½– “evanti sotaviññ±º±diviññ±ºakiccanidassanan”ti. ¾di-saddena sampaµicchan±d²na½ sotadv±rikaviññ±º±na½ tadabhin²haµ±nañca manodv±rikaviññ±º±na½ gahaºa½ veditabba½. Sabbesampi v±ky±na½ evak±ratthasahitatt± “sutan”ti etassa sutamev±ti ayamattho labbhat²ti ±ha– “assavanabh±vappaµikkhepato”ti. Etena avadh±raºena niy±mata½ dasseti. Yath± ca suta½ sutamev±ti niy±metabba½, ta½ samm± suta½ hot²ti ±ha– “an³n±dhik±vipar²taggahaºanidassanan”ti. Atha v± saddantaratth±pohanavasena saddo attha½ vadat²ti sutanti assuta½ na hot²ti ayametassa atthoti vutta½– “assavanabh±vappaµikkhepato”ti. Imin± diµµh±divinivattana½ karoti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– na ida½ may± diµµha½, na sayambhuñ±ºena sacchikata½, atha kho suta½, tañca sammadev±ti. Tenev±ha– “an³n±dhik±vipar²taggahaºanidassanan”ti. Avadh±raºatthe v± eva½-sadde ayamatthayojan±– “kar²yat²”ti tadapekkhassa suta-saddassa ayamattho vutto “assavanabh±vappaµikkhepato”ti. Tenev±ha– “an³n±dhik±vipar²taggahaºanidassanan”ti. Savana-saddo cettha kammattho veditabbo “suyyat²”ti.