3. Dasabalavaggo

1. Dasabalasuttavaººan±

21. Dasabalavaggassa paµhama½ dutiyasseva saªkhepo.

2. Dutiyadasabalasuttavaººan±

22. Dutiya½ bhagavat± attano ajjh±sayassa vasena vutta½. Tattha dasabalasamann±gatoti dasahi balehi samann±gato. Balañca n±meta½ duvidha½ k±yabalañca ñ±ºabalañca. Tesu tath±gatassa k±yabala½ hatthikul±nus±rena veditabba½. Vuttañheta½ por±ºehi–
“K±¼±vakañca gaªgeyya½, paº¹ara½ tambapiªgala½;
gandhamaªgalahemañca, uposathachaddantime das±”ti.(Ma. ni. aµµha. 1.148; vibha. aµµha. 760).–

Im±ni dasa hatthikul±ni. Tattha k±¼±vakanti pakatihatthikula½ daµµhabba½. Ya½ dasanna½ puris±na½ k±yabala½, ta½ ekassa k±¼±vakassa hatthino. Ya½ dasanna½ k±¼±vak±na½ bala½, ta½ ekassa gaªgeyyassa. Ya½ dasanna½ gaªgeyy±na½, ta½ ekassa paº¹arassa. Ya½ dasanna½ paº¹ar±na½, ta½ ekassa tambassa. Ya½ dasanna½ tamb±na½, ta½ ekassa piªgalassa. Ya½ dasanna½ piªgal±na½, ta½ ekassa gandhahatthino. Ya½ dasanna½ gandhahatth²na½, ta½ ekassa maªgalassa. Ya½ dasanna½ maªgal±na½, ta½ ekassa hemavatassa. Ya½ dasanna½ hemavat±na½, ta½ ekassa uposathassa. Ya½ dasanna½ uposath±na½, ta½ ekassa chaddantassa. Ya½ dasanna½ chaddant±na½, ta½ ekassa tath±gatassa. N±r±yanasaªgh±tabalantipi idameva vuccati. Tadeta½ pakatihatthigaºan±ya hatth²na½ koµisahass±na½, purisagaºan±ya dasanna½ purisakoµisahass±na½ bala½ hoti. Ida½ t±va tath±gatassa k±yabala½. “Dasabalasamann±gato”ti ettha pana eta½ saªgaha½ na gacchati. Etañhi b±hiraka½ l±maka½ tiracch±nagat±na½ s²h±d²nampi hoti. Etañhi niss±ya dukkhapariññ± v± samudayappah±na½ v± maggabh±van± v± phalasacchikiriy± v± natthi. Añña½ pana dasasu µh±nesu akampanatthena upatthambhanatthena ca dasavidha½ ñ±ºabala½ n±ma atthi. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½ “dasabalasamann±gato”ti.

Katama½ pana tanti? Ýh±n±µµh±n±d²na½ yath±bh³ta½ j±nana½. Seyyathida½– µh±nañca µh±nato aµµh±nañca aµµh±nato j±nana½ eka½, at²t±n±gatapaccuppann±na½ kammasam±d±n±na½ µh±naso hetuso yath±bh³ta½ vip±kaj±nana½ eka½, sabbatthag±minipaµipad±j±nana½ eka½, anekadh±tun±n±dh±tulokaj±nana½ eka½, parasatt±na½ parapuggal±na½ n±n±dhimuttikat±j±nana½ eka½, tesa½yeva indriyaparopariyattaj±nana½ eka½, jh±navimokkhasam±dhisam±patt²na½ sa½kilesavod±navuµµh±naj±nana½ eka½, pubbeniv±saj±nana½ eka½, satt±na½ cut³pap±taj±nana½ eka½, ±savakkhayaj±nana½ ekanti. Abhidhamme pana–
“Idha tath±gato µh±nañca µh±nato aµµh±nañca aµµh±nato yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti. Yampi tath±gato µh±nañca µh±nato aµµh±nañca aµµh±nato yath±bh³ta½ paj±n±ti. Idampi tath±gatassa tath±gatabala½ hoti, ya½ bala½ ±gamma tath±gato ±sabha½ µh±na½ paµij±n±ti paris±su s²han±da½ nadati, brahmacakka½ pavattet²”ti.

¾din± (vibha. 760) nayena vitth±rato ±gat±neva. Atthavaººan±pi nesa½ vibhaªgaµµhakath±yañceva (vibha. aµµha. 760) papañcas³daniy± ca majjhimaµµhakath±ya (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.148) sabb±k±rato vutt±. S± tattha vuttanayeneva gahetabb±.

Cat³hi ca ves±rajjeh²ti ettha s±rajjapaµipakkha½ ves±rajja½, cat³su µh±nesu ves±rajjabh±va½ paccavekkhantassa uppannasomanassamayañ±ºasseta½ n±ma½. Katamesu cat³su? “Samm±sambuddhassa te paµij±nato ime dhamm± anabhisambuddh±”ti-±d²su codan±vatth³su. Tatr±ya½ p±¼i–
“Catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, tath±gatassa ves±rajj±ni…pe…. Katam±ni catt±ri? ‘Samm±sambuddhassa te paµij±nato ime dhamm± anabhisambuddh±’ti tatra vata ma½ samaºo v± br±hmaºo v± devo v± m±ro v± brahm± v± koci v± lokasmi½ saha dhammena paµicodessat²ti nimittameta½, bhikkhave, na samanupass±mi. Etamaha½, bhikkhave, nimitta½ asamanupassanto khemappatto abhayappatto ves±rajjappatto vihar±mi. ‘Kh²º±savassa te paµij±nato ime ±sav± aparikkh²º±’ti tatra vata ma½…pe… ‘ye kho pana te antar±yik± dhamm± vutt±, te paµisevato n±la½ antar±y±y±’ti tatra vata ma½…pe… ‘yassa kho pana te atth±ya dhammo desito, so na niyy±ti takkarassa samm± dukkhakkhay±y±’ti tatra vata ma½ samaºo v± br±hmaºo v±…pe… ves±rajjappatto vihar±m²”ti (a. ni. 4.8).
¾sabha½ µh±nanti seµµhaµµh±na½ uttamaµµh±na½. ¾sabh± v± pubbabuddh±, tesa½ µh±nanti attho. Apica gavasatajeµµhako usabho, gavasahassajeµµhako vasabho, vajasatajeµµhako v± usabho, vajasahassajeµµhako vasabho, sabbagavaseµµho sabbaparissayasaho seto p±s±diko mah±bh±ravaho asanisatasaddehipi asampakampiyo nisabho, so idha usabhoti adhippeto. Idampi hi tassa pariy±yavacana½. Usabhassa idanti ±sabha½. Ýh±nanti cat³hi p±dehi pathavi½ upp²¼etv± avaµµh±na½ (ma. ni. 1.150). Ida½ pana ±sabha½ viy±ti ±sabha½. Yatheva hi nisabhasaªkh±to usabho usabhabalena samann±gato cat³hi p±dehi pathavi½ upp²¼etv± acalaµµh±nena tiµµhati, eva½ tath±gatopi dasahi tath±gatabalehi samann±gato cat³hi ves±rajjap±dehi aµµhaparisapathavi½ upp²¼etv± sadevake loke kenaci paccatthikena pacc±mittena akampiyo acalaµµh±nena tiµµhati. Eva½ tiµµham±no ca ta½ ±sabha½ µh±na½ paµij±n±ti upagacchati na paccakkh±ti, attani ±ropeti. Tena vutta½ “±sabha½ µh±na½ paµij±n±t²”ti.
Paris±s³ti “aµµha kho im±, s±riputta, paris±. Katam± aµµha? Khattiyaparis± br±hmaºaparis± gahapatiparis± samaºaparis± c±tumah±r±jikaparis± t±vati½saparis± m±raparis± brahmaparis±”ti, im±su aµµhasu paris±su. S²han±da½ nadat²ti seµµhan±da½ abh²tan±da½ nadati, s²han±dasadisa½ v± n±da½ nadati. Ayamattho s²han±dasuttena d²petabbo. Yath± v± s²ho sahanato ceva hananato ca s²hoti vuccati, eva½ tath±gato lokadhamm±na½ sahanato parappav±d±nañca hananato s²hoti vuccati. Eva½ vuttassa s²hassa n±da½ s²han±da½. Tattha yath± s²ho s²habalena samann±gato sabbattha vis±rado vigatalomaha½so s²han±da½ nadati, eva½ tath±gatas²hopi tath±gatabalehi samann±gato aµµhasu paris±su vis±rado vigatalomaha½so, “iti r³pan”ti-±din± nayena n±n±vidhadesan±vil±sasampanna½ s²han±da½ nadati. Tena vutta½ “paris±su s²han±da½ nadat²”ti.
Brahmacakka½ pavattet²ti ettha brahmanti seµµha½ uttama½, visuddhassa dhammacakkasseta½ adhivacana½. Ta½ pana dhammacakka½ duvidha½ hoti paµivedhañ±ºañca desan±ñ±ºañca. Tattha paññ±pabh±vita½ attano ariyaphal±vaha½ paµivedhañ±ºa½, karuº±pabh±vita½ s±vak±na½ ariyaphal±vaha½ desan±ñ±ºa½. Tattha paµivedhañ±ºa½ uppajjam±na½ uppannanti duvidha½. Tañhi abhinikkhamanato paµµh±ya y±va arahattamagg± uppajjam±na½, phalakkhaºe uppanna½ n±ma. Tusitabhavanato v± y±va mah±bodhipallaªke arahattamagg± uppajjam±na½, phalakkhaºe uppanna½ n±ma. D²paªkarato v± paµµh±ya y±va arahattamagg± uppajjam±na½ phalakkhaºe uppanna½ n±ma. Desan±ñ±ºampi pavattam±na½ pavattanti duvidha½. Tañhi y±va aññ±sikoº¹aññassa sot±pattimagg± pavattam±na½, phalakkhaºe pavatta½ n±ma. Tesu paµivedhañ±ºa½ lokuttara½, desan±ñ±ºa½ lokiya½. Ubhayampi paneta½ aññehi as±dh±raºa½ buddh±na½yeva orasañ±ºa½.
Id±ni ya½ imin± ñ±ºena samann±gato s²han±da½ nadati, ta½ dassetu½ iti r³panti-±dim±ha. Tattha iti r³panti ida½ r³pa½ ettaka½ r³pa½, ito uddha½ r³pa½ natth²ti ruppanasabh±vañceva bh³tup±d±yabhedañca ±di½ katv± lakkhaºarasapaccupaµµh±napadaµµh±navasena anavasesar³papariggaho vutto. Iti r³passa samudayoti imin± eva½ pariggahitassa r³passa samudayo vutto. Tattha it²ti eva½ samudayo hot²ti attho. Tassa vitth±ro “avijj±samuday± r³pasamudayo taºh±samuday±, kammasamuday± ±h±rasamuday± r³pasamudayoti nibbattilakkhaºa½ passantopi r³pakkhandhassa udaya½ passat²”ti (paµi. ma. 1.50) eva½ veditabbo. Atthaªgamepi “avijj±nirodh± r³panirodho…pe… vipariº±malakkhaºa½ passantopi r³pakkhandhassa nirodha½ passat²”ti aya½ vitth±ro.
Iti vedan±ti-±d²supi aya½ vedan± ettak± vedan±, ito uddha½ vedan± natthi, aya½ saññ±, ime saªkh±r±, ida½ viññ±ºa½ ettaka½ viññ±ºa½ ito uddha½ viññ±ºa½ natth²ti vedayitasañj±nana-abhisaªkharaºavij±nanasabh±vañceva sukh±dir³pasaññ±diphass±dicakkhuviññ±º±dibhedañca ±di½ katv± lakkhaºarasapaccupaµµh±napadaµµh±navasena anavasesavedan±saññ±saªkh±raviññ±ºapariggaho vutto. Iti vedan±ya samudayoti-±d²hi pana eva½ pariggahit±na½ vedan±saññ±saªkh±raviññ±º±na½ samudayo vutto. Tatr±pi it²ti eva½ samudayo hot²ti attho. Tesampi vitth±ro “avijj±samuday± vedan±samudayo”ti (paµi. ma. 1.50) r³pe vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Aya½ pana viseso– t²su khandhesu “±h±rasamuday±”ti avatv± “phassasamuday±”ti vattabba½, viññ±ºakkhandhe “n±mar³pasamuday±”ti. Atthaªgamapadampi tesa½yeva vasena yojetabba½. Ayamettha saªkhepo. Vitth±rato pana udayabbayavinicchayo sabb±k±raparip³ro visuddhimagge vutto.
Imasmi½ sati ida½ hot²ti ayampi aparo s²han±do. Tassattho– imasmi½ avijj±dike paccaye sati ida½ saªkh±r±dika½ phala½ hoti. Imassupp±d± ida½ uppajjat²ti imassa avijj±dikassa paccayassa upp±d± ida½ saªkh±r±dika½ phala½ uppajjati. Imasmi½ asati ida½ na hot²ti imasmi½ avijj±dike paccaye asati ida½ saªkh±r±dika½ phala½ na hoti. Imassa nirodh± ida½ nirujjhat²ti imassa avijj±dikassa paccayassa nirodh± ida½ saªkh±r±dika½ phala½ nirujjhati. Id±ni yath± ta½ hoti ceva nirujjhati ca, ta½ vitth±rato dassetu½ yadida½ avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±ti-±dim±ha.
Eva½ sv±kkh±toti eva½ pañcakkhandhavibhajan±divasena suµµhu akkh±to kathito. Dhammoti pañcakkhandhapaccay±k±radhammo. Utt±noti anikujjito. Vivaµoti vivaritv± µhapito. Pak±sitoti d²pito jotito. Chinnapilotikoti pilotik± vuccati chinna½ bhinna½ tattha tattha sibbitagaºµhita½ jiººavattha½, ta½ yassa natth²ti aµµhahattha½ navahattha½ v± ahatas±µaka½ nivattho, so chinnapilotiko n±ma. Ayampi dhammo t±diso. Na hettha kohaññ±divasena chinnabhinnasibbitagaºµhitabh±vo atthi. Apica khuddakas±µakopi pilotik±ti vuccati, s± yassa natthi, aµµhanavahattho mah±paµo atthi, sopi chinnapilotiko, apagatapilotikoti attho. T±diso aya½ dhammo. Yath± hi catuhattha½ s±µaka½ gahetv± pariggahaºa½ karonto puriso ito cito ca añchanto kilamati, eva½ b±hirakasamaye pabbajit± attano parittaka½ dhamma½ “eva½ sati eva½ bhavissat²”ti kappetv± kappetv± va¹¹hent± kilamanti. Yath± pana aµµhahatthanavahatthena pariggahaºa½ karonto yath±ruci p±rupati na kilamati, natthi tattha añchitv± va¹¹hanakicca½; eva½ imasmimpi dhamme kappetv± kappetv± vibhajanakicca½ natthi, tehi tehi k±raºehi may±va aya½ dhammo suvibhatto suvitth±ritoti idampi sandh±ya “chinnapilotiko”ti ±ha. Apica kacavaropi pilotik±ti vuccati, imasmiñca s±sane samaºakacavara½ n±ma patiµµh±tu½ na labhati. Tenev±ha–
“K±raº¹ava½ niddhamatha, kasambu½ apakassatha;
tato pal±pe v±hetha, assamaºe samaºam±nine.
“Niddhamitv±na p±picche, p±pa-±c±ragocare;
suddh± suddhehi sa½v±sa½, kappayavho patissat±;
tato samagg± nipak±, dukkhassanta½ karissath±”ti. (A. ni. 8.10).
Iti samaºakacavarassa chinnatt±pi aya½ dhammo chinnapilotiko n±ma hoti.
Alamev±ti yuttameva. Saddh±pabbajiten±ti saddh±ya pabbajitena. Kulaputten±ti dve kulaputt± ±c±rakulaputto j±tikulaputto ca. Tattha yo yato kutoci kul± pabbajitv± s²l±dayo pañca dhammakkhandhe p³reti, aya½ ±c±rakulaputto n±ma. Yo pana yasakulaputt±dayo viya j±tisampannakul± pabbajito, aya½ j±tikulaputto n±ma. Tesu idha ±c±rakulaputto adhippeto. Sace pana j±tikulaputto ±c±rav± hoti, aya½ uttamoyeva. Evar³pena kulaputtena. V²riya½ ±rabhitunti caturaªgasamann±gata½ v²riya½ k±tu½. Id±nissa caturaªga½ dassento k±ma½ taco c±ti-±dim±ha. Ettha hi taco eka½ aªga½, nh±ru eka½, aµµhi eka½, ma½salohita½ ekanti. Idañca pana caturaªgasamann±gata½ v²riya½ adhiµµhahantena navasu µh±nesu sam±dh±tabba½ purebhatte pacch±bhatte purimay±me majjhimay±me pacchimay±me gamane µh±ne nisajj±ya sayaneti.
Dukkha½ bhikkhave, kus²to viharat²ti imasmi½ s±sane yo kus²to puggalo, so dukkha½ viharati. B±hirasamaye pana yo kus²to, so sukha½ viharati. Vokiººoti miss²bh³to. Sadatthanti sobhana½ v± attha½ saka½ v± attha½, ubhayen±pi arahattameva adhippeta½. Parih±pet²ti h±peti na p±puº±ti. Kus²tapuggalassa hi cha dv±r±ni agutt±ni honti, t²ºi kamm±ni aparisuddh±ni, ±j²vaµµhamaka½ s²la½ apariyod±ta½, bhinn±j²vo kul³pako hoti. So sabrahmac±r²na½ akkhimhi patitaraja½ viya upagh±takaro hutv± dukkha½ viharati, p²µhamaddano ceva hoti laº¹ap³rako ca, satthu ajjh±saya½ gahetu½ na sakkoti, dullabha½ khaºa½ vir±dheti, tena bhutto raµµhapiº¹opi na mahapphalo hoti.
¾raddhav²riyo ca kho, bhikkhaveti ±raddhav²riyo puggalo imasmi½yeva s±sane sukha½ viharati. B±hirasamaye pana yo ±raddhav²riyo, so dukkha½ viharati. Pavivittoti vivitto viyutto hutv±. Sadattha½ parip³ret²ti arahatta½ p±puº±ti. ¾raddhav²riyassa hi cha dv±r±ni sugutt±ni honti, t²ºi kamm±ni parisuddh±ni, ±j²vaµµhamaka½ s²la½ pariyod±ta½ sabrahmac±r²na½ akkhimhi sus²talañjana½ viya dh±tugatacandana½ viya ca man±po hutv± sukha½ viharati, satthu ajjh±saya½ gahetu½ sakkoti. Satth± hi–
“Cira½ j²va mah±v²ra, kappa½ tiµµha mah±mun²”ti–
Eva½ gotamiy± vandito, “na kho, gotami, tath±gat± eva½ vanditabb±”ti paµikkhipitv± t±ya y±cito vanditabb±k±ra½ ±cikkhanto evam±ha–
“¾raddhav²riye pahitatte, nicca½ da¼haparakkame;
samagge s±vake passa, es± buddh±na vandan±”ti. (Apa. ther² 2.2.171).
Eva½ ±raddhav²riyo satthu ajjh±saya½ gahetu½ sakkoti, dullabha½ khaºa½ na vir±dheti. Tassa hi buddhupp±do dhammadesan± saªghasuppaµipatti saphal± hoti sa-udray±, raµµhapiº¹opi tena bhutto mahapphalo hoti.
H²nena aggass±ti h²n±ya saddh±ya h²nena v²riyena h²n±ya satiy± h²nena sam±dhin± h²n±ya paññ±ya aggasaªkh±tassa arahattassa patti n±ma na hoti. Aggena ca khoti aggehi saddh±d²hi aggassa arahattassa patti hoti. Maº¹apeyyanti pasannaµµhena maº¹a½, p±tabbaµµhena peyya½. Yañhi pivitv± antarav²thiya½ patito visaññ² attano s±µak±d²nampi ass±miko hoti, ta½ pasannampi na p±tabba½, mayha½ pana s±sana½ eva½ pasannañca p±tabbañc±ti dassento “maº¹apeyyan”ti ±ha.
Tattha tividho maº¹o– desan±maº¹o, paµiggahamaº¹o, brahmacariyamaº¹oti. Katamo desan±maº¹o? Catunna½ ariyasacc±na½ ±cikkhan± desan± paññ±pan± paµµhapan± vivaraº± vibhajan± utt±n²kamma½, catunna½ satipaµµh±n±na½…pe… ariyassa aµµhaªgikassa maggassa ±cikkhan±…pe… utt±n²kamma½, aya½ desan±maº¹o. Katamo paµiggahamaº¹o? Bhikkh³ bhikkhuniyo up±sak± up±sik±yo dev± manuss± ye v± panaññepi keci viññ±t±ro, aya½ paµiggahamaº¹o. Katamo brahmacariyamaº¹o? Ayameva ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo, seyyathida½– samm±diµµhi…pe… samm±sam±dhi, aya½ brahmacariyamaº¹o. Apica adhimokkhamaº¹o saddhindriya½, assaddhiya½ kasaµo, assaddhiya½ kasaµa½ cha¹¹etv± saddhindriyassa adhimokkhamaº¹a½ pivat²ti maº¹apeyyanti-±din±pi (paµi. ma. 1.238) nayenettha attho veditabbo. Satth± sammukh²bh³toti idamettha k±raºavacana½. Yasm± satth± sammukh²bh³to, tasm± v²riyasampayoga½ katv± pivatha eta½ maº¹a½. B±hirakañhi bhesajjamaº¹ampi vejjassa asammukh± pivant±na½ pam±ºa½ v± uggamana½ v± niggamana½ v± na j±n±m±ti ±saªk± hoti. Vejjasammukh± pana “vejjo j±nissat²”ti nir±saªk± pivanti. Evameva amh±ka½ dhammass±mi satth± sammukh²bh³toti v²riya½ katv± pivath±ti maº¹ap±ne nesa½ niyojento tasm±tiha, bhikkhaveti-±dim±ha. Tattha saphal±ti s±nisa½s±. Sa-udray±ti sava¹¹hi. Id±ni niyojan±nur³pa½ sikkhitabbata½ niddisanto attattha½ v± hi, bhikkhaveti-±dim±ha. Tattha attatthanti attano atthabh³ta½ arahatta½. Appam±dena samp±detunti appam±dena sabbakicc±ni k±tu½. Paratthanti paccayad±yak±na½ mahapphal±nisa½sa½. Sesa½ sabbattha utt±namev±ti. Dutiya½.