6. Brahmasa½yutta½

1. Paµhamavaggo

1. Brahm±y±canasuttavaŗŗan±

172. Brahmasa½yuttassa paµhame parivitakko udap±d²ti sabbabuddh±na½ ±ciŗŗasam±ciŗŗo aya½ cetaso vitakko udap±di. Kad± udap±d²ti? Buddhabh³tassa aµµhame satt±he r±j±yatanam³le sakkena dev±namindena ±bhata½ dantakaµµhańca osadhahar²takańca kh±ditv± mukha½ dhovitv± cat³hi lokap±lehi upan²te paccagghe selamayapatte tapussabhallik±na½ piŗ¹ap±ta½ paribhuńjitv± puna pacc±gantv± ajap±lanigrodhe nisinnamattassa.
Adhigatoti paµividdho. Dhammoti catusaccadhammo. Gambh²roti utt±napaµikkhepavacanameta½. Duddasoti gambh²ratt±va duddaso dukkhena daµµhabbo, na sakk± sukhena daµµhu½. Duddasatt±va duranubodho dukkhena avabujjhitabbo, na sakk± sukhena avabujjhitu½. Santoti nibbuto. Paŗ²toti atappako. Ida½ dvaya½ lokuttarameva sandh±ya vutta½. Atakk±vacaroti takkena avacaritabbo og±hitabbo na hoti, ń±ŗeneva avacaritabbo. Nipuŗoti saŗho. Paŗ¹itavedan²yoti samm±paµipada½ paµipannehi paŗ¹itehi veditabbo. ¾layar±m±ti satt± pańcasu k±maguŗesu all²yanti, tasm± te ±lay±ti vuccanti. Aµµhasatataŗh±vicarit±ni v± all²yanti, tasm±pi ±lay±ti vuccanti. Tehi ±layehi ramant²ti ±layar±m±. ¾layesu rat±ti ±layarat±. ¾layesu suµµhu mudit±ti ±layasammudit±. Yatheva hi susajjita½ pupphaphalabharitarukkh±disampanna½ uyy±na½ paviµµho r±j± t±ya t±ya sampattiy± ramati, sammudito ±moditapamodito hoti, na ukkaŗµhati, s±yampi nikkhamitu½ na icchati, evamimehipi k±m±layataŗh±layehi satt± ramanti, sa½s±ravaµµe sammudit± anukkaŗµhit± vasanti. Tena tesa½ bhagav± duvidha½ ±laya½ uyy±nabh³mi½ viya dassento “±layar±m±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha yadidanti nip±to, tassa µh±na½ sandh±ya “ya½ idan”ti, paµiccasamupp±da½ sandh±ya “yo ayan”ti evamattho daµµhabbo. Idappaccayat±paµiccasamupp±doti imesa½ paccay± idappaccay±, idappaccay± eva idappaccayat±, idappaccayat± ca s± paµiccasamupp±do c±ti idappaccayat±paµiccasamupp±do. SaŖkh±r±dipaccay±na½ eta½ adhivacana½. SabbasaŖkh±rasamathoti-±di sabba½ nibb±nameva. Yasm± hi ta½ ±gamma sabbasaŖkh±ravipphandit±ni samanti, v³pasammanti, tasm± sabbasaŖkh±rasamathoti vuccati. Yasm± ca ta½ ±gamma sabbe upadhayo paµinissaµµh± honti, sabb± taŗh± kh²yanti, sabbe kilesar±g± virajjanti, sabba½ dukkha½ nirujjhati, tasm± sabb³padhipaµinissaggo taŗh±kkhayo vir±go nirodhoti vuccati. Y± panes± taŗh± bhavena bhava½, phalena v± saddhi½ kamma½ vinati sa½sibbat²ti katv± v±nanti vuccati, tato nikkhanta½ v±natoti nibb±na½. So mamassa kilamathoti y± aj±nant±na½ desan± n±ma, so mama kilamatho assa, s± mama vihes± ass±ti attho. K±yakilamatho ceva k±yavihes± ca ass±ti vutta½ hoti. Citte pana ubhayampeta½ buddh±na½ natthi. Apiss³ti anubr³hanatthe nip±to. So “na kevala½ aya½ parivitakko udap±di, im±pi g±th± paµibha½s³”ti d²peti. Anacchariy±ti anu-acchariy±. Paµibha½s³ti paµibh±nasaŖkh±tassa ń±ŗassa gocar± ahesu½, parivitakkayitabbata½ p±puŗi½su.
Kicchen±ti dukkhena, na dukkh±ya paµipad±ya. Buddh±na½ hi catt±ropi magg± sukhapaµipad±va honti. P±ram²p³raŗak±le pana sar±gasadosasamohasseva sato ±gat±gat±na½ y±cak±na½ alaŖkatapaµiyatta½ s²sa½ kantitv± galalohita½ n²haritv± su-ańjit±ni akkh²ni upp±µetv± kulava½sappad²pa½ putta½ man±pac±rini½ bhariyanti evam±d²ni dentassa ańń±ni ca khantiv±disadisesu attabh±vesu chejjabhejj±d²ni p±puŗantassa ±gaman²yapaµipada½ sandh±yeta½ vutta½. Halanti ettha ha-k±ro nip±tamatto, alanti attho. Pak±situnti desitu½, eva½ kicchena adhigatassa ala½ desitu½ pariyatta½ desitu½. Ko attho desiten±ti vutta½ hoti? R±gadosapareteh²ti r±gadosaphuµµhehi r±gados±nugatehi v±.
Paµisotag±minti nicc±d²na½ paµisota½, “anicca½ dukkhamanatt± asubhan”ti eva½ gata½ catusaccadhamma½. R±garatt±ti k±mar±gena bhavar±gena diµµhir±gena ca ratt±. Na dakkhant²ti anicca½ dukkhamanatt± asubhanti imin± sabh±vena na passissanti te apassante ko sakkhissati eva½ g±h±petu½. Tamokhandhena ±vuµ±ti avijj±r±sin± ajjhotthaµ±.
Appossukkat±y±ti nirussukkabh±vena, adesetuk±mat±y±ti attho. Kasm± panassa eva½ citta½ nami? Nanu esa mutto mocess±mi, tiŗŗo t±ress±mi–
“Ki½ me ańń±tavesena, dhamma½ sacchikatenidha;
sabbańńuta½ p±puŗitv±, t±rayissa½ sadevakan”ti. (Bu. va½. 2.56)–

Patthana½ katv± p±ramiyo p³retv± sabbańńuta½ pattoti? Saccameta½, tadeva½ paccavekkhaŗ±nubh±vena panassa eva½ citta½ nami. Tassa hi sabbańńuta½ patv± satt±na½ kilesagahanata½, dhammassa ca gambh²rata½ paccavekkhantassa satt±na½ kilesagahanat± ca dhammagambh²rat± ca sabb±k±rena p±kaµ± j±t±. Athassa– “ime satt± kańjiyapuŗŗ± l±bu viya, takkabharit± c±µi viya, vas±telap²tapilotik± viya, ańjanamakkhitahattho viya ca kilesabharit± atisa½kiliµµh± r±garatt± dosaduµµh± moham³¼h±, te ki½ n±ma paµivijjhissant²”ti? Cintayato kilesagahanapaccavekkhaŗ±nubh±ven±pi eva½ citta½ nami.

“Ayańca dhammo pathav²sandh±raka-udakakkhandho viya gambh²ro, pabbatena paµicch±detv± µhapito s±sapo viya duddaso, satadh± bhinnassa v±lassa koµiy± koµipaµip±dana½ viya duranubodho. Nanu may± hi ima½ dhamma½ paµivijjhitu½ v±yamantena adinna½ d±na½ n±ma natthi, arakkhita½ s²la½ n±ma natthi, aparip³rit± k±ci p±ram² n±ma natthi, tassa me niruss±ha½ viya m±rabala½ vidhamantass±pi pathav² na kampittha, paµhamay±me pubbeniv±sa½ anussarantass±pi na kampittha, majjhimay±me dibbacakkhu½ visodhentass±pi na kampittha, pacchimay±me pana paµiccasamupp±da½ paµivijjhantasseva me dasasahassilokadh±tu kampittha. Iti m±disen±pi tikkhań±ŗena kicchenev±ya½ dhammo paµividdho. Ta½ lokiyamah±jan± katha½ paµivijjhissant²”ti? Dhammagambh²rapaccavekkhaŗ±nubh±ven±pi eva½ citta½ nam²ti veditabba½.
Apica brahmun± y±cite desetuk±mat±yapissa eva½ citta½ nami. J±n±ti hi bhagav±– “mama appossukkat±ya citte namam±ne ma½ mah±brahm± dhammadesana½ y±cissati, ime ca satt± brahmagaruk±. Te ‘satth± kira dhamma½ na desetuk±mo ahosi. Atha na½ mah±brahm± y±citv± des±pesi. Santo vata bho dhammo, paŗ²to vata bho dhammo’ti mańńam±n± suss³sissant²”ti. Idampissa k±raŗa½ paµicca appossukkat±ya citta½ nami, no dhammadesan±y±ti veditabba½.
Sahampatiss±ti so kira kassapassa bhagavato s±sane sahako n±ma thero paµhamajjh±na½ nibbattetv± paµhamajjh±nabh³miya½ kapp±yukabrahm± hutv± nibbatto. Tatra na½ “sahampatibrahm±”ti paµisańj±nanti. Ta½ sandh±y±ha “brahmuno sahampatiss±”ti. Nassati vata bhoti so kira ima½ sadda½ tath± nicch±resi, yath± dasasahassilokadh±tubrahm±no sutv± sabbe sannipati½su. Yatra hi n±m±ti yasmi½ n±ma loke. Purato p±turahos²ti tehi dasahi brahmasahassehi saddhi½ p±turahosi. Apparajakkhaj±tik±ti pańń±maye akkhimhi appa½ paritta½ r±gadosamoharaja½ etesa½ eva½sabh±v±ti apparajakkhaj±tik±. Assavanat±ti assavanat±ya. Bhavissant²ti purimabuddhesu dasapuńńakiriyavasena kat±dhik±r± parip±kagat± padum±ni viya s³riyarasmisamphassa½, dhammadesana½yeva ±kaŖkham±n± catuppadikag±th±vas±ne ariyabh³mi½ okkaman±rah± na eko, na dve, anekasatasahass± dhammassa ańń±t±ro bhavissant²ti dasseti.
P±turahos²ti p±tubhavi. Samalehi cintitoti samalehi chahi satth±rehi cintito. Te hi puretara½ uppajjitv± sakalajambud²pe kaŗµake pattharam±n± viya, visa½ sińcam±n± viya ca samala½ micch±diµµhidhamma½ desayi½su. Ap±puretanti vivara½ eta½. Amatassa dv±ranti amatassa nibb±nassa dv±rabh³ta½ ariyamagga½. Suŗantu dhamma½ vimalen±nubuddhanti ime satt± r±g±dimal±na½ abh±vato vimalena samm±sambuddhena anubuddha½ catusaccadhamma½ suŗantu t±va bhagav±ti y±cati.
Sele yath± pabbatamuddhaniµµhitoti selamaye ekagghane pabbatamuddhani yath±µhitova. Na hi tassa µhitassa dassanattha½ g²vukkhipanapas±raŗ±dikicca½ atthi. Tath³pamanti tappaµibh±ga½ selapabbat³pama½. Aya½ panettha saŖkhepattho– yath± selapabbatamuddhani µhitova cakkhum± puriso samantato janata½ passeyya tath± tvampi sumedha sundarapańńa sabbańńutań±ŗena samantacakkhu bhagav± dhammamaya½ p±s±dam±ruyha saya½ apetasoko sok±vatiŗŗa½ j±tijar±bhibh³ta½ janata½ avekkhassu upadh±raya upaparikkha. Aya½ panettha adhipp±yo– yath± hi pabbatap±de samant± mahanta½ khetta½ katv±, tattha ked±rap±¼²su kuµik±yo katv± ratti½ aggi½ j±leyyu½, caturaŖgasamann±gatańca andhak±ra½ assa, atha tassa pabbatassa matthake µhatv± cakkhumato purisassa bh³mi½ olokayato neva khetta½ na ked±rap±¼iyo na kuµiyo na tattha sayitamanuss± pańń±yeyyu½. Kuµik±su pana aggij±l±mattakameva pańń±yeyya, eva½ dhammap±s±da½ ±ruyha sattanik±ya½ olokayato tath±gatassa ye te akatakaly±ŗ± satt±, te ekavih±re dakkhiŗaj±ŗupasse nisinn±pi buddhacakkhussa ±p±tha½ n±gacchanti, ratti½ khitt± sar± viya honti. Ye pana katakaly±ŗ± veneyyapuggal±, te evassa d³repi µhit± ±p±tha½ ±gacchanti so aggi viya himavantapabbato viya ca. Vuttampi ceta½–
“D³re santo pak±senti, himavantova pabbato;
asantettha na dissanti, ratti½ khitt± yath± sar±”ti. (Dha. pa. 304).
Ajjhesananti y±cana½. Buddhacakkhun±ti indriyaparopariyattań±ŗena ca ±say±nusayań±ŗena ca. Imesa½ hi dvinna½ ń±ŗ±na½ “buddhacakkh³”ti n±ma½, sabbańńutańń±ŗassa “samantacakkh³”ti, tiŗŗa½ maggań±ŗ±na½ “dhammacakkh³”ti. Apparajakkheti-±d²su yesa½ vuttanayeneva pańń±cakkhumhi r±g±diraja½ appa½, te apparajakkh±. Yesa½ ta½ mahanta½, te mah±rajakkh±. Yesa½ saddh±d²ni indriy±ni tikkh±ni, te tikkhindriy±. Yesa½ t±ni mud³ni, te mudindriy±. Yesa½ teyeva saddh±dayo ±k±r± sundar±, te sv±k±r±. Ye kathitak±raŗa½ sallakkhenti, sukhena sakk± honti vińń±petu½, te suvińń±pay±. Ye paralokańceva vajjańca bhayato passanti, te paralokavajjabhayadass±vino n±ma.
Aya½ panettha p±¼i– “saddho puggalo apparajakkho, assaddho puggalo mah±rajakkho. ¾raddhav²riyo, kus²to. Upaµµhitassati, muµµhassati. Sam±hito asam±hito. Pańńav±, duppańńo puggalo mah±rajakkho. Tath± saddho puggalo tikkhindriyo…pe… pańńav± puggalo paralokavajjabhayadass±v², duppańńo puggalo na paralokavajjabhayadass±v². Lokoti khandhaloko, ±yatanaloko, dh±tuloko, sampattibhavaloko, sampattisambhavaloko, vipattibhavaloko, vipattisambhavaloko. Eko loko sabbe satt± ±h±raµµhitik±. Dve lok± n±mańca r³pańca. Tayo lok± tisso vedan±. Catt±ro lok± catt±ro ±h±r±. Pańca lok± pańcup±d±nakkhandh±. Cha lok± cha ajjhattik±ni ±yatan±ni. Satta lok± satta vińń±ŗaµµhitiyo. Aµµha lok± aµµha lokadhamm±. Nava lok± nava satt±v±s±. Dasa lok± das±yatan±ni. Dv±dasa lok± dv±das±yatan±ni. Aµµh±rasa lok± aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo. Vajjanti sabbe kiles± vajj±, sabbe duccarit± vajj±, sabbe abhisaŖkh±r± vajj±, sabbe bhavag±mikamm± vajj±, iti imasmińca loke imasmińca vajje tibb± bhayasańń± paccupaµµhit± hoti, seyyath±pi ukkhitt±sike vadhake. Imehi pańń±s±ya ±k±rehi im±ni pańcindriy±ni j±n±ti passati ańń±si paµivijjhi. Ida½ tath±gatassa indriyaparopariyatte ń±ŗan”ti (paµi. ma. 1.112).
Uppaliniyanti uppalavane. Itaresupi eseva nayo. Antonimuggapos²n²ti y±ni anto nimugg±neva posiyanti. Udaka½ accuggamma µhit±n² ti udaka½ atikkamitv± µhit±ni. Tattha y±ni accuggamma µhit±ni, t±ni s³riyarasmisamphassa½ ±gamayam±n±ni µhit±ni ajja pupphanak±ni. Y±ni pana samodaka½ µhit±ni, t±ni sve pupphanak±ni. Y±ni udak±nuggat±ni antonimuggapos²ni, t±ni tatiyadivase pupphanak±ni. Udak± pana anuggat±ni ańń±nipi saroga-uppal±d²ni n±ma atthi, y±ni neva pupphissanti, macchakacchapabhakkh±neva bhavissanti, t±ni p±¼i½ n±ru¼h±ni. ¾haritv± pana d²petabb±n²ti d²pit±ni. Yatheva hi t±ni catubbidh±ni pupph±ni, evameva½ ugghaµitańń³ vipańcitańń³ neyyo padaparamoti catt±ro puggal±.
Tattha “yassa puggalassa saha ud±haµavel±ya dhamm±bhisamayo hoti, aya½ vuccati puggalo ugghaµitańń³. Yassa puggalassa sa½khittena bh±sitassa vitth±rena atthe vibhajiyam±ne dhamm±bhisamayo hoti, aya½ vuccati puggalo vipańcitańń³. Yassa puggalassa uddesato paripucchato yoniso manasikaroto kaly±ŗamitte sevato bhajato payirup±sato anupubbena dhamm±bhisamayo hoti, aya½ vuccati puggalo neyyo. Yassa puggalassa bahumpi suŗato bahumpi bhaŗato bahumpi dh±rayato bahumpi v±cayato na t±ya j±tiy± dhamm±bhisamayo hoti, aya½ vuccati puggalo padaparamo (pu. pa. 148-151). Tattha bhagav± uppalavan±disadisa½ dasasahassilokadh±tu½ olokento– “ajja pupphanak±ni viya ugghaµitańń³, sve pupphanak±ni viya vipańcitańń³, tatiyadivase pupphanak±ni viya neyyo, macchakacchapabhakkh±ni pupph±ni viya padaparamo”ti addassa. Passanto ca “ettak± apparajakkh±, ettak± mah±rajakkh±, tatr±pi ettak± ugghaµitańń³”ti eva½ sabb±k±ratova addasa.
Tattha tiŗŗa½ puggal±na½ imasmi½yeva attabh±ve bhagavato dhammadesan± attha½ s±dheti. Padaparam±na½ an±gatatth±ya v±san± hoti. Atha bhagav± imesa½ catunna½ puggal±na½ atth±vaha½ dhammadesana½ viditv± desetukamyata½ upp±detv± puna sabbepi t²su bhavesu satte bhabb±bhabbavasena dve koµµh±se ak±si. Ye sandh±ya vutta½– “katame satt± abhabb±? Ye te satt± kamm±varaŗena samann±gat± kiles±varaŗena samann±gat± vip±k±varaŗena samann±gat± assaddh± acchandik± duppańń± abhabb± niy±ma½ okkamitu½ kusalesu dhammesu sammatta½, ime te satt± abhabb±. Katame satt± bhabb±? Ye te satt± na kamm±varaŗena…pe… ime te satt± bhabb±”ti (vibha. 827; paµi. ma. 1.115). Tattha sabbepi abhabbapuggale pah±ya bhabbapuggaleyeva ń±ŗena pariggahetv±, “ettak± r±gacarit± ettak± dosa-mohacarit± vitakka-saddh±-buddhicarit±”ti cha koµµh±se ak±si. Eva½ katv± dhamma½ desess±m²ti cintesi.
Paccabh±s²ti pati-abh±si. Ap±rut±ti vivaµ±. Amatassa dv±r±ti ariyamaggo. So hi amatasaŖkh±tassa nibb±nassa dv±ra½, so may± vivaritv± µhapitoti dasseti. Pamuńcantu saddhanti sabbe attano saddha½ pamuńcantu vissajjentu. Pacchimapadadvaye ayamattho– ahańhi attano paguŗa½ suppavattitampi ima½ paŗ²ta½ uttama½ dhamma½ k±yav±c±kilamathasańń² hutv± na bh±si½. Id±ni pana sabbo jano saddh±bh±jana½ upanetu, p³ress±mi tesa½ saŖkappanti.
Antaradh±y²ti satth±ra½ gandham±l±d²hi p³jetv± antarahito, sakaµµh±nameva gatoti attho. Gate ca pana tasmi½ bhagav± “kassa nu kho aha½ paµhama½ dhamma½ deseyyan”ti? ¾¼±rudak±na½ k±laŖkatabh±va½, pańcavaggiy±nańca bah³pak±rabh±va½ ńatv± tesa½ dhamma½ desetuk±mo b±r±ŗasiya½ isipatana½ gantv± dhammacakka½ pavattes²ti. Paµhama½.