Nid±navaººan±

1. Ya½ paneta½ “eva½ me sutan”ti-±dika½ nid±na½, tattha evanti nip±tapada½, meti-±d²ni n±mapad±ni. S±vatthiya½ viharat²ti ettha ti upasaggapada½, harat²ti ±khy±tapadanti imin± t±va nayena padavibh±go veditabbo.
Atthato pana eva½saddo t±va upam³padesa-sampaha½sana-garahaºavacana-sampaµiggah±k±ranidassan±vadh±raº±di-anekatthappabhedo. Tath± hesa “eva½ j±tena maccena, kattabba½ kusala½ bahun”ti evam±d²su (dha. pa. 53) upam±ya½ ±gato. “Eva½ te abhikkamitabba½, eva½ te paµikkamitabban”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.122) upadese. “Evameta½ bhagav±, evameta½ sugat±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.66) sampaha½sane. “Evameva½ pan±ya½ vasal² yasmi½ v± tasmi½ v± tassa muº¹akassa samaºakassa vaººa½ bh±sat²”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.187) garahaºe. “Eva½, bhanteti kho te bhikkh³ bhagavato paccassosun”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.1) vacanasampaµiggahe. “Eva½ by±kho aha½, bhante, bhagavat± dhamma½ desita½ ±j±n±m²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.398) ±k±re. “Ehi tva½, m±ºavaka, yena samaºo ±nando tenupasaªkama; upasaªkamitv± mama vacanena samaºa½ ±nanda½ app±b±dha½ app±taªka½ lahuµµh±na½ bala½ ph±suvih±ra½ puccha– ‘subho m±ºavo todeyyaputto bhavanta½ ±nanda½ app±b±dha½…pe… ph±suvih±ra½ pucchat²’ti, evañca vadehi “s±dhu kira bhava½ ±nando yena subhassa m±ºavassa todeyyaputtassa nivesana½, tenupasaªkamatu anukampa½ up±d±y±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.445) nidassane. “Ta½ ki½ maññatha, k±l±m±, ime dhamm± kusal± v± akusal± v±ti? Akusal±, bhante. S±vajj± v± anavajj± v±ti? S±vajj±, bhante. Viññugarahit± v± viññuppasatth± v±ti? Viññugarahit±, bhante. Samatt± sam±dinn± ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattanti no v±, katha½ vo ettha hot²ti? Samatt±, bhante, sam±dinn± ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattanti, eva½ no ettha hot²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.66) avadh±raºe. Sv±yamidha ±k±ranidassan±vadh±raºesu daµµhabbo.
Tattha ±k±ratthena eva½saddena etamattha½ d²peti– n±n±nayanipuºa½ anekajjh±sayasamuµµh±na½ atthabyañjanasampanna½ vividhap±µih±riya½ dhammatthadesan±paµivedhagambh²ra½ sabbasatt±na½ sakasakabh±s±nur³pato sotapatham±gacchanta½ tassa bhagavato vacana½ sabbappak±rena ko samattho viññ±tu½, sabbath±mena pana sotuk±mata½ janetv±pi eva½ me suta½, may±pi eken±k±rena sutanti.
Nidassanatthena “n±ha½ sayambh³, na may± ida½ sacchikatan”ti att±na½ parimocento “eva½ me suta½, may±pi eva½ sutan”ti id±ni vattabba½ sakala½ sutta½ nidasseti.
Avadh±raºatthena “etadagga½, bhikkhave, mama s±vak±na½ bhikkh³na½ bahussut±na½ yadida½ ±nando, satimant±na½, gatimant±na½, dhitimant±na½, upaµµh±k±na½ yadida½ ±nando”ti (a. ni. 1.219, 223) eva½ bhagavat± “±yasm± ±nando atthakusalo dhammakusalo byañjanakusalo niruttikusalo pubb±parakusalo”ti (a. ni. 5.169) eva½ dhammasen±patin± ca pasatthabh±v±nur³pa½ attano dh±raºabala½ dassento satt±na½ sotuk±mata½ janeti “eva½ me suta½, tañca kho atthato v± byañjanato v± an³namanadhika½, evameva, na aññath± daµµhabban”ti.
Mesaddo t²su atthesu dissati. Tath± hissa “g±th±bhig²ta½ me abhojaneyyan”ti-±d²su (su. ni. 81; sa½. ni. 1.194) may±ti attho. “S±dhu me, bhante, bhagav± sa½khittena dhamma½ deset³”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.88) mayhanti attho. “Dhammad±y±d± me, bhikkhave, bhavath±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.29) mam±ti attho. Idha pana “may± sutan”ti ca, “mama sutan”ti ca atthadvaye yujjati.
Sutanti aya½ sutasaddo sa-upasaggo ca anupasaggo ca gamana-vissuta-kilinna-upacit±nuyoga-sotaviññeyya-sotadv±r±nus±raviññ±t±di-anekatthappabhedo. Tath± hissa– “sen±ya pasuto”ti-±d²su gacchantoti attho. “Sutadhammassa passato”ti-±d²su (ud±. 11) vissutadhammass±ti attho. “Avassut± avassutass±”ti-±d²su (p±ci. 657) kilinn±kilinnass±ti attho. “Tumhehi puñña½ pasuta½ anappakan”ti-±d²su (khu. p±. 7-12) upacitanti attho. “Ye jh±nappasut± dh²r±”ti-±d²su (dha. pa. 181) jh±n±nuyutt±ti attho. “Diµµha½ suta½ mutan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.241) sotaviññeyyanti attho. “Sutadharo sutasannicayo”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.339) sotadv±r±nus±raviññ±tadharoti attho. Idha panassa sotadv±r±nus±rena upadh±ritanti v± upadh±raºanti v±ti attho. Me-saddassa hi may±ti atthe sati “eva½ may± suta½ sotadv±r±nus±rena upadh±ritan”ti yujjati. Mam±ti atthe sati “eva½ mama suta½ sotadv±r±nus±rena upadh±raºan”ti yujjati.
Evametesu t²su padesu evanti sotaviññ±º±diviññ±ºakiccanidassana½. Meti vuttaviññ±ºasamaªgipuggalanidassana½. Sutanti assavanabh±vapaµikkhepato an³n±dhik±vipar²taggahaºanidassana½. Tath± evanti tass± sotadv±r±nus±rena pavatt±ya viññ±ºav²thiy± n±nappak±rena ±rammaºe pavattabh±vappak±sana½. Meti attappak±sana½. Sutanti dhammappak±sana½. Ayañhettha saªkhepo– “n±nappak±rena ±rammaºe pavatt±ya viññ±ºav²thiy± may± na añña½ kata½, ida½ pana kata½, aya½ dhammo suto”ti.
Tath± evanti niddisitabbappak±sana½. Meti puggalappak±sana½. Sutanti puggalakiccappak±sana½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– ya½ sutta½ niddisiss±mi, ta½ may± eva½ sutanti.
Tath± evanti yassa cittasant±nassa n±n±k±rappavattiy± n±natthabyañjanaggahaºa½ hoti, tassa n±n±k±raniddeso. Evanti hi aya½ ±k±rapaññatti. Meti kattuniddeso. Sutanti visayaniddeso. Ett±vat± n±n±k±rappavattena cittasant±nena ta½samaªgino kattu visaye gahaºasanniµµh±na½ kata½ hoti.
Atha v± evanti puggalakiccaniddeso. Sutanti viññ±ºakiccaniddeso. Meti ubhayakiccayuttapuggalaniddeso. Aya½ panettha saªkhepo– may± savanakiccaviññ±ºasamaªgin± puggalena viññ±ºavasena laddhasavanakiccavoh±rena sutanti.
Tattha evanti ca meti ca saccikaµµhaparamatthavasena avijjam±napaññatti. Kiñhettha ta½ paramatthato atthi, ya½ evanti v± meti v± niddesa½ labhetha. Sutanti vijjam±napaññatti. Yañhi ta½ ettha sotena upaladdha½, ta½ paramatthato vijjam±nanti. Tath± evanti ca meti ca ta½ ta½ up±d±ya vattabbato up±d±paññatti. Sutanti diµµh±d²ni upanidh±ya vattabbato upanidh±paññatti.
Ettha ca evanti vacanena asammoha½ d²peti. Na hi samm³¼ho n±nappak±rapaµivedhasamattho hoti. Sutanti vacanena sutassa asammosa½ d²peti. Yassa hi suta½ sammuµµha½ hoti, na so k±lantarena may± sutanti paµij±n±ti. Iccassa asammohena paññ±siddhi, asammosena pana satisiddhi. Tattha paññ±pubbaªgam±ya satiy± byañjan±vadh±raºasamatthat±, satipubbaªgam±ya paññ±ya atthapaµivedhasamatthat±. Tadubhayasamatthat±yogena atthabyañjanasampannassa dhammakosassa anup±lanasamatthato dhammabhaº¹±g±rikattasiddhi.
Aparo nayo– evanti vacanena yoniso manasik±ra½ d²peti, ayoniso manasikaroto hi n±nappak±rapaµivedh±bh±vato. Sutanti vacanena avikkhepa½ d²peti, vikkhittacittassa savan±bh±vato. Tath± hi vikkhittacitto puggalo sabbasampattiy± vuccam±nopi “na may± suta½ puna bhaºath±”ti bhaºati. Yoniso manasik±rena cettha attasamm±paºidhi½ pubbe ca katapuññata½ s±dheti samm± appaºihitattassa pubbe akatapuññassa v± tadabh±vato. Tath± avikkhepena saddhammassavana½ sappuris³panissayañca s±dheti. Na hi vikkhittacitto sotu½ sakkoti, na ca sappurise anupassayam±nassa savana½ atth²ti.
Aparo nayo– yasm± “evanti yassa cittasant±nassa n±n±k±rappavattiy± n±natthabyañjanaggahaºa½ hoti, tassa n±n±k±raniddeso”ti vutta½. So ca eva½ bhaddako ±k±ro na samm± appaºihitattano pubbe akatapuññassa v± hoti, tasm± evanti imin± bhaddaken±k±rena pacchimacakkadvayasampattimattano d²peti. Sutanti savanayogena purimacakkadvayasampatti½. Na hi appatir³padese vasato sappuris³panissayavirahitassa v± savana½ atthi. Iccassa pacchimacakkadvayasiddhiy± ±sayasuddhi siddh± hoti, purimacakkadvayasiddhiy± payogasuddhi. T±ya ca ±sayasuddhiy± adhigamabyattisiddhi, payogasuddhiy± ±gamabyattisiddhi. Iti payog±sayasuddhassa ±gam±dhigamasampannassa vacana½ aruºugga½ viya s³riyassa udayato, yoniso manasik±ro viya ca kusalakammassa, arahati bhagavato vacanassa pubbaªgama½ bhavitunti µh±ne nid±na½ µhapento eva½ me sutanti-±dim±ha.
Aparo nayo– evanti imin± n±nappak±rapaµivedhad²pakena vacanena attano atthapaµibh±napaµisambhid±sampattisabbh±va½ d²peti. Sutanti imin± sotabbabhedapaµivedhad²pakena vacanena dhammaniruttipaµisambhid±sampattisabbh±va½. Evanti ca ida½ yoniso manasik±rad²pakavacana½ bh±sam±no “ete may± dhamm± manas± anupekkhit± diµµhiy± suppaµividdh±”ti d²peti. Sutanti ida½ savanayogad²pakavacana½ bh±sam±no “bah³ may± dhamm± sut± dh±t± vacas± paricit±”ti d²peti. Tadubhayenapi atthabyañjanap±rip³ri½ d²pento savane ±dara½ janeti. Atthabyañjanaparipuººa½ hi dhamma½ ±darena assuºanto mahat± hit± parib±hiro hot²ti ±dara½ janetv± sakkacca½ dhammo sotabboti.
Eva½ me sutanti imin± pana sakalena vacanena ±yasm± ±nando tath±gatappavedita½ dhamma½ attano adahanto asappurisabh³mi½ atikkamati, s±vakatta½ paµij±nanto sappurisabh³mi½ okkamati. Tath± asaddhamm± citta½ vuµµh±peti, saddhamme citta½ patiµµh±peti. “Kevala½ sutameveta½ may± tasseva pana bhagavato vacanan”ti d²pento att±na½ parimoceti satth±ra½ apadisati, jinavacana½ appeti, dhammanetti½ patiµµh±peti.
Apica “eva½ me sutan”ti attan± upp±ditabh±va½ appaµij±nanto purimavacana½ vivaranto “sammukh± paµiggahitamida½ may± tassa bhagavato catuves±rajjavis±radassa dasabaladharassa ±sabhaµµh±naµµh±yino s²han±dan±dino sabbasattuttamassa dhammissarassa dhammar±jassa dhamm±dhipatino dhammad²passa dhammasaraºassa saddhammavaracakkavattino samm±sambuddhassa vacana½, na ettha atthe v± dhamme v± pade v± byañjane v± kaªkh± v± vimati v± kattabb±”ti sabbadevamanuss±na½ imasmi½ dhamme assaddhiya½ vin±seti, saddh±sampada½ upp±deti. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Vin±sayati assaddha½, saddha½ va¹¹heti s±sane;
eva½ me sutamicceva½, vada½ gotamas±vako”ti.
Ekanti gaºanaparicchedaniddeso. Samayanti paricchinnaniddeso. Eka½ samayanti aniyamitaparid²pana½. Tattha samayasaddo–
“Samav±ye khaºe k±le, sam³he hetudiµµhisu;
paµil±bhe pah±ne ca, paµivedhe ca dissati”.