5. Br±hmaºavaggo

1. Brahm±yusuttavaººan±

383. Eva½ me sutanti brahm±yusutta½. Tattha mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhinti mahat±ti guºamahattenapi mahat±, saªkhy±mahattenapi. So hi bhikkhusaªghe guºehipi mah± ahosi appicchat±diguºasamann±gatatt±, saªkhy±yapi mah± pañcasatasaªkhyatt±. Bhikkh³na½ saªghena bhikkhusaªghena, diµµhis²las±maññasaªgh±tasaªkh±tena samaºagaºen±ti attho. Saddhinti ekato. Pañcamattehi bhikkhusateh²ti pañca matt± etesanti pañcamatt±ni. Matt±ti pam±ºa½ vuccati, tasm± yath± bhojane mattaññ³ti vutte bhojane matta½ j±n±ti pam±ºa½ j±n±t²ti attho hoti, evamidh±pi tesa½ bhikkhusat±na½ pañcamatt± pañcapam±ºanti evamattho daµµhabbo. Bhikkh³na½ sat±ni bhikkhusat±ni. Tehi pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi.
V²savassasatikoti v²s±dhikavassasatiko. Tiººa½ ved±nanti iruvedayajuvedas±maved±na½. Oµµhapahatakaraºavasena p±ra½ gatoti p±rag³. Saha nighaº¹un± ca keµubhena ca sanighaº¹ukeµubh±na½, nighaº¹³ti n±manighaºµurukkh±d²na½ vevacanappak±saka½ sattha½. Keµubhanti kiriy±kappavikappo kav²na½ upak±r±ya sattha½. Saha akkharappabhedena sakkharappabhed±na½. Akkharappabhedoti sikkh± ca nirutti ca. Itih±sapañcam±nanti ±thabbaºaveda½ catuttha½ katv± “itiha ±sa itiha ±s±”ti ²disavacanappaµisa½yutto pur±ºakath±saªkh±to itih±so pañcamo etesanti itih±sapañcam±, tesa½ itih±sapañcam±na½. Padañca tadavasesañca by±karaºa½ adh²yati pavedeti c±ti padako veyy±karaºo. Lok±yata½ vuccati vitaº¹av±dasattha½. Mah±purisalakkhaºanti mah±puris±na½ buddh±d²na½ lakkhaºad²paka½ dv±dasasahassaganthappam±ºa½ sattha½, yattha so¼asasahassag±th±parim±º±ya buddhamant± n±ma ahesu½, yesa½ vasena “imin± lakkhaºena samann±gat± buddh± n±ma honti, imin± paccekabuddh± n±ma honti, imin± dve aggas±vak±, as²timah±s±vak±, buddham±t±, buddhapit±, aggupaµµh±ko, aggupaµµh±yik±, r±j± cakkavatt²”ti aya½ viseso ñ±yati. Anavayoti imesu lok±yatamah±purisalakkhaºesu an³no parip³rak±r², avayo na hot²ti vutta½ hoti. Avayo n±ma yo t±ni atthato ca ganthato ca sandh±retu½ na sakkoti. Assosi khoti-±d²su ya½ vattabba½ siy±, ta½ s±leyyakasutte (ma. ni. 1.439 ±dayo) vuttameva.
384. Aya½ t±t±ti aya½ mahallakat±ya gantu½ asakkonto m±ºava½ ±mantetv± evam±ha. Apica esa br±hmaºo cintesi “imasmi½ loke ‘aha½ buddho aha½ buddho’ti uggatassa n±ma½ gahetv± bah³ jan± vicaranti, tasm± na me anussavamatteneva upasaªkamitu½ yutta½. Ekaccañhi upasaªkamantassa apakkamanampi garu hoti, anatthopi uppajjati. Ya½n³n±ha½ mama antev±sika½ pesetv± ‘buddho v± no v±’ti j±nitv± upasaªkameyyan”ti tasm± m±ºava½ ±mantetv± “aya½ t±t±”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ bhavantanti tassa bhavato. Tath± santa½yev±ti tath± satoyeva. Idañhi itthambh³t±khy±natthe upayogavacana½. Yath± katha½ pan±ha½, bhoti ettha katha½ pan±ha½, bho, ta½ bhavanta½ gotama½ j±niss±mi, yath± sakk± so ñ±tu½, tath± me ±cikkh±ti attho. Yath±ti v± nip±tamattameveta½. Kathanti aya½ ±k±rapucch±, ken±k±ren±ha½ bhavanta½ gotama½ j±niss±m²ti attho.
Eva½ vutte kira na½ upajjh±yo– “ki½ tva½, t±ta, pathaviya½ µhito pathavi½ na pass±m²ti viya candimas³riy±na½ obh±se µhito candimas³riye na pass±m²ti viya vadas²”ti-±d²ni vatv± j±nan±k±ra½ dassento ±gat±ni kho t±t±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha mantes³ti vedesu. Tath±gato kira uppajjissat²ti paµikacceva suddh±v±s± dev± vedesu lakkhaº±ni pakkhipitv± “buddhamant± n±ma ete”ti br±hmaºavesena vede v±centi “tadanus±rena mahesakkh± satt± tath±gata½ j±nissant²”ti. Tena pubbe vedesu mah±purisalakkhaº±ni ±gacchanti. Parinibbute pana tath±gate anukkamena antaradh±yanti, tena etarahi natthi. Mah±purisass±ti paºidhisam±d±nañ±ºakaruº±diguºamahato purisassa. Dveyeva gatiyoti dve eva niµµh± K±mañc±ya½ gatisaddo– “pañca kho im± s±riputta, gatiyo”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.153) bhavabhede vattati, “gati mig±na½ pavanan”ti-±d²su (pari. 339) niv±saµµh±ne, “eva½ adhimattagatimanto”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.161) paññ±ya, “gatigatan”ti-±d²su visaµabh±ve, idha pana niµµh±ya½ vattat²ti veditabbo. Tattha kiñc±pi yehi samann±gato r±j± hoti, na teheva buddho hoti, j±tis±maññato pana t±niyeva t±n²ti vuccanti. Tena vutta½– “yehi samann±gatass±”ti. Sace ag±ra½ ajjh±vasat²ti yadi ag±re vasati, r±j± hoti cakkavatt². Cat³hi acchariyadhammehi saªgahavatth³hi ca loka½ rañjanato r±j±. Cakkaratana½ vatteti, cat³hi sampatticakkehi vatteti, tehi ca para½ vatteti, parahit±ya ca iriy±pathacakk±na½ vatto etasmi½ atth²ti cakkavatt². Ettha ca r±j±ti s±mañña½, cakkavatt²ti visesana½. Dhammena carat²ti dhammiko, ñ±yena samena vattat²ti attho. Dhammena rajja½ labhitv± r±j± j±toti dhammar±j±. Parahitadhammakaraºena v± dhammiko, attahitadhammakaraºena dhammar±j±. Caturant±ya issaroti c±turanto, catusamuddant±ya catubbidhad²pabh³sit±ya ca pathaviy± issaroti attho. Ajjhatta½ kop±dipaccatthike bahiddh± ca sabbar±j±no vijes²ti vijit±v². Janapadatth±variyappattoti janapade th±varabh±va½ dhuvabh±va½ patto, na sakk± kenaci c±letu½, janapado v± tamhi th±variyappatto anussukko sakammanirato acalo asampavedh²ti janapadatth±variyappatto. Seyyathidanti nip±to, tassa t±ni katam±n²ti attho. Cakkaratananti-±d²su cakkañca ta½ ratijananatthena ratanañc±ti cakkaratana½. Eseva nayo sabbattha.
Imesu pana ratanesu aya½ cakkavattir±j± cakkaratanena ajita½ jin±ti, hatthi-assaratanehi vijite yath±sukha½ anuvicarati, pariº±yakaratanena vijitamanurakkhati, sesehi upabhogasukhamanubhavati. Paµhamena cassa uss±hasattiyogo, hatthi-assagahapatiratanehi pabhusattiyogo, pacchimena mantasattiyogo suparipuººo hoti, itthimaºiratanehi tividhasattiyogaphala½. So itthimaºiratanehi bhogasukhamanubhavati, sesehi issariyasukha½. Visesato cassa purim±ni t²ºi adosakusalam³lajanitakamm±nubh±vena sampajjanti, majjhim±ni alobhakusalam³lajanitakamm±nubh±vena, pacchimameka½ amohakusalam³lajanitakamm±nubh±ven±ti veditabba½. Ayamettha saªkhepo, vitth±ro pana bojjhaªgasa½yutte ratanasuttassa (sa½. ni. 5.222-223) upadesato gahetabbo. Apica b±lapaº¹itasuttepi (ma. ni. 3.255) imesa½ ratan±na½ uppattikkamena saddhi½ vaººan± ±gamissati.
Parosahassanti atirekasahassa½. S³r±ti abh²rukaj±tik±. V²raªgar³p±ti devaputtasadisak±y±, eva½ t±va eke vaººayanti, aya½ panettha sabh±vo– v²r±ti uttamas³r± vuccanti. V²r±na½ aªga½ v²raªga½, v²rak±raºa½ v²riyanti vutta½ hoti. V²raªga½ r³pa½ etesanti v²raªgar³p±, v²riyamayasar²r± viy±ti vutta½ hoti. Parasenappamaddan±ti sace paµimukha½ tiµµheyya parasen±, ta½ madditu½ samatth±ti adhipp±yo. Dhammen±ti “p±ºo na hantabbo”ti-±din± pañcas²ladhammena.
Araha½ hoti samm±sambuddho loke vivaµµacchadoti ettha r±gadosamoham±nadiµµhi-avijj±duccaritachadanehi sattahi paµicchanne kilesandhak±raloke ta½ chadana½ vivaµµetv± samantato sañj±t±loko hutv± µhitoti vivaµµacchado. Tattha paµhamena padena p³j±rahat±, dutiyena tass± hetu yasm± samm±sambuddhoti, tatiyena buddhattahetubh³t± vivaµµacchadat± vutt±ti veditabb±. Atha v± vivaµµo ca vicchado c±ti vivaµµacchado, vaµµarahito chadanarahito c±ti vutta½ hoti. Tena araha½ vaµµ±bh±vena, samm±sambuddho chadan±bh±ven±ti eva½ purimapadadvayasseva hetudvaya½ vutta½ hoti. Dutiyaves±rajjena cettha purimasiddhi, paµhamena dutiyasiddhi, tatiyacatutthehi tatiyasiddhi hoti. Purimañca dhammacakkhu½, dutiya½ buddhacakkhu½, tatiya½ samantacakkhu½ s±dhet²tipi veditabba½. Tva½ mant±na½ paµiggahet±ti imin±ssa s³rabh±va½ janeti.
385. Sopi t±ya ±cariyakath±ya lakkhaºesu vigatasammoho ekobh±saj±to viya buddhamante sampassam±no eva½, bhoti ±ha. Tassattho– yath±, bho, ma½ tva½ vadasi, eva½ kariss±m²ti. Samannes²ti gavesi, eka½ dveti v± gaºayanto sam±nayi. Addas± khoti katha½ addasa? Buddh±nañhi nisinn±na½ v± nipann±na½ v± koci lakkhaºa½ pariyesitu½ na sakkoti, µhit±na½ pana caªkamant±na½ v± sakkoti. Tasm± lakkhaºapariyesanattha½ ±gata½ disv± buddh± uµµh±y±san± tiµµhanti v± caªkama½ v± adhiµµhahanti. Iti lakkhaºadassan±nur³pe iriy±pathe vattam±nassa addasa. Yebhuyyen±ti p±yena, bahuk±ni addasa, app±ni na addas±ti attho. Tato y±ni na addasa, tesa½ d²panattha½ vutta½ µhapetv± dveti. Kaªkhat²ti “aho vata passeyyan”ti patthana½ upp±deti. Vicikicchat²ti tato tato t±ni vicinanto kicchati na sakkoti daµµhu½. N±dhimuccat²ti t±ya vicikicch±ya sanniµµh±na½ na gacchati. Na sampas²dat²ti tato “paripuººalakkhaºo ayan”ti bhagavati pas±da½ n±pajjati. Kaªkh±ya v± dubbal± vimati vutt±, vicikicch±ya majjhim±, anadhimuccanat±ya balavat², asampas±dena tehi t²hi dhammehi cittassa k±lussiyabh±vo. Kosohiteti vatthikosena paµicchanne. Vatthaguyheti aªgaj±te. Bhagavato hi v±raºasseva kosohitavatthaguyha½ suvaººavaººa½ padumagabbhasam±na½, ta½ so vatthapaµicchannatt±, antomukhagat±ya ca jivh±ya pah³tabh±va½ asallakkhento tesu dv²su lakkhaºesu kaªkh² ahosi vicikicch².
Atha kho bhagav±ti atha bhagav± cintesi– “sac±ha½ imassa et±ni dve lakkhaº±ni na dassess±mi, nikkaªkho na bhavissati. Etassa kaªkh±ya sati ±cariyopissa nikkaªkho na bhavissati, atha ma½ dassan±ya na ±gamissati, an±gato dhamma½ na sossati, dhamma½ asuºanto t²ºi s±maññaphal±ni na sacchikarissati. Etasmi½ pana nikkaªkhe ±cariyopissa nikkaªkho ma½ upasaªkamitv± dhamma½ sutv± t²ºi s±maññaphal±ni sacchikarissati. Etadattha½yeva ca may± p±ramiyo p³rit±. Dassess±missa t±ni lakkhaº±n²”ti.
Tath±r³pa½ iddh±bhisaªkh±ramak±si. Katha½r³pa½? Kimettha aññena vattabba½? Vuttameta½ n±gasenatthereneva milindaraññ± puµµhena–
¾ha ca dukkara½, bhante n±gasena, bhagavat± katanti. Ki½ mah±r±j±ti? Mah±janena hirikaraºok±sa½ brahm±yubr±hmaºassa ca antev±si-uttarassa ca b±variyassa antev±s²na½ so¼asabr±hmaº±nañca selassa ca br±hmaºassa antev±s²na½ tisatam±ºav±nañca dassesi, bhanteti. Na, mah±r±ja, bhagav± guyha½ dasseti, ch±ya½ bhagav± dasseti, iddhiy± abhisaªkharitv± niv±sananivattha½ k±yabandhanabaddha½ c²varap±ruta½ ch±y±r³pakamatta½ dassesi mah±r±j±ti. Ch±ya½ diµµhe sati diµµhoyeva. Nanu, bhanteti? Tiµµhateta½, mah±r±ja, hadayar³pa½ disv± bujjhanakasatto bhaveyya, hadayama½sa½ n²haritv± dasseyya samm±sambuddhoti. Kallosi, bhante n±gasen±ti.