Sakalena vacanen±ti pubbe t²hi padehi visu½ visu½ yojitatt± vutta½. Attano adahantoti “mamedan”ti attani aµµhapento. Bhummatthe ceta½ s±mivacana½. Asappurisabh³minti akataññuta½. “Idhekacco p±pabhikkhu tath±gatappavedita½ dhammavinaya½ pariy±puºitv± attano dahat²”ti (p±r±. 195) eva½ vutta½ anariyavoh±r±vattha½, s± eva anariyavoh±r±vatth± asaddhammo Nanu ca ±nandattherassa “mameda½ vacanan”ti adhim±nassa, mah±kassapatther±d²nañca tad±saªk±ya abh±vato asappurisabh³mi-samatikkam±divacana½ niratthakanti? Nayidameva½. “Eva½ me sutan”ti vadantena ayampi attho vibh±vitoti dassanato. Keci pana “devat±na½ parivitakk±pekkha½ tath±vacananti edis² codan± anavak±s±”ti vadanti. Tasmi½ kira khaºe ekacc±na½ devat±na½ eva½ cetaso parivitakko udap±di “bhagav± ca parinibbuto, ayañca ±yasm± desan±kusalo id±ni dhamma½ deseti, sakyakulappasuto tath±gatassa bh±t± c³¼apituputto. Ki½ nu kho saya½ sacchikata½ dhamma½ deseti? Ud±hu bhagavato eva vacana½ yath±sutan”ti, eva½ tad±saªkitappak±rato asappurisabh³misamokkam±dito atikkam±di vibh±vitanti. Appet²ti nidasseti. Diµµhadhammika-sampar±yika-paramatthesu yath±raha½ satte net²ti netti, dhammo eva netti dhammanetti.
Da¼hataraniviµµh± vicikicch± kaªkh±, n±tisa½sappan± matibhedamatt± vimati. Assaddhiya½ vin±set²ti bhagavat± bh±sitatt± sammukh±vassa paµiggahitatt± khalitadurutt±digahaºados±bh±vato ca. Ettha ca paµham±dayo tisso atthayojan± ±k±r±di-atthesu aggahitavisesameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± dassit±, tato par± catasso ±k±ratthameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± vibh±vit±. Pacchim± pana tisso yath±kkama½ ±k±rattha½ nidassanattha½ avadh±raºatthañca eva½-sadda½ gahetv± yojit±ti daµµhabba½.
Eka-saddo aññaseµµha-asah±yasaªkhay±d²su dissati. Tath± hesa “sassato att± ca loko ca, idameva sacca½ moghamaññanti ittheke abhivadant²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.27) aññatthe dissati. “Cetaso ekodibh±van”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.228; p±r±. 11) seµµhe, “eko v³pakaµµho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.405) asah±ye, “ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.29) saªkhay±ya½. Idh±pi saªkhay±yanti dassento ±ha “ekanti gaºanaparicchedaniddeso”ti. K±lañca samayañc±ti yuttak±lañca paccayas±maggiñca. Khaºoti ok±so. Tath±gatupp±d±diko hi maggabrahmacariyassa ok±so tappaccayassa paµil±bhahetutt±. Khaºo eva ca samayo, yo khaºoti ca samayoti ca vuccati, so eko ev±ti hi attho. Mah±samayoti mah±sam³ho. Samayopi khoti sikkh±padap³raºassa hetupi. Samayappav±daketi diµµhippav±dake. Tattha hi nisinn± titthiy± attano attano samaya½ pavadanti. Atth±bhisamay±ti hitapaµil±bh±. Abhisametabboti abhisamayo, abhisamayo attho abhisamayatthoti p²¼an±d²ni abhisametabbabh±vena ek²bh±va½ upanetv± vutt±ni. Abhisamayassa v± paµivedhassa visayabh³to attho abhisamayatthoti t±neva tath± ekattena vutt±ni. Tattha p²¼ana½ dukkhasaccassa ta½samaªgino hi½sana½ avipph±rikat±karaºa½, sant±po dukkhadukkhat±divasena sant±pana½ paridahana½.
Tattha sahak±rik±raºa½ sannijjha½ sameti samavet²ti samayo, samav±yo. Sameti sam±gacchati ettha maggabrahmacariya½ tad±dh±rapuggaleh²ti samayo, khaºo. Sameti ettha, etena v± sa½gacchati satto, sabh±vadhammo v± sahaj±t±d²hi, upp±d±d²hi v±ti samayo, k±lo. Dhammappavattimattat±ya atthato abh³topi hi k±lo dhammappavattiy± adhikaraºa½ karaºa½ viya ca parikappan±mattasiddhena r³pena vohar²yat²ti. Sama½, saha v± avayav±na½ ayana½ pavatti avaµµh±nanti samayo, sam³ho yath± “samud±yo”ti. Avayavasah±vaµµh±nameva hi sam³hoti. Avasesapaccay±na½ sam±game eti phala½ etasm± uppajjati pavattati c±ti samayo, hetu yath± “samudayo”ti. Sameti sa½yojanabh±vato sambandho eti attano visaye pavattati, da¼haggahaºabh±vato v± sa½yutt± ayanti pavattanti satt± yath±bhinivesa½ eten±ti samayo, diµµhi. Diµµhisa½yojanena hi satt± ativiya bajjhant²ti. Samiti sa½gati samodh±nanti samayo, paµil±bho. Samassa nirodhassa y±na½, samm± v± y±na½ apagamo apavatti samayo, pah±na½. Abhimukha½ ñ±ºena samm± etabbo adhigantabboti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²to sabh±vo. Abhimukhabh±vena samm± eti gacchati bujjhat²ti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±v±vabodho Eva½ tasmi½ tasmi½ atthe samayasaddappavatti veditabb±. Samayasaddassa atthuddh±re abhisamayasaddassa ud±haraºa½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½. Ass±ti samayasaddassa. K±lo attho samav±y±d²na½ atth±na½ idha asambhavato desadesakaparis±na½ viya suttassa nid±nabh±vena k±lassa apadisitabbato ca.
Kasm± panettha aniyamitavaseneva k±lo niddiµµho? Na utusa½vacchar±divasena niyamitoti ±ha “tattha kiñc±p²”ti-±di. Utusa½vacchar±divasena niyama½ akatv± samayasaddassa vacane ayampi guºo laddho hot²ti dassento “ye v± ime”ti-±dim±ha. S±maññajotan± hi visese avatiµµhat²ti. Tattha diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo devasika½ jh±naphalasam±patt²hi v²tin±manak±lo, visesato sattasatt±h±ni. Suppak±s±ti dasasahassilokadh±tupakampana-obh±sap±tubh±v±d²hi p±kaµ±. Yath±vuttappabhedesu eva samayesu ekadesa½ pak±rantarehi saªgahetv± dassetu½ “yo c±yan”ti-±dim±ha. Tath± hi ñ±ºakiccasamayo, attahitapaµipattisamayo ca abhisambodhisamayo, ariyatuºh²bh±vasamayo, diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo, karuº±kiccaparahitapaµipattidhamm²kath±samay±, desan±samayo eva.
Karaºavacanena niddeso katoti sambandho. Tatth±ti abhidhammatadaññasuttapadavinayesu. Tath±ti bhummakaraºehi. Adhikaraºattho ±dh±rattho. Bh±vo n±ma kiriy±, t±ya kiriyantaralakkhaºa½ bh±venabh±valakkhaºa½. Tattha yath± k±lo sabh±vadhammaparicchinno saya½ paramatthato avijjam±nopi ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±to taªkhaºappavatt±na½ tato pubbe parato ca abh±vato “pubbaºhe j±to, s±yanhe gacchat²”ti ca ±d²su, sam³ho ca avayavavinimutto visu½ avijjam±nopi kappan±mattasiddho avayav±na½ ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±p²yati yath± “rukkhe s±kh±, yavar±siya½ sambh³to”ti-±d²su, eva½ idh±p²ti dassento ±ha “adhikaraºañhi…pe… dhamm±nan”ti. Yasmi½ k±le, dhammapuñje v± k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½ eva k±le dhammapuñje ca phass±dayopi hont²ti aya½ hi tattha attho. Yath± ca “g±v²su duyham±n±su gato, duddh±su ±gato”ti dohanakiriy±ya gamanakiriy± lakkh²yati, eva½ idh±pi yasmi½ samaye, tasmi½ samayeti ca vutte “sat²”ti ayamattho viññ±yam±no eva hoti padatthassa satt±virah±bh±vatoti samayassa satt±kiriy±ya cittassa upp±dakiriy± phass±dibhavanakiriy± ca lakkh²yati. Yasmi½ samayeti yasmi½ navame khaºe, yasmi½ yonisomanasik±r±dihetumhi, paccayasamav±ye v± sati k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva khaºe, hetumhi, paccayasamav±ye v± phass±dayopi hont²ti ubhayattha samayasadde bhummaniddeso kato lakkhaºabh³tabh±vayuttoti dassento ±ha “khaºa…pe… lakkh²yat²”ti.
Hetu-attho karaºattho ca sambhavati “annena vasati, vijj±ya vasati, pharasun± chindati, kud±lena khaºat²”ti-±d²su viya. V²tikkamañhi sutv± bhikkhusaªgha½ sannip±t±petv± otiººavatthuka½ puggala½ paµipucchitv± vigarahitv± ca ta½ ta½ vatthu-otiººak±la½ anatikkamitv± teneva k±lena sikkh±pad±ni paññapento bhagav± viharati sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no tatiyap±r±jik±d²su viya.
Accantameva ±rambhato paµµh±ya y±va desan±niµµh±na½. Parahitapaµipattisaªkh±tena karuº±vih±rena. Tadatthajotanatthanti accantasa½yogatthajotanattha½. Upayoganiddeso kato yath± “m±sa½ sajjh±yat²”ti Por±º±ti aµµhakath±cariy±. Abhil±pamattabhedoti vacanamattena viseso. Tena suttavinayesu vibhattibyattayo katoti dasseti.
Seµµhanti seµµhav±caka½ vacana½ “seµµhan”ti vutta½ seµµhaguºasahacaraºato, tath± “uttaman”ti etth±pi. G±ravayuttoti garubh±vayutto garuguºayogato, garukaraº±rahat±ya v± g±ravayutto. Vuttoyeva, na pana idha vattabbo visuddhimaggassa imiss± aµµhakath±ya ekadesabh±vatoti adhipp±yo.
Aparo nayo (itivu. aµµha. nid±navaººan±; s±rattha. µ². 1.1.verañjakaº¹avaººan±; visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.144)– bh±gav±ti bhagav±, bhatav±ti bhagav±, bh±ge van²ti bhagav±, bhage van²ti bhagav±, bhattav±ti bhagav±, bhage vam²ti bhagav±, bh±ge vam²ti bhagav±.
“Bh±gav± bhatav± bh±ge, bhage ca vani bhattav±;
bhage vami tath± bh±ge, vam²ti bhagav± jino”.
Tattha katha½ bh±gav±ti bhagav±? Ye te s²l±dayo dhammakkhandh± guºabh±g± guºakoµµh±s±, te anaññas±dh±raº± niratisay± tath±gate atthi upalabbhanti. Tath± hissa s²la½ sam±dhi paññ± vimutti vimuttiñ±ºadassana½, hir² ottappa½, saddh± v²riya½, sati sampajañña½, s²lavisuddhi diµµhivisuddhi, samatho vipassan±, t²ºi kusalam³l±ni, t²ºi sucarit±ni, tayo samm±vitakk±, tisso anavajjasaññ±, tisso dh±tuyo, catt±ro satipaµµh±n±, catt±ro sammappadh±n±, catt±ro iddhip±d±, catt±ro ariyamagg±, catt±ri ariyaphal±ni, catasso paµisambhid±, catuyoniparicchedakañ±º±ni, catt±ro ariyava½s±, catt±ri ves±rajjañ±º±ni, pañca padh±niyaªg±ni, pañcaªgiko samm±sam±dhi, pañcañ±ºiko samm±sam±dhi, pañcindriy±ni, pañca bal±ni, pañca niss±raº²y± dh±tuyo, pañca vimutt±yatanañ±º±ni, pañca vimuttiparip±can²y± saññ±, cha anussatiµµh±n±ni, cha g±rav±, cha niss±raº²y± dh±tuyo, cha satatavih±r±, cha anuttariy±ni, cha nibbedhabh±giy± saññ±, cha abhiññ±, cha as±dh±raºañ±º±ni, satta aparih±niy± dhamm±, satta ariyadhamm±, satta ariyadhan±ni, satta bojjhaªg±, satta sappurisadhamm±, satta nijjaravatth³ni, satta saññ±, sattadakkhiºeyyapuggaladesan±, sattakh²º±savabaladesan±, aµµhapaññ±paµil±bhahetudesan± aµµha sammatt±ni, aµµhalokadhamm±tikkamo, aµµha ±rambhavatth³ni, aµµha-akkhaºadesan±, aµµha mah±purisavitakk±, aµµha-abhibh±yatanadesan±, aµµha vimokkh±, nava yonisomanasik±ram³lak± dhamm±, nava p±risuddhipadh±niyaªg±ni, navasatt±v±sadesan±, nava ±gh±tapaµivinay±, nava saññ±, navan±natt±, nava anupubbavih±r±, dasa n±thakaraº± dhamm±, dasa kasiº±yatan±ni, dasa kusalakammapath±, dasa sammatt±ni, dasa ariyav±s±, dasa asekkhadhamm±, dasa tath±gatabal±ni, ek±dasa mett±nisa½s±, dv±dasa dhamm±cakk±k±r±, terasa dhutaguº±, cuddasa buddhañ±º±ni, pañcadasa vimuttiparip±can²y± dhamm±, so¼asavidh± ±n±p±nassati, so¼asa aparantapan²y± dhamm±, aµµh±rasa buddhadhamm±, ek³nav²sati paccavekkhaºañ±º±ni, catucatt±l²sa ñ±ºavatth³ni, paññ±sa udayabbayañ±º±ni, paropaññ±sa kusal± dhamm±, sattasattati ñ±ºavatth³ni, catuv²satikoµisatasahassasaªkhasam±pattisañc±rimah±vajirañ±ºa½ anantanayasamantapaµµh±na-pavicaya-paccavekkhaºadesan±ñ±º±ni, tath± anant±su lokadh±t³su anant±na½ satt±na½ ±say±divibh±vanañ±º±ni c±ti evam±dayo anant±parim±ºabhed± anaññas±dh±raº± niratisay± guºabh±g± guºakoµµh±s± sa½vijjanti upalabbhanti, tasm± yath±vuttavibh±g± guºabh±g± assa atth²ti “bh±gav±”ti vattabbe ±k±rassa rassatta½ katv± “bhagav±”ti vutto. Eva½ t±va bh±gav±ti bhagav±.