Suttanikkhepavaººan±

Nikkhittass±ti desitassa. Desan±pi hi desetabbassa s²l±di-atthassa vineyyasant±nesu nikkhipanato “nikkhepo”ti vuccati. Suttanikkhepa½ vic±retv± vuccam±n± p±kaµ± hot²ti s±maññato bhagavato desan±samuµµh±nassa vibh±ga½ dassetv± “etth±ya½ desan± eva½samuµµh±n±”ti desan±ya samuµµh±ne dassite suttassa sammadeva nid±naparij±nanena vaººan±ya suviññeyyatt± vutta½. Evañhi “assutav± bhikkhave puthujjano”ti-±din±, “yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araha½ kh²º±savo”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.8), “tath±gatopi kho, bhikkhave, araha½ samm±sambuddho”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.12) ca pavattadesan± anusandhidassanasukhat±ya suviññeyy± hoti. Tattha yath± anekasata-anekasahassabhed±nipi suttant±ni sa½kilesabh±giy±dipadh±nanayavasena so¼asavidhata½ n±tivattanti, eva½ attajjh±say±disuttanikkhepavasena catubbidhabh±vanti ±ha “catt±ro hi suttanikkhep±”ti.
Ettha ca yath± attajjh±sayassa aµµhuppattiy± ca parajjh±sayapucch±hi saddhi½ sa½saggabhedo sambhavati “attajjh±sayo ca parajjh±sayo ca, attajjh±sayo ca pucch±vasiko ca, aµµhuppattiko ca parajjh±sayo ca, aµµhuppattiko ca pucch±vasiko c±”ti ajjh±sayapucch±nusandhisabbh±vato, eva½ yadipi aµµhuppattiy± attajjh±sayenapi sa½saggabhedo sambhavati, attajjh±say±d²hi pana purato µhitehi aµµhuppattiy± sa½saggo natth²ti nayidha niravaseso vitth±ranayo sambhavat²ti “catt±ro suttanikkhep±”ti vutta½, tadantogadhatt± v± sambhavant±na½ sesanikkhep±na½ m³lanikkhepavasena catt±rova dassit±. Tath±dassanañcettha aya½ sa½saggabhedo gahetabboti.
Tatr±ya½ vacanattho– nikkhip²yat²ti nikkhepo, sutta½ eva nikkhepo suttanikkhepo. Atha v± nikkhipana½ nikkhepo, suttassa nikkhepo suttanikkhepo, suttadesan±ti attho. Attano ajjh±sayo attajjh±sayo, so assa atthi k±raºabh³toti attajjh±sayo. Attano ajjh±sayo etass±ti v± attajjh±sayo. Parajjh±sayepi eseva nayo. Pucch±ya vaso pucch±vaso, so etassa atth²ti pucch±vasiko. Suttadesan±vatthubh³tassa atthassa uppatti atthuppatti, atthuppattiyeva aµµhuppatti ttha-k±rassa µµha-k±ra½ katv±. S± etassa atth²ti aµµhuppattiko. Atha v± nikkhip²yati sutta½ eten±ti suttanikkhepo, attajjh±say±di eva. Etasmi½ pana attavikappe attano ajjh±sayo attajjh±sayo. Paresa½ ajjh±sayo parajjh±sayo. Pucch²yat²ti pucch±, pucchitabbo attho. Pucchanavasena pavatta½ dhammapaµigg±hak±na½ vacana½ pucch±vasika½, tadeva nikkhepa-sadd±pekkh±ya pulliªgavasena “pucch±vasiko”ti vutta½. Tath± aµµhuppatti eva aµµhuppattikoti evampettha attho veditabbo.
Apicettha paresa½ indriyaparip±k±dik±raºanirapekkhatt± attajjh±sayassa visu½ suttanikkhepabh±vo yutto kevala½ attano ajjh±sayeneva dhammatantiµhapanattha½ pavattitadesanatt±. Parajjh±sayapucch±vasik±na½ pana paresa½ ajjh±sayapucch±na½ desan±pavattihetubh³t±na½ uppattiya½ pavattit±na½ kathamaµµhuppattiya½ anavarodho, pucch±vasika-aµµhuppattik±na½ v± parajjh±say±nurodhena pavattik±na½ katha½ parajjh±saye anavarodhoti? Na codetabbameta½. Paresañhi abhin²h±raparipucch±divinimuttasseva suttadesan±k±raºupp±dassa aµµhuppattibh±vena gahitatt± parajjh±sayapucch±vasik±na½ visu½ gahaºa½. Tath± hi brahmaj±la (d². ni. 1.1) dhammad±y±dasutt±d²na½ (ma. ni. 1.29) vaºº±vaººa-±misupp±d±didesan±nimitta½ “aµµhuppatt²”ti vuccati. Paresa½ puccha½ vin± ajjh±saya½ eva nimitta½ katv± desito parajjh±sayo, pucch±vasena desito pucch±vasikoti p±kaµoyamatthoti.
Attano ajjh±sayeneva kathesi dhammatantiµhapanatthanti daµµhabba½. Sammappadh±nasuttantah±rakoti anupubbena nikkhitt±na½ sa½yuttake sammappadh±napaµisa½yutt±na½ sutt±na½ ±va¼i. Tath± iddhip±dah±rak±dayo.
Vimuttiparip±can²y± dhamm± saddhindriy±dayo. Ajjh±sayanti adhimutti½. Khantinti diµµhinijjh±nakkhanti½. Mananti citta½. Abhinih±ranti paºidh±na½. Bujjhanabh±vanti bujjhanasabh±va½, paµivijjhan±k±ra½ v±.
Uppanne m±ne nikkhittanti sambandho. Itthiliªg±d²ni t²ºi liªg±ni. N±m±d²ni catt±ri pad±ni. Paµham±dayo satta vibhattiyo. Muñcitv± na kiñci katheti sabh±vaniruttiy± tatheva pavattanato. Gaºµhibh³ta½ pada½. Yath± hi rukkhassa gaºµhiµµh±na½ dubbinibbedha½ duttacchitañca hoti, evameva½ ya½ pada½ atthato vivaritu½ na sakk±, ta½ “gaºµhipadan”ti vuccati. Anupahacc±ti anuddharitv±.
Yena yena sambandha½ gacchati, tassa tassa anavasesata½ d²pet²ti imin± imassa sabba-saddassa sappadesata½ dasseti. Sabba-saddo hi sabbasabba½ padesasabba½ ±yatanasabba½ sakk±yasabbanti cat³su visayesu diµµhappayogo. Tath± hesa “sabbe dhamm± sabb±k±rena buddhassa bhagavato ñ±ºamukhe ±p±tham±gacchant²”ti-±d²su (mah±ni. 156; c³¼ani. 85; paµi. ma. 3.6) sabbasabbasmi½ ±gato. “Sabbesa½ vo, s±riputta, subh±sita½ pariy±yen±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.345) padesasabbasmi½. “Sabba½ vo, bhikkhave, desess±mi…pe… cakkhuñceva r³p± ca…pe… mano ceva dhamm± c±”ti (sa½. ni. 4.23) ettha ±yatanasabbasmi½. “Sabba½ sabbato sañj±n±t²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.5) sakk±yasabbasmi½. Tattha sabbasabbasmi½ ±gato nippadeso, itaresu t²supi ±gato sappadeso, idha pana sakk±yasabbasmi½ veditabbo. Tath± hi vakkhati “sakk±yapariy±pann± pana tebh³makadhamm±va anavasesato veditabb±”ti (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.1 suttanikkhepavaººan±).
Sacces³ti ariyasaccesu. Ete caturo dhamm±ti id±ni vuccam±ne sacc±dike catt±ro dhamme sandh±ya vadati. Tattha saccanti vac²sacca½. Ýhit²ti v²riya½, “dhit²”ti v± p±µho, so evattho. C±goti alobho. Diµµha½ so ativattat²ti yasmi½ ete sacc±dayo dhamm± upalabbhanti, so diµµha½ attano amitta½ atikkamati, na tassa hatthata½ gacchati, atha kho na½ abhibhavati ev±ti attho. Sabh±ve vattati asabh±vadhammassa k±raº±sambhavato. Na hi nissabh±v± dhamm± kenaci nibbatt²yanti. Attano lakkhaºa½ dh±rent²ti yadipi lakkhaºavinimutt± dhamm± n±ma natthi, tath±pi yath± diµµhitaºh±parikappit±k±ramatt± attasubhasukhasassat±dayo, pakatiy±dayo, dabb±dayo, j²v±dayo, k±y±dayo lokavoh±ramattasiddh± gagaºakusum±dayova saccikaµµhaparamatthato na upalabbhanti, na evamete, ete pana saccikaµµhaparamatthabh³t± upalabbhanti, tato eva satt±divisesavirahato dhammamatt± sabh±vavantoti dassanattha½ “attano lakkhaºa½ dh±rent²”ti vutta½ Bhavati hi bhed±bh±vepi sukh±vabodhanattha½ upac±ramattasiddhena bhedena niddeso yath± “sil±puttakassa sar²ran”ti. Dh±r²yanti v± yath±sabh±vato avadh±r²yanti ñ±yant²ti dhamm±, kakkha¼aphusan±dayo.
As±dh±raºahetumh²ti as±dh±raºak±raºe, sakk±yadhammesu tassa tassa ±veºikapaccayeti attho. Ki½ pana tanti? Taºh±m±nadiµµhiyo, avijj±dayopi v±. Yatheva hi pathav²-±d²su maññan±vatth³su uppajjam±n± taºh±dayo maññan± tesa½ pavattiy± m³lak±raºa½, eva½ avijj±dayopi. Tath± hi “assutav± puthujjano”ti-±din± “apariññ±ta½ tass±ti vad±m²”ti (ma. ni. 1.2) “nand² dukkhassa m³lan”ti (ma. ni. 1.13) ca anvayato, “khay± r±gassa…pe… v²tamohatt±”ti byatirekato ca tesa½ m³lak±raºabh±vo vibh±vito.
Pariy±yeti desetabbamattha½ avagameti bodhayat²ti pariy±yo, desan±. Pariy±yati attano phala½ pariggahetv± vattati tassa v± k±raºabh±va½ gacchat²ti pariy±yo, k±raºa½. Pariy±yati apar±para½ parivattat²ti pariy±yo, v±ro. Eva½ pariy±yasaddassa desan±k±raºav±resu pavatti veditabb±. Yath±rutavasena aggahetv± niddh±retv± gahetabbattha½ neyyattha½. Tebh³mak± dhamm±va anavasesato veditabb± maññan±vatthubh³t±na½ sabbesa½ pathav²-±didhamm±na½ adhippetatt±.
K±raºadesananti k±raºañ±pana½ desana½. Ta½ atthanti ta½ sabbadhamm±na½ m³lak±raºasaªkh±ta½, k±raºadesan±saªkh±ta½ v± attha½. Tenev±ha “ta½ k±raºa½ ta½ desanan”ti. Ekatthametanti eta½ padadvaya½ ekattha½. S±dhu-saddo eva hi ka-k±rena va¹¹hetv± “s±dhukan”ti vutto. Teneva hi s±dhusaddassa attha½ vadantena atthuddh±ravasena s±dhukasaddo ud±haµo. Dhammaruc²ti puññak±mo. Paññ±ºav±ti paññav±. Addubbhoti ad³sako, anupagh±takoti attho. Idh±p²ti imasmi½ m³lapariy±yasuttepi. Ayanti s±dhukasaddo. Ettheva da¼h²kammeti sakkaccakiriy±ya½. ¾ºattiyanti ±º±pane. “Suº±tha s±dhuka½ manasi karoth±”ti hi vutte s±dhukasaddena savanamanasik±r±na½ sakkaccakiriy± viya tad±º±panampi vutta½ hoti. ¾y±canatthat± viya cassa ±º±panatthat± veditabb±.
Id±nettha eva½ yojan± veditabb±ti sambandho. Sotindriyavikkhepav±raºa½ savane niyojanavasena kiriyantarapaµisedhanabh±vato, sota½ odahath±ti attho. Manindriyavikkhepaniv±raºa½ aññacint±paµisedhanato. Purimanti “suº±th±”ti pada½. Etth±ti suº±tha, manasi karoth±”ti padadvaye, etasmi½ v± adhik±re. Byañjanavipall±sagg±hav±raºa½ sotadv±re vikkhepapaµib±hakatt±. Na hi y±th±vato suºantassa saddato vipall±sagg±ho hoti. Atthavipall±sagg±hav±raºa½ manindriyavikkhepapaµib±hakatt±. Na hi sakkacca½ dhamma½ upadh±rentassa atthato vipall±sagg±ho hoti. Dhammassavane niyojeti suº±th±ti vidahanato. Dh±raº³paparikkh±s³ti upaparikkhaggahaºena tulanat²raº±dike diµµhiy± ca suppaµivedha½ saªgaºh±ti.
Sabyañjanoti ettha yath±dhippetamattha½ byañjayat²ti byañjana½, sabh±vanirutti. Saha byañjanen±ti sabyañjano, byañjanasampannoti attho. Araº²yato upagandhabbato anuµµh±tabbato attho, catup±risuddhis²l±diko. Saha atthen±ti s±ttho, atthasampannoti attho. Dhammagambh²roti-±d²su dhammo n±ma tanti. Desan± n±ma tass± manas± vavatth±pit±ya tantiy± desan±. Attho n±ma tantiy± attho. Paµivedho n±ma tantiy± tanti-atthassa ca yath±bh³t±vabodho. Yasm± cete dhammadesan±-atthapaµivedh± sas±d²hi viya mah±samuddo mandabuddh²hi dukkhog±¼h± alabbhaneyyapatiµµh± ca, tasm± gambh²r±. Tena vutta½ “yasm± aya½ dhammo…pe… s±dhuka½ manasi karoth±”ti. Ettha ca paµivedhassa dukkarabh±vato dhammatth±na½ desan±ñ±ºassa dukkarabh±vato desan±ya dukkhog±hat±, paµivedhassa pana upp±detu½ asakkuºeyyatt± tabbisayañ±ºuppattiy± ca dukkarabh±vato dukkhog±hat± veditabb±.
Desana½ n±ma uddisana½. Tassa niddisana½ bh±sananti idh±dhippetanti ±ha “vitth±ratopi na½ bh±siss±m²ti vutta½ hot²”ti. Paribyatta½ kathana½ v± bh±sana½. S±¼ik±yiva nigghosoti s±¼ik±ya ±l±po viya madhuro kaººasukho peman²yo. Paµibh±nanti saddo. Ud²ray²ti ucc±r²yati, vuccati v±.