2. ¾h±ravaggo

1. ¾h±rasuttavaººan±

11. ¾h±ravaggassa paµhame ±h±r±ti paccay±. Paccay± hi ±haranti attano phala½, tasm± ±h±r±ti vuccanti. Bh³t±na½ v± satt±nanti-±d²su bh³t±ti j±t± nibbatt±. Sambhavesinoti ye sambhava½ j±ti½ nibbatti½ esanti gavesanti. Tattha cat³su yon²su aº¹ajajal±buj± satt± y±va aº¹akosa½ vatthikosañca na bhindanti, t±va sambhavesino n±ma, aº¹akosa½ vatthikosañca bhinditv± bahi nikkhant± bh³t± n±ma. Sa½sedaj± opap±tik± ca paµhamacittakkhaºe sambhavesino n±ma, dutiyacittakkhaºato pabhuti bh³t± n±ma. Yena v± iriy±pathena j±yanti, y±va tato añña½ na p±puºanti, t±va sambhavesino n±ma, tato para½ bh³t± n±ma. Atha v± bh³t±ti j±t± abhinibbatt±, ye bh³t± abhinibbatt±yeva, na puna bhavissant²ti saªkha½ gacchanti, tesa½ kh²º±sav±na½ eta½ adhivacana½. Sambhavamesant²ti sambhavesino. Appah²nabhavasa½yojanatt± ±yatimpi sambhava½ esant±na½ sekkhaputhujjan±nameta½ adhivacana½. Eva½ sabbath±pi imehi dv²hi padehi sabbasatte pariy±diyati. saddo cettha sampiº¹anattho, tasm± bh³t±nañca sambhaves²nañc±ti ayamattho veditabbo.
Ýhitiy±ti µhitattha½. Anuggah±y±ti anuggahattha½. Vacanabhedoyeva cesa, attho pana dvinnampi pad±na½ ekoyeva. Atha v± µhitiy±ti tassa tassa sattassa uppannadhamm±na½ anuppabandhavasena avicched±ya. Anuggah±y±ti anuppann±na½ upp±d±ya. Ubhopi cet±ni “bh³t±na½ v± µhitiy± ceva anuggah±ya ca, sambhaves²na½ v± µhitiy± ceva anuggah±ya c±”ti eva½ ubhayattha daµµhabb±n²ti.
Kaba¼²k±ro ±h±roti kaba¼a½ katv± ajjhoharitabbako ±h±ro, odanakumm±s±divatthuk±ya oj±yeta½ adhivacana½. O¼±riko v± sukhumo v±ti vatthu-o¼±rikat±ya o¼±riko, sukhumat±ya sukhumo. Sabh±vena pana sukhumar³papariy±pannatt± kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro sukhumova hoti. S±pi cassa vatthuto o¼±rikat± sukhumat± ca up±d±yup±d±ya veditabb±. Kumbh²l±nañhi ±h±ra½ up±d±ya mor±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Kumbh²l± kira p±s±ºe gilanti, te ca nesa½ kucchippatt± vil²yanti. Mor± sappavicchik±dip±ºe kh±danti. Mor±na½ pana ±h±ra½ up±d±ya taracch±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Te kira tivassacha¹¹it±ni vis±º±ni ceva aµµh²ni ca kh±danti, t±ni ca nesa½ khe¼ena temitamatt±neva kandam³la½ viya muduk±ni honti. Taracch±na½ ±h±ra½ up±d±ya hatth²na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Te hi n±n±rukkhas±kh±dayo kh±danti. Hatth²na½ ±h±rato gavayagokaººamig±d²na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Te kira niss±r±ni n±n±rukkhapaºº±d²ni kh±danti. Tesampi ±h±rato gunna½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Te allasukkhatiº±ni kh±danti. Tesa½ ±h±rato sas±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Sas±na½ ±h±rato sakuº±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Sakuº±na½ ±h±rato paccantav±s²na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Paccantav±s²na½ ±h±rato g±mabhojak±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. G±mabhojak±na½ ±h±rato r±jar±jamah±matt±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Tesampi ±h±rato cakkavattino ±h±ro sukhumo. Cakkavattino ±h±rato bhumm±na½ dev±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo. Bhumm±na½ dev±na½ ±h±rato c±tumah±r±jik±na½. Eva½ y±va paranimmitavasavatt²na½ ±h±r± vitth±retabb±. Tesa½ pan±h±ro sukhumotveva niµµha½ patto.
Ettha ca o¼±rike vatthusmi½ oj± paritt± hoti dubbal±, sukhume balavat². Tath± hi ekapattap³rampi y±gu½ p²to muhutteneva jighacchito hoti ya½kiñcideva kh±dituk±mo, sappi½ pana pasatamatta½ pivitv± divasa½ abhottuk±mo hoti. Tattha vatthu kammajatejasaªkh±ta½ parissaya½ vinodeti, na pana sakkoti p±letu½. Oj± pana p±leti, na sakkoti parissaya½ vinodetu½. Dve pana ekato hutv± parissayañceva vinodenti p±lenti c±ti.
Phasso dutiyoti cakkhusamphass±di chabbidhopi phasso etesu cat³su ±h±resu dutiyo ±h±roti veditabbo. Desan±nayo eva cesa, tasm± imin± n±ma k±raºena dutiyo tatiyo c±ti idamettha na gavesitabba½. Manosañcetan±ti cetan±va vuccati. Viññ±ºanti citta½. Iti bhagav± imasmi½ µh±ne up±diººaka-anup±diººakavasena ekar±si½ katv± catt±ro ±h±re dassesi. Kaba¼²k±r±h±ro hi up±diººakopi atthi anup±diººakopi, tath± phass±dayo. Tattha sapp±d²hi gilit±na½ maº¹³k±d²na½ vasena up±diººakakaba¼²k±r±h±ro daµµhabbo. Maº¹³k±dayo hi sapp±d²hi gilit± antokucchigat±pi kiñci k±la½ j²vantiyeva. Te y±va up±diººakapakkhe tiµµhanti, t±va ±h±rattha½ na s±dhenti Bhijjitv± pana anup±diººakapakkhe µhit± s±dhenti. Tad±pi up±diººak±h±roti vuccant²ti. Ida½ pana ±cariy±na½ na ruccat²ti aµµhakath±yameva paµikkhipitv± ida½ vutta½– imesa½ satt±na½ kh±dant±nampi akh±dant±nampi bhuñjant±nampi abhuñjant±nampi paµisandhicitteneva sahaj±t± kammaj± oj± n±ma atthi, s± y±vapi sattam± divas± p±leti, ayameva up±diººakakaba¼²k±r±h±roti veditabbo. Tebh³makavip±kavasena pana up±diººakaphass±dayo veditabb±, tebh³makakusal±kusalakiriyavasena anup±diººak±. Lokuttar± pana ru¼h²vasena kathit±ti.
Etth±ha– “yadi paccayaµµho ±h±raµµho, atha kasm± aññesupi satt±na½ paccayesu vijjam±nesu imeyeva catt±ro vutt±”ti? Vuccate– ajjhattikasantatiy± visesapaccayatt±. Visesapaccayo hi kaba¼²k±r±h±rabhakkh±na½ satt±na½ r³pak±yassa kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro, n±mak±ye vedan±ya phasso, viññ±ºassa manosañcetan±, n±mar³passa viññ±ºa½. Yath±ha– “seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, aya½ k±yo ±h±raµµhitiko ±h±ra½ paµicca tiµµhati, an±h±ro no tiµµhati (sa½. ni. 5.183), tath± phassapaccay± vedan±, saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºa½, viññ±ºapaccay± n±mar³pan”ti (sa½. ni. 2.1; vibha. 225).
Ko panettha ±h±ro ki½ ±harat²ti? Kaba¼²k±r±h±ro ojaµµhamakar³p±ni ±harati phass±h±ro tisso vedan±, manosañcetan±h±ro tayo bhave, viññ±º±h±ro paµisandhin±mar³panti.
Katha½? Kaba¼²k±r±h±ro t±va mukhe µhapitamatteyeva aµµha r³p±ni samuµµh±peti, dantavicuººita½ pana ajjhohariyam±na½ ekeka½ sittha½ aµµhaµµhar³p±ni samuµµh±petiyeva. Eva½ kaba¼²k±r±h±ro ojaµµhamakar³p±ni ±harati. Phass±h±ro pana sukhavedan²yo phasso uppajjam±noyeva sukha½ vedana½ ±harati, dukkhavedan²yo dukkha½, adukkhamasukhavedan²yo adukkhamasukhanti eva½ sabbath±pi phass±h±ro tisso vedan± ±harati.
Manosañcetan±h±ro k±mabhav³paga½ kamma½ k±mabhava½ ±harati, r³p±r³pabhav³pag±ni ta½ ta½ bhava½. Eva½ sabbath±pi manosañcetan±h±ro tayo bhave ±harati. Viññ±º±h±ro pana ye ca paµisandhikkhaºe ta½sampayuttak± tayo khandh±, y±ni ca tisantativasena ti½sa r³p±ni uppajjanti, sahaj±t±dipaccayanayena t±ni ±harat²ti vuccati. Eva½ viññ±º±h±ro paµisandhin±mar³pa½ ±harat²ti. Ettha ca “manosañcetan± tayo bhave ±harat²”ti s±savakusal±kusalacetan±va vutt±. “Viññ±ºa½ paµisandhin±mar³pa½ ±harat²”ti paµisandhiviññ±ºameva vutta½. Avisesena pana ta½sampayuttata½samuµµh±nadhamm±na½ ±haraºatopete “±h±r±”ti veditabb±.
Etesu cat³su ±h±resu kaba¼²k±r±h±ro upatthambhento ±h±rakicca½ s±dheti, phasso phusantoyeva manosañcetan± ±y³ham±n±va, viññ±ºa½ vij±nantameva. Katha½? Kaba¼²k±r±h±ro hi upatthambhentoyeva k±yaµµhapanena satt±na½ µhitiy± hoti. Kammajanitopi hi aya½ k±yo kaba¼²k±r±h±rena upatthaddho dasapi vass±ni vassasatampi y±va ±yuparim±º± tiµµhati. Yath± ki½ Yath± m±tuy± janitopi d±rako dh±tiy± thaññ±d²ni p±yetv± posiyam±no cira½ tiµµhati, yath± ca upatthambhena upatthambhita½ geha½. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Yath±, mah±r±ja, gehe papatante aññena d±run± upatthambhita½ santa½ eva ta½ geha½ na patati. Evameva kho, mah±r±ja, aya½ k±yo ±h±raµµhitiko ±h±ra½ paµicca tiµµhat²”ti.

Eva½ kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro upatthambhento ±h±rakicca½ s±dheti.

Eva½ s±dhentopi ca kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro dvinna½ r³pasantat²na½ paccayo hoti ±h±rasamuµµh±nassa ca up±diººakassa ca. Kammaj±na½ anup±lako hutv± paccayo hoti, ±h±rasamuµµh±n±na½ janako hutv±ti. Phasso pana sukh±divatthubh³ta½ ±rammaºa½ phusantoyeva sukh±divedan±pavattanena satt±na½ µhitiy± hoti. Manosañcetan± kusal±kusalakammavasena ±y³ham±n±yeva bhavam³lanipph±danato satt±na½ µhitiy± hoti. Viññ±ºa½ vij±nantameva n±mar³pappavattanena satt±na½ µhitiy± hot²ti.
Eva½ upatthambhan±divasena ±h±rakicca½ s±dhayam±nesu panetesu catt±ri bhay±ni daµµhabb±ni. Seyyathida½– kaba¼²k±r±h±re nikantiyeva bhaya½, phasse upagamanameva, manosañcetan±ya ±y³hanameva, viññ±ºe abhinip±toyeva bhayanti. Ki½ k±raº±? Kaba¼²k±r±h±re hi nikanti½ katv± s²t±d²na½ purakkhat± satt± ±h±ratth±ya mudd±gaºan±dikamm±ni karont± anappaka½ dukkha½ nigacchanti. Ekacce ca imasmi½ s±sane pabbajitv±pi vejjakamm±dik±ya anesan±ya ±h±ra½ pariyesant± diµµheva dhamme g±rayh± honti, sampar±yepi, “tassa saªgh±µipi ±ditt± sampajjalit±”ti-±din± lakkhaºasa½yutte (sa½. ni. 2.218) vuttanayena samaºapet± honti. Imin± t±va k±raºena kaba¼²k±re ±h±re nikanti eva bhayanti veditabb±.
Phassa½ upagacchant±pi phassass±dino paresa½ rakkhitagopitesu d±r±d²su bhaº¹esu aparajjhanti, te saha bhaº¹ena bhaº¹as±mik± gahetv± khaº¹±khaº¹ika½ v± chinditv± saªk±rak³µe cha¹¹enti rañño v± niyy±denti. Tato te r±j± vividh± kammak±raº± k±r±peti. K±yassa ca bhed± duggati tesa½ p±µikaªkh± hoti. Iti phassass±dam³laka½ diµµhadhammikampi sampar±yikampi bhaya½ sabbam±gatameva hoti. Imin± k±raºena phass±h±re upagamanameva bhayanti veditabba½.
Kusal±kusalakamm±y³hane pana tamm³laka½ t²su bhavesu bhaya½ sabba½ ±gatameva hoti. Imin± k±raºena manosañcetan±h±re ±y³hanameva bhayanti veditabba½.
Paµisandhiviññ±ºañca yasmi½ yasmi½ µh±ne abhinipatati, tasmi½ tasmi½ µh±ne paµisandhin±mar³pa½ gahetv±va nibbattati. Tasmiñca nibbatte sabbabhay±ni nibbatt±niyeva honti tamm³lakatt±ti imin± k±raºena viññ±º±h±re abhinip±toyeva bhayanti veditabboti.
Ki½nid±n±ti-±d²su nid±n±d²ni sabb±neva k±raºavevacan±ni. K±raºañhi yasm± phala½ nideti, “handa na½ gaºhath±”ti appeti viya, tasm± nid±nanti vuccati. Yasm± ta½ tato samudeti j±yati pabhavati, tasm± samudayo j±ti pabhavoti vuccati. Aya½ panettha padattho– ki½nid±na½ etesanti ki½nid±n±. Ko samudayo etesanti ki½samuday±. K± j±ti etesanti ki½j±tik±. Ko pabhavo etesanti ki½pabhav±. Yasm± pana tesa½ taºh± yath±vuttena atthena nid±nañceva samudayo ca j±ti ca pabhavo ca, tasm± “taºh±nid±n±”ti-±dim±ha. Eva½ sabbapadesu attho veditabbo.
Ettha ca ime catt±ro ±h±r± taºh±nid±n±ti paµisandhi½ ±di½ katv± attabh±vasaªkh±t±na½ ±h±r±na½ purimataºh±na½ vasena nid±na½ veditabba½. Katha½? Paµisandhikkhaºe t±va paripuºº±yatan±na½ satt±na½ sattasantativasena, ses±na½ tato ³na-³nasantativasena uppannar³pabbhantara½ j±t± oj± atthi, aya½ taºh±nid±no up±diººakakaba¼²k±r±h±ro. Paµisandhicittasampayutt± pana phassacetan± sayañca citta½ viññ±ºanti ime taºh±nid±n± up±diººaka-phassamanosañcetan±-viññ±º±h±r±ti eva½ t±va purimataºh±nid±n± paµisandhik± ±h±r±. Yath± ca paµisandhik±, eva½ tato para½ paµhamabhavaªgacittakkhaº±dinibbatt±pi veditabb±.
Yasm± pana bhagav± na kevala½ ±h±r±nameva nid±na½ j±n±ti, ±h±ranid±nabh³t±ya taºh±yapi, taºh±ya nid±n±na½ vedan±d²nampi nid±na½ j±n±tiyeva, tasm± taºh± c±ya½, bhikkhave, ki½nid±n±ti-±din± nayena vaµµa½ dassetv± vivaµµa½ dassesi. Imasmiñca pana µh±ne bhagav± at²t±bhimukha½ desana½ katv± at²tena vaµµa½ dasseti. Katha½? ¾h±ravasena hi aya½ attabh±vo gahito.
Taºh±ti imassattabh±vassa janaka½ kamma½, vedan±phassasa¼±yatanan±mar³paviññ±º±ni yasmi½ attabh±ve µhatv± kamma½ ±y³hita½, ta½ dassetu½ vutt±ni, avijj±saªkh±r± tassattabh±vassa janaka½ kamma½. Iti dv²su µh±nesu attabh±vo, dv²su tassa janaka½ kammanti saªkhepena kammañceva kammavip±kañc±ti, dvepi dhamme dassentena at²t±bhimukha½ desana½ katv± at²tena vaµµa½ dassita½.
Tatr±ya½ desan± an±gatassa adassitatt± aparipuºº±ti na daµµhabb±. Nayato pana paripuºº±tveva daµµhabb±. Yath± hi cakkhum± puriso udakapiµµhe nipanna½ su½sum±ra½ disv± tassa parabh±ga½ olokento g²va½ passeyya, orato piµµhi½, pariyos±ne naªguµµham³la½, heµµh± kucchi½ olokento pana udakagata½ agganaªguµµhañceva catt±ro ca hatthap±de na passeyya, so na ett±vat± “aparipuººo su½sum±ro”ti gaºh±ti, nayato pana paripuººotveva gaºh±ti, eva½sampadamida½ veditabba½.
Udakapiµµhe nipannasu½sum±ro viya hi tebh³makavaµµa½. T²re µhito cakkhum± puriso viya yog±vacaro. Tena purisena udakapiµµhe su½sum±rassa diµµhak±lo viya yogin± ±h±ravasena imassattabh±vassa diµµhak±lo. Parato g²v±ya diµµhak±lo viya imassattabh±vassa janik±ya taºh±ya diµµhak±lo. Piµµhiy± diµµhak±lo viya yasmi½ attabh±ve taºh±saªkh±ta½ kamma½ kata½, vedan±divasena tassa diµµhak±lo. Naªguµµham³lassa diµµhak±lo viya tassattabh±vassa janak±na½ avijj±saªkh±r±na½ diµµhak±lo. Heµµh± kucchi½ olokentassa pana agganaªguµµhañceva catt±ro ca hatthap±de adisv±pi “aparipuººo su½sum±ro”ti agahetv± nayato paripuººotveva gahaºa½ viya yattha yattha paccayavaµµa½ p±¼iya½ na ±gata½, tattha tattha “desan± aparipuºº±”ti agahetv± nayato paripuºº±tveva gahaºa½ veditabba½. Tattha ca ±h±rataºh±na½ antare eko sandhi, taºh±vedan±na½ antare eko, viññ±ºasaªkh±r±na½ antare ekoti eva½ tisandhicatusaªkhepameva vaµµa½ dassitanti. Paµhama½.