Puññap±pakammehi upapajjanavasena gantabbato gatiyo, upapattibhavavises±. T± pana niray±divasena pañcavidh±. T±hi sakalassapi bhavag±mikammassa ariyamagg±dhigamena avip±k±rahabh±vakaraºena nivattitatt± bhagav± pañcahipi gat²hi suµµhu mutto visa½yuttoti ±ha– “gativimuttan”ti. Etena bhagavato katthacipi gatiy± apariy±pannata½ dasseti, yato bhagav± “dev±tidevo”ti vuccati. Tenev±ha–
“Yena dev³papatyassa, gandhabbo v± vihaªgamo;
yakkhatta½ yena gaccheyya½, manussattañca abbaje;
te mayha½ ±sav± kh²º±, viddhast± vina¼²kat±”ti. (A. ni. 4.36).
Ta½ta½gatisa½vattanik±nañhi kammakiles±na½ aggamaggena bodhim³leyeva suppah²natt± natthi bhagavato gatipariy±pannat±ti accantameva bhagav± sabbabhavayonigativiññ±ºaµµhitisatt±v±sasattanik±yehi suparimutto, ta½ gativimutta½. Vandeti nam±mi, thomem²ti v± attho.
Atha v± gativimuttanti anup±disesanibb±nadh±tuppattiy± bhagavanta½ thometi. Ettha hi dv²hi ±k±rehi bhagavato thoman± veditabb± attahitasampattito parahitappaµipattito ca. Tesu attahitasampatti an±varaºañ±º±dhigamato sav±san±na½ sabbesa½ kiles±na½ accantappah±nato anup±disesanibb±nappattito ca veditabb±, parahitappaµipatti l±bhasakk±r±dinirapekkhacittassa sabbadukkhaniyy±nikadhammadesanato viruddhesupi nicca½ hitajjh±sayato ñ±ºaparip±kak±l±gamanato ca. S± panettha ±sayato payogato ca duvidh±, parahitappaµipatti tividh± ca, attahitasampatti pak±sit± hoti. Katha½? “Karuº±s²talahadayan”ti etena ±sayato parahitappaµipatti samm±gadanatthena sugatasaddena payogato parahitappaµipatti, “paññ±pajjotavihatamohatama½ gativimuttan”ti etehi catusaccasampaµivedhanatthena ca sugatasaddena tividh±pi attahitasampatti, avasiµµhena “paññ±pajjotavihatamohataman”ti etena c±pi attahitasampatti parahitappaµipatti pak±sit± hot²ti.
Atha v± t²hi ±k±rehi bhagavato thoman± veditabb± hetuto, phalato, upak±rato ca. Tattha hetu mah±karuº±, s± paµhamapadena dassit±. Phala½ catubbidha½ ñ±ºasampad±, pah±nasampad±, ±nubh±vasampad±, r³pak±yasampad± c±ti. T±su ñ±ºappah±nasampad± dutiyapadena saccappaµivedhanatthena ca sugatasaddena pak±sit± honti, ±nubh±vasampad± tatiyapadena, r³pak±yasampad± yath±vuttak±yagamanasobhanatthena sugatasaddena lakkhaº±nubyañjanap±rip³riy± vin± tadabh±vato. Upak±ro anantara½ ab±hira½ karitv± tividhay±namukhena vimuttidhammadesan±. So samm±gadanatthena sugatasaddena pak±sito hot²ti veditabba½.
Tattha “karuº±s²talahadayan”ti etena samm±sambodhiy± m³la½ dasseti. Mah±karuº±sañcoditam±naso hi bhagav± sa½s±rapaªkato satt±na½ samuddharaºattha½ kat±bhin²h±ro anupubbena p±ramiyo p³retv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ adhigatoti karuº± samm±sambodhiy± m³la½. “Paññ±pajjotavihatamohataman”ti etena samm±sambodhi½ dasseti. An±varaºañ±ºapadaµµh±nañhi maggañ±ºa½, maggañ±ºapadaµµh±nañca an±varaºañ±ºa½ “samm±sambodh²”ti vuccat²ti. Samm±gamanatthena sugatasaddena samm±sambodhiy± paµipatti½ dasseti l²nuddhaccapatiµµh±n±y³hanak±masukhallikattakilamath±nuyogasassatucched±bhinives±di-antadvayarahit±ya karuº±paññ±pariggahit±ya majjhim±ya paµipattiy± pak±sanato sugatasaddassa. Itarehi samm±sambodhiy± padh±nappadh±nabheda½ payojana½ dasseti. Sa½s±ramahoghato sattasant±raºañhettha padh±na½ payojana½, tadaññamappadh±na½. Tesu padh±nena parahitappaµipatti½ dasseti, itarena attahitasampatti½. Tadubhayena attahit±ya paµipann±d²su cat³su puggalesu bhagavato catutthapuggalabh±va½ dasseti. Tena ca anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±va½ uttamavandaneyyabh±va½ attano ca vandanakiriy±ya khettaªgatabh±va½ dasseti.
Ettha ca karuº±gahaºena lokiyesu mahaggatabh±vappatt±s±dh±raºaguºad²panato bhagavato sabbalokiyaguºasampatti dassit± hoti, paññ±gahaºena sabbaññutaññ±ºapadaµµh±namaggañ±ºad²panato sabbalokuttaraguºasampatti. Tadubhayaggahaºasiddho hi attho “sanar±maralokagarun”ti-±din± papañc²yat²ti Karuº±gahaºena ca upagamana½ nirupakkilesa½ dasseti, paññ±gahaºena apagamana½. Tath± karuº±gahaºena lokasamaññ±nur³pa½ bhagavato pavatti½ dasseti lokavoh±ravisayatt± karuº±ya, paññ±gahaºena samaññ±ya anatidh±vana½. Sabh±v±navabodhena hi dhamm±na½ samañña½ atidh±vitv± satt±dipar±masana½ hot²ti. Tath± karuº±gahaºena mah±karuº±sam±pattivih±ra½ dasseti, paññ±gahaºena t²su k±lesu appaµihatañ±ºa½ catusaccañ±ºa½, catupaµisambhid±ñ±ºa½, catuves±rajjañ±ºa½. Karuº±gahaºena mah±karuº±sam±pattiñ±ºassa gahitatt± ses±s±dh±raºañ±º±ni, cha abhiññ±, aµµhasu paris±su akampanañ±º±ni, dasa bal±ni, cuddasa buddhañ±º±ni, so¼asa ñ±ºacariy±, aµµh±rasa buddhadhamm±, catucatt±l²sa ñ±ºavatth³ni, sattasattati ñ±ºavatth³n²ti evam±d²na½ anekesa½ paññ±pabhed±na½ vasena ñ±ºac±ra½ dasseti. Tath± karuº±gahaºena caraºasampatti½, paññ±gahaºena vijj±sampatti½. Karuº±gahaºena att±dhipatit±, paññ±gahaºena dhamm±dhipatit±. Karuº±gahaºena lokan±thabh±vo, paññ±gahaºena attan±thabh±vo. Tath± karuº±gahaºena pubbak±ribh±vo, paññ±gahaºena kataññut±. Tath± karuº±gahaºena aparantapat±, paññ±gahaºena anattantapat±. Karuº±gahaºena v± buddhakaradhammasiddhi, paññ±gahaºena buddhabh±vasiddhi. Tath± karuº±gahaºena paresa½ t±raºa½, paññ±gahaºena saya½taraºa½. Tath± karuº±gahaºena sabbasattesu anuggahacittat±, paññ±gahaºena sabbadhammesu virattacittat± dassit± hoti.
Sabbesañca buddhaguº±na½ karuº± ±di tannid±nabh±vato, paññ± pariyos±na½ tato uttarikaraº²y±bh±vato. Iti ±dipariyos±nadassanena sabbe buddhaguº± dassit± honti. Tath± karuº±gahaºena s²lakkhandhapubbaªgamo sam±dhikkhandho dassito hoti. Karuº±nid±nañhi s²la½ tato p±º±tip±t±diviratippavattito, s± ca jh±nattayasampayogin²ti. Paññ±vacanena paññ±kkhandho. S²lañca sabbesa½ buddhaguº±na½ ±di, sam±dhi majjhe, paññ± pariyos±nanti evampi ±dimajjhapariyos±nakaly±º± sabbe buddhaguº± dassit± honti nayato dassitatt±. Eso eva hi niravasesato buddhaguº±na½ dassanup±yo, yadida½ nayaggahaºa½, aññath± ko n±ma samattho bhagavato guºe anupada½ niravasesato dassetu½? Tenev±ha–
“Buddhopi buddhassa bhaºeyya vaººa½,
kappampi ce aññamabh±sam±no;
kh²yetha kappo cirad²ghamantare,
vaººo na kh²yetha tath±gatass±”ti. (D². ni. aµµha. 1.304; 3.141; ma. ni. aµµha. 2.425; ud±. aµµha. 53; bu. va½. aµµha. 4.4; apa. aµµha. 2.7.parappas±dakatthera-apad±navaººan±).
Teneva ca ±yasmat± s±riputtattherenapi buddhaguºaparicchedana½ pati anuyuttena “no heta½, bhante”ti paµikkhipitv± “apica me, bhante, dhammanvayo vidito”ti vutta½.
2. Eva½ saªkhepena sakalasabbaññuguºehi bhagavanta½ abhitthavitv± id±ni saddhamma½ thometu½ “buddhop²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha buddhoti kattuniddeso. Buddhabh±vanti kammaniddeso. Bh±vetv± sacchikatv±ti ca pubbak±lakiriy±niddeso. Yanti aniyamato kammaniddeso. Upagatoti aparak±lakiriy±niddeso. Vandeti kiriy±niddeso. Tanti niyamana½. Dhammanti vandanakiriy±ya kammaniddeso. Gatamala½ anuttaranti ca tabbisesana½.
Tattha buddhasaddassa t±va “bujjhit± sacc±n²ti buddho, bodhet± paj±y±ti buddho”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddeso 97; paµi. ma. 1.162) niddesanayena attho veditabbo. Atha v± sav±san±ya aññ±ºanidd±ya accantavigamato, buddhiy± v± vikasitabh±vato buddhav±ti buddho j±garaºavikasanatthavasena. Atha v± kassacipi ñeyyadhammassa anavabuddhassa abh±vena ñeyyavisesassa kammabh±vena aggahaºato kammavacanicch±ya abh±vena avagamanatthavaseneva kattuniddeso labbhat²ti buddhav±ti buddho yath± “dikkhito na dad±t²”ti. Atthato pana p±ramit±paribh±vito sayambhuñ±ºena saha v±san±ya vihataviddha½sitaniravasesakileso mah±karuº±sabbaññutaññ±º±di-aparimeyyaguºagaº±dh±ro khandhasant±no buddho. Yath±ha–
“Buddhoti yo so bhagav± sayambh³ an±cariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu s±ma½ sacc±ni abhisambujjhi, tattha ca sabbaññuta½ patto balesu ca vas²bh±van”ti (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddeso 97; paµi. ma. 1.161).
Api-saddo sambh±vane. Tena “eva½ guºavisesayutto sopi n±ma bhagav±”ti vakkham±naguºadhamme sambh±vana½ d²peti. Buddhabh±vanti samm±sambodhi½. Bh±vetv±ti upp±detv± va¹¹hetv± ca. Sacchikatv±ti paccakkha½ katv±. Upagatoti patto, adhigatoti attho. Etassa buddhabh±vanti etena sambandho. Gatamalanti vigatamala½, niddosanti attho. Vandeti paºam±mi, thomemi v±. Anuttaranti uttararahita½, lokuttaranti attho. Dhammanti yath±nusiµµha½ paµipajjam±ne ap±yato ca sa½s±rato ca apatam±ne katv± dh±ret²ti dhammo. Ayañhettha saªkhepattho– eva½ vividhaguºagaºasamann±gato buddhopi bhagav± ya½ ariyamaggasaªkh±ta½ dhamma½ bh±vetv±, phalanibb±na½ pana sacchikatv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ adhigato, tameva½ buddh±nampi buddhabh±vahetubh³ta½ sabbadosamalarahita½ attano uttaritar±bh±vena anuttara½ paµivedhasaddhamma½ nam±m²ti. Pariyattisaddhammassapi tappak±sanatt± idha saªgaho daµµhabbo.
Atha v± “abhidhammanayasamudda½ adhigañchi, t²ºi piµak±ni sammas²”ti ca aµµhakath±ya½ vuttatt± pariyattidhammassapi sacchikiriy±sammasanapariy±yo labbhat²ti sopi idha vutto ev±ti daµµhabba½. Tath± “ya½ dhamma½ bh±vetv± sacchikatv±”ti ca vuttatt± buddhakaradhammabh³t±hi p±ramit±hi saha pubbabh±ge adhis²lasikkh±dayopi idha dhammasaddena saªgahit±ti veditabb±. T±pi hi vigatappaµipakkhat±ya gatamal±, anaññas±dh±raºat±ya anuttar± c±ti. Tath± hi satt±na½ sakalavaµµadukkhanissaraº±ya katamah±bhin²h±ro mah±karuº±dhiv±sanapesalajjh±sayo paññ±visesapariyod±tanimmal±na½ d±nadamasaññam±d²na½ uttamadhamm±na½ satasahass±dhik±ni kapp±na½ catt±ri asaªkhyeyy±ni sakkacca½ nirantara½ niravases±na½ bh±van±paccakkhakaraºehi kamm±d²su adhigatavas²bh±vo acchariy±cinteyyamah±nubh±vo adhis²la-adhicitt±na½ paramukka½sap±ramippatto bhagav± paccay±k±re catuv²satikoµisatasahassamukhena mah±vajirañ±ºa½ pesetv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambuddhoti.
Ettha ca “bh±vetv±”ti etena vijj±sampad±ya dhamma½ thometi, “sacchikatv±”ti etena vimuttisampad±ya. Tath± paµhamena jh±nasampad±ya, dutiyena vimokkhasampad±ya. Paµhamena v± sam±dhisampad±ya, dutiyena sam±pattisampad±ya. Atha v± paµhamena khayañ±ºabh±vena, dutiyena anupp±dañ±ºabh±vena. Paµhamena v± vijj³pamat±ya, dutiyena vajir³pamat±ya. Purimena v± vir±gasampattiy±, dutiyena nirodhasampattiy±. Tath± paµhamena niyy±nabh±vena, dutiyena nissaraºabh±vena. Paµhamena v± hetubh±vena, dutiyena asaªkhatabh±vena. Paµhamena v± dassanabh±vena, dutiyena vivekabh±vena. Paµhamena v± adhipatibh±vena, dutiyena amatabh±vena dhamma½ thometi. Atha v± “ya½ dhamma½ bh±vetv± buddhabh±va½ upagato”ti etena sv±kkh±tat±ya dhamma½ thometi, “sacchikatv±”ti etena sandiµµhikat±ya. Tath± purimena ak±likat±ya, pacchimena ehipassikat±ya. Purimena v± opaneyyikat±ya, pacchimena paccatta½ veditabbat±ya dhamma½ thometi. “Gatamalan”ti imin± sa½kiles±bh±vad²panena dhammassa parisuddhata½ dasseti, “anuttaran”ti etena aññassa visiµµhassa abh±vad²panena vipulaparipuººata½. Paµhamena v± pah±nasampada½ dhammassa dasseti, dutiyena pabhavasampada½. Bh±vetabbat±ya v± dhammassa gatamalabh±vo yojetabbo. Bh±van±guºena hi so dos±na½ samuggh±tako hot²ti. Sacchik±tabbabh±vena anuttarabh±vo yojetabbo. Sacchikiriy±nibbattito hi taduttarikaraº²y±bh±vato anaññas±dh±raºat±ya anuttaroti. Tath± “bh±vetv±”ti etena saha pubbabh±gas²l±d²hi sekkh± s²lasam±dhipaññ±kkhandh± dassit± honti. “Sacchikatv±”ti etena saha asaªkhat±ya dh±tuy± asekkh± s²lasam±dhipaññ±kkhandh± dassit± hont²ti.