3. Kosalasa½yutta½

1. Paµhamavaggo

1. Daharasuttavaººan±

112. Bhagavat± saddhi½ sammod²ti bhagavato guºe aj±nanto kosalar±j± attano khattiyam±nena kevala½ bhagavat± saddhi½ sammodi. Paµham±gate hi satthari tassa sammodit±k±ra½ dassetu½ “yath±”ti-±di vutta½. Yath± khaman²y±d²ni pucchantoti yath± bhagav± “kacci te, mah±r±ja, khaman²ya½, kacci y±pan²yan”ti-±din± tena raññ± saddhi½ paµhama½ pavattamodo ahosi pubbabh±sit±ya, tadanukaraºena eva½ sopi r±j± bhagavat± saddhi½ samappavattamodo ahos²ti yojan±. Ta½ pana samappavattamodana½ upam±ya dassetu½ “s²todaka½ viy±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha sammoditanti sa½sandita½ ek²bh±vanti sammodanakiriy±ya sam±nata½ ekar³pata½, khaman²yanti “ida½ catucakka½ navadv±ra½ sar²rayanta½ dukkhabahulat±ya sabh±vato dussaha½, kacci khamitu½ sakkuºeyyan”ti pucchati. Y±pan²yanti paccay±yattavuttika½ cirapabandhasaªkh±t±ya y±pan±ya kacci y±petu½ sakkuºeyya½. S²sarog±di-±b±dh±bh±vena kacci app±b±dha½. Dukkhaj²vik±bh±vena kacci app±taªka½. Ta½ta½kiccakaraºe uµµh±nasukhat±ya kacci lahuµµh±na½. Tadanur³pabalayogato kacci bala½. Sukhavih±rasambhavena kacci ph±suvih±ro atth²ti tattha tattha kacci-sadda½ yojetv± attho veditabbo. Balavappatt± p²ti p²tiyeva. Taruºap²ti p±mojja½. Sammodana½ janeti karot²ti sammodan²ya½. Sammoditabbato sammodan²yanti ima½ pana attha½ dassento “sammoditu½ yuttabh±vato”ti ±ha. Saritabbabh±vatoti anussaritabbabh±vato. “Saraº²yan”ti vattabbe d²gha½ katv± “s±raº²yan”ti vutta½.
Suyyam±nasukhatoti ±p±thamadhurata½ ±ha, anussariyam±nasukhatoti vimaddaramaº²yata½. Byañjanaparisuddhat±y±ti sabh±vaniruttibh±vena tass± kath±ya vacanac±turiyam±ha, atthaparisuddhat±y±ti atthassa nirupakkilesata½. Anekehi pariy±yeh²ti anekehi k±raºehi. Adiµµhatt±ti upasaªkamanavasena adiµµhatt±. Guº±guºavasen±ti guºavasena gambh²rabh±va½ v± aguºavasena utt±nabh±va½ v±. Ovaµµikas±ra½ katv±ti ovaµµik±ya gahetabbas±ravatthu½ katv±. Lokanissaraºabhavokkantipañhanti lokato nissaµabh±vapañhañceva ±dito bhavokkamanapañhañca. Satthu samm±sambuddhata½ pucchanto hi “ki½ bhava½ gotamo sabbalokato nissaµo, sabbasattehi ca jeµµho”ti? Pucchati n±ma. Yath± hi satthu samm±sambuddhat±ya lokato nissaµat± viññ±yati, eva½ sabbasattehi jeµµhabh±vato seµµhabh±vato. Sv±yamattho aggapas±dasutt±d²hi (itivu. 90; a. ni. 4.34) vibh±vetabbo. Katha½ pana sambuddhat± viññ±yat²ti? Avipar²tadhammadesanato. Ayamettha saªkhepo, vitth±ro pana visuddhimaggasa½vaººan±d²su (visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.124) vuttanayena veditabbo.
R±j± satthu avipar²tadhammadesana½ aj±nanto tato evassa samm±sambodhi½ asaddahanto “vu¹¹hataresupi cirapabbajitesu samm±sambuddhabh±ve alabbham±ne tabbipar²te katha½ labbheyy±”ti maññam±no “ki½ pana bhava½ gotamo”ti-±di½ vakkhati. R±j± attano laddhiy± na pucchati attano sammukh± tehi asamm±sambuddhabh±vasseva paµiññ±tatt±. Yasm± te mus±v±dit±ya attano upaµµh±k±d²na½ “buddh± mayan”ti paµij±ni½su, tasm± vutta½ “loke mah±janena gahitapaµiññ±vasena pucchat²”ti. Sv±yamattho ±gamissati. Buddhas²han±danti buddh±na½ eva ±veºika½ s²han±da½. K±ma½ maggañ±ºapadaµµh±na½ sabbaññutaññ±ºa½, sambodhiñ±ºe pana gahite ta½ atthato gahitameva hot²ti vutta½ “sabbaññutaññ±ºasaªkh±ta½ samm±sambodhin”ti.
Pabbajj³pagamanen±ti y±ya k±yaci pabbajj±ya upagamanamattena samaº±, na samitap±pat±ya. J±tivasen±ti j±timattena br±hmaº±, na b±hitap±pat±ya. Pabbajitasam³hasaªkh±to saªghoti pabbajitasam³hat±mattena saªgho, na niyy±nikadiµµhivisuddhas²las±maññavasena sa½hatatt±ti adhipp±yo. Etesa½ atth²ti etesa½ sabbaññupaµiññ±t±na½ pariv±rabh³to atthi. Svev±ti pabbajitasam³hasaªkh±to eva. Keci pana “pabbajitasam³havasena. Saªghino, gahaµµhasam³havasena gaºino”ti vadanti, ta½ tesa½ matimatta½ gaºe eva loke saªghasaddassa niru¼hatt±. ¾c±rasikkh±panavasen±ti acelakavatacariy±di-±c±rasikkh±panavasena. P±kaµ±ti saªgh²-±dibh±vena pak±sit±. “Appicch±”ti vatv± tattha labbham±na½ appicchata½ dassetu½ “apicchat±ya vatthampi na niv±sent²”ti vutta½. Na hi tesu s±sanikesu viya santaguºaniguhan± appicch± labbhat²ti. Yasoti kittisaddo. Taranti etena sa½s±roghanti eva½ sammatatt± tittha½ vuccati laddh²ti ±ha “titthakar±ti laddhikar±”ti. S±dhusammat±ti “s±dh³”ti sammat±, na s±dh³hi sammat±ti ±ha “santo…pe… puthujjanass±”ti.
Kappakol±halanti kappato kol±hala½, “kappuµµh±na½ bhavissat²”ti devaputtehi ugghositamah±saddo. Imeti p³raº±dayo. Buddhakol±halanti devat±hi ghosita½ buddhakol±hala½. Payirup±sitv±ti purisasutiparampar±ya sutv±. Cint±maºivijj± n±ma paracittaj±n±panavijj±. S± kevaµµasutte “maºik±”ti ±gat±, ±di-saddena gandh±risambhavavijj±di½ saªgaºh±ti. Tattha gandh±riy± vikubbana½ dasseti. Attabh±veti sar²re. R±jusm±ti r±jatejo.
Sukkadhammoti anavajjadhammo nikkilesat±. Ida½ gahetv±ti ida½ parammukh± “maya½ buddh±”ti vatv± attano sammukh± “na maya½ buddh±”ti tehi vuttavacana½ gahetv±. Evam±h±ti “yepi te, bho gotama…pe… navo ca pabbajj±y±”ti eva½ avoca. Attano paµiñña½ gahetv±ti “na maya½ buddh±”ti tesa½ attano purato pavattita½ paµiñña½ gahetv±. ¿dise µh±ne ki½-saddo paµisedhav±cako hot²ti vutta½ “kinti paµikkhepavacanan”ti, kasm± paµij±n±t²ti attho?
Na uññ±tabb±ti na garahitabb±. Garahattho hi aya½ u-saddo. “Daharo”ti adhikatatt± vakkham±natt± ca “khattiyoti r±jakum±ro”ti vutta½. Uras± gacchat²ti urago, yo koci sappo, idha pana adhippeta½ dassetu½ “±s²viso”ti ±ha. S²lavanta½ pabbajita½ dasseti s±maññato “bhikkh³”ti vadanto. Idha pana yasm± “bhavampi no gotamo”ti-±din± bhagavanta½ uddissa katha½ samuµµh±pesi, tasm± bhagav± att±na½ abbhantara½ ak±si. Yadipi viseso s±maññajotan±ya vibh±vito hoti, sa½sayuppattid²paka½ noti vuttaggahaºa½ pana ta½ paricchijjat²ti. Ten±ha “desan±kusalat±y±”ti-±di. Id±ni avaññ±paribhave payogato vibh±vetu½ “ettha c±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha acitt²kat±k±ravasena avaññ±ya p±kaµabh±vo, vambhanavasena paribhavass±ti adhipp±yena k±yapayogavasena avaññ± dassit±, vac²payogavasena paribhavo, ubhaya½ pana ubhayatth±pi pabhedato gahita½, avaññaparibhav±na½ dvinnampi ubhayattha pariggaho. Ta½ sabbamp²ti ta½ avaññ±di sabbampi. Cat³supi ta½ na k±tabbameva sampati ±yatiñca anatth±vahatt±.
Tadatthad²pan±ti tassa ±dito vuttassa atthassa d²pan±. Visesatthad²pan±ti tato visiµµhatthad²pan± Khett±na½ adhipat²ti khattiyoti niruttinayena saddasiddhi veditabb±. Khettato viv±d± satte t±yat²ti khattiyoti lokiy± kathayanti. “Mah±sammato, khattiyo, r±j±”ti evam±gatesu imesu dutiya½. Akkharanti samaññ±. S± hi udayabbay±bh±vato “na kad±ci kharat²ti akkharan”ti vutt±. Ten±ha “n±magotta½ na j²rat²”ti. J±tisampannanti sampannaj±ti½ ativisuddhaj±ti½. T²ºi kul±n²ti br±hmaºavessasuddakul±ni. Atikkamitv±ti attano j±tisampattiy± abhibhavitv±.
Kevala½ n±mapada½ vutta½ ±khy±tapada½ apekkhatev±ti ±ha “µh±na½ h²ti k±raºa½ vijjat²”ti. Uddhaµadaº¹en±ti samantato ubbhatena daº¹ena s±sanena, balava½ upakkama½ garuka½ r±j±nampi. Ta½ khattiya½ parivajjeyy±ti khattiya½ avaññ±paribhavakaraºato vajjeyya. Ten±ha “na ghaµµeyy±”ti.
Uragassa ca n±n±vidhavaººaggahaºe k±raºa½ vadati “yena yena h²”ti-±din±. Bahubhakkhanti mah±bhakkha½ sabbabhakkhakh±daka½. P±vaka½ sodhanatthena asuddhassapi dahanena. Soti maggo. Kaºho vattan² imass±ti kaºhavattan². Mahanto aggikkhandho hutv±. Y±vabrahmalokappam±ºoti kappavuµµh±nak±le araññe aggin± gahite k±lantare eva kaµµhatiºarukkh±disambhavoti dassetu½ “j±yanti tattha p±roh±”ti p±¼iya½ vuttanti dassento “tatth±”ti-±dim±ha.
Þahitu½ na sakkoti paccakkosan±din±. Vinassanti samaºatejas± vin±sitatt±. “Na tass±”ti ettha na-k±ra½ “vindare”ti ettha ±netv± sambandhitabbanti ±ha “na vindant²”ti. Vatthumatt±vasiµµhoti µh±nameva nesa½ avasissati, saya½ pana sabbaso saha dhanena vinassant²ti attho.
“Sammadeva sam±care”ti ettha yath± r±j±d²su samm± sam±careyya, ta½ vibh±gena dassento “khattiya½ t±v±”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ suviññeyyameva. Tisso kulasampattiyoti khattiya-br±hmaºagahapati-mah±s±lakul±ni vadati. Pañca r³pibrahmaloke, catt±ro ar³p²brahmaloketi eva½ nava brahmaloke kammabhavavibh±gena, ses±na½ gaºan±na½ upapattibhavavibh±gena.
Abhikkantanti ativiya kaman²ya½. S± panass± kantat± ativiya iµµhat±ya manava¹¹hanat±ya sobhanat±y±ti ±ha “ati-iµµha½ atiman±pa½ atisundaranti attho”ti. “Abhikkantan”ti vacana½ apekkhitv± napu½sakaniddeso, vacana½ pana bhagavato dhammadesan±ti tath± vutta½. Atthamattadassana½ v± eta½, tasm± atthavasena liªgavibhattivipariº±mo veditabbo. Dutiyapadepi eseva nayo.
Adhomukhaµhapitanti kenaci adhomukha½ µhapita½. Heµµh±mukhaj±tanti sabh±veneva heµµh±mukha½ j±ta½. Uggh±µeyy±ti vivaµa½ kareyya. Hatthe gahetv±ti “puratth±bhimukho uttar±bhimukho v± gacch±”ti-±d²ni avatv± hatthe gahetv± nissandeha½ katv± “esa maggo”ti eva½ vatv± “gacch±”ti vadeyya. K±¼apakkhac±tuddas²ti k±¼apakkhe c±tuddas². Nikkujjita½ ukkujjeyy±ti ±dheyyassa an±dh±rabh³ta½ bh±jana½ tassa ±dh±rabh±v±p±danavasena ukkujjeyya. Aññ±ºassa abhimukhatt± heµµh±mukhaj±tat±ya saddhammavimukha½, tato eva adhomukhabh±vena asaddhamme patitanti eva½ padadvaya½ yath±raha½ yojetabba½, na yath±saªkhaya½. K±ma½ k±macchand±dayopi paµicch±dak±, micch±diµµhi pana savisesa½ paµicch±dik±ti ±ha “micch±diµµhigahanapaµicchannan”ti. Ten±ha bhagav±– “micch±diµµhiparam±ha½, bhikkhave, vajja½ vad±m²”ti (a. ni. 1.310). Sabb±p±yag±mimaggo kummaggo “kucchito maggo”ti katv±. Samm±diµµhi-±d²na½ ujupaµipakkhat±ya micch±diµµhi-±dayo aµµha micchattadhamm± micch±maggo. Teneva hi tadubhayapaµipakkhata½ sandh±ya “saggamokkhamagga½ ±vikaronten±”ti vutta½. Sappi-±disannissayo pad²po na tath± ujjalo, yath± telasannissayoti telapajjotaggahaºa½. Etehi pariy±yeh²ti etehi nikkujjitukkujjanapaµicchannavivaraº±di-upamopamitabbappak±rehi.
Pasann±k±ranti pasannehi k±tabba½ sakk±ra½. Saraºanti paµisaraºa½ par±yaºa½. Ajjat±ti ajj±ti padassa va¹¹hanamatta½ hettha -saddo yath± “devat±”ti. P±ºehi upetanti p±ºehi saha saraºa½ upeta½. “Y±va me p±º± dharanti, t±va saraºa½ gatameva ma½ dh±ret³”ti ±p±ºakoµika½ attano saraºagamana½ pavedeti. Ten±ha “y±va me”ti-±di. Ya½ panettha atthato avibhatta½, ta½ suviññeyyameva.

Daharasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.