¾h±rav±ravaººan±

90. ¾harat²ti (sa½. ni. µ². 2.2.11) ±neti, upp±deti upatthambheti c±ti attho. Nibbatt±ti pasut±. Tato paµµh±ya hi loke j±tavoh±ro. Paµisandhiggahaºato pana paµµh±ya y±va m±tukucchito nikkhamana½, t±va sambhavesino. Esa t±va gabbhaseyyakesu bh³tasambhavesivibh±go, itaresu pana paµhamacitt±divasena vutto. Sambhava-saddo cettha gabbhaseyyak±na½ vasena pas³tipariy±yo, itaresa½ vasena uppattipariy±yo. Paµhamacittapaµhama-iriy±pathakkhaºesu hi te sambhava½ uppatti½ esanti upagacchanti n±ma, na t±va bh³t± uppattiy± na suppatiµµhitatt±. Bh³t±yeva sabbaso bhavesan±ya samucchinnatt±. Na puna bhavissant²ti avadh±raºena nivattitamattha½ dasseti, “yo ca k±laghaso bh³to”ti-±d²su (j±. 1.2.190) bh³ta-saddassa kh²º±savav±cit± daµµhabb±. V±-saddo cettha sampiº¹anattho “aggin± v± udakena v±”ti-±d²su (ud±. 76) viya.
Yath±saka½ paccayabh±vena attabh±vassa paµµhapanamevettha-±h±rehi k±tabba-anuggahoti adhipp±yen±ha “vacanabhedo…pe… ekoyev±”ti. Sattassa uppannadhamm±nanti sattassasant±ne uppannadhamm±na½. Yath± “vassasata½ tiµµhat²”ti vutte anuppabandhavasena pavattat²ti vutta½ hoti, eva½ µhitiy±ti anuppabandhavasena pavattiy±ti attho, s± pana avicchedoti ±ha “avicched±y±”ti. Anuppabandhadhammuppattiy± sattasant±no anuggahito n±ma hot²ti ±ha “anuppann±na½ upp±d±y±”ti. Et±n²ti µhiti-anuggahapad±ni. Ubhayattha daµµhabb±ni, na yath±saªkhya½.
Vatthugat± oj± vatthu viya tena saddhi½ ±haritabbata½ gacchat²ti vutta½ “ajjhoharitabbato ±h±ro”ti. Nibbattita-oja½ pana sandh±ya “kaba¼²k±r±h±ro ojaµµhamakar³p±ni ±harat²”ti vakkhati. O¼±rikat± appojat±ya, na vatthuno th³lat±ya, kathinat±ya v±, tasm± yasmi½ vatthusmi½ paritt± oj± hoti, ta½ o¼±rika½. Sapp±dayo dukkhupp±dakat±ya o¼±rik±veditabb±. Vis±º±d²na½ tivassacha¹¹it±na½ p³tibh³ttat± mudukat±ti vadanti, taracchakhe¼atemikat±ya pana tath±bh³t±na½ tesa½ mudukat±. Dhammasabh±vo hesa. Sas±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo taruºatiºasassakh±danato. Sakuº±na½ ±h±ro sukhumo tiºab²j±dikh±danato. Paccantav±s²na½ sukhumo, tesañhi s±kapaººasukkhakurapadumapattampi ±h±roti. Tesa½ paranimmitavasavatt²na½. Sukhumotvev±ti na kiñci up±d±ya, atha kho sukhumo icceva niµµha½ patto tato para½ sukhumassa abh±vato.
Vatthuvasena panettha ±h±rassa o¼±rikasukhumat± vutt±, s± cassa appojamahojat±hi veditabb±ti dassetu½ “ettha c±”ti-±di vutta½. Parissamanti khud±vasena uppanna½ sar²rakheda½. Vinodet²ti vatthu tassa vinodanamatta½ karoti. Na pana sakkoti p±letunti sar²ra½ y±petu½ nappahoti niss±ratt±. Na sakkoti parissama½ vinodetu½ ±m±sayassa ap³raºato.
Chabbidhop²ti imin± kassacipi phassassa anavasesitabbatam±ha. ¾h±rassadesan±kkamenevettha phass±d²na½ dutiy±dit±, na aññena k±raºen±ti ±ha “desan±nayo ev±”ti-±di. Manaso sañcetan±, na sattass±ti dassanattha½ manogahaºa½ yath± “cittassa µhiti (dha. sa. 11), cetovimutti c±”ti (ma. ni. 1.69) ±ha “manosañcetan±ti cetan± ev±”ti. Cittanti ya½ kiñci citta½, na vip±kaviññ±ºameva.
Pubbe “±h±ranti paccayan”ti vuttatt± “yadi paccayaµµho ±h±raµµho”ti-±din± codeti. Atha kasm± imeyeva catt±ro vutt±ti atha kasm± catt±rova vutt±, ime eva ca vutt±ti yojan±. Visesapaccayatt±ti etena yath± aññe paccayadhamm± attano paccayuppannassa paccay±va honti, ime pana tath± ca honti aññath± c±ti sam±nepi paccayatte atirekapaccay± honti, tasm± ±h±r±ti vutt±ti imamattha½ dasseti. Id±ni ta½ atirekapaccayata½ dassetu½ “visesapaccayo h²”ti-±di ±raddha½. Visesapaccayo r³pak±yassa kaba¼²k±ro ±h±ro upatthambhakabh±vato. Ten±ha aµµhakath±ya½ (visuddhi. 2.708; paµµh±. aµµha. paccayuddesavaººan±) “r³p±r³p±na½ upatthambhakattena upak±rak± catt±ro ±h±r± ±h±rapaccayo”ti. Upatthambhakattañhi satipi janakatte ar³p²na½ ±h±r±na½ ±h±rajar³pasamuµµh±pakar³p±h±rassa ca hoti, asati pana upatthambhakatte ±h±r±na½ janakatta½ natth²ti upatthambhakatta½ padh±na½. Janayam±nopi hi ±h±ro avicchedavasena upatthambhayam±no eva janet²ti upattambhakabh±vo eva ±h±rabh±vo. Vedan±ya phasso visesapaccayo. “Phassapaccay± vedan±”ti hi vutta½. “Saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºan”ti (ud±. 1; ma. ni. 3.126) vacanato viññ±ºassamanosañcetan±. “Cetan± tividha½ bhava½ janet²”ti hi vutta½. “Viññ±ºapaccay± n±mar³pan”ti pana vacanato n±mar³passa viññ±ºa½ visesapaccay±. Na hi okkantiviññ±º±bh±ve n±mar³passa attasambhavo. Yath±ha “viññ±ºañca hi, ±nanda, m±tukucchismi½ na okkamissatha, api nu kho n±mar³pa½ m±tukucchismi½ samuccissath±”ti-±di (d². ni. 2.115). Vuttamevattha½ suttena s±dhetu½ “yath±h±”ti-±di vutta½.
Eva½ yadipi paccayaµµho ±h±raµµho, visesapaccayat±ya pana ime eva ±h±r±ti vutt±ti ta½ nesa½ visesapaccayata½ avibh±gato dassetv± id±ni vibh±gato dassetu½ “ko panetth±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Mukhe µhapitamattoyeva asaªkh±dito, tattakenapi abbhantarassa ±h±rassa paccayo hoti eva. Ten±ha “aµµha r³p±ni samuµµh±pet²”ti. Sukhavedan±ya hito sukhavedaniyo. Sabbath±p²ti cakkhusamphass±divasena. Yattak± phassassa pak±rabhed±, tesa½ vasena sabbappak±ropi phass±h±ro. Yath±raha½ tisso vedan± ±harati, an±h±rako natthi.
Sabbath±p²ti idh±pi phass±h±re vuttanay±nus±rena attho veditabbo. Tisantativasen±ti k±yadasaka½ bh±vadasaka½ vatthudasakanti tividhasantativasena. Sahaj±t±dipaccayanayen±ti sahaj±t±dipaccayavidhin±. Paµisandhiviññ±ºañhi attan± sahaj±tan±massa sahaj±ta-aññamaññanissayavip±kindriyasampayutta-atthi-avigatapaccayehi paccayo hontoyeva ±h±rapaccayat±ya ta½ ±h±ret² vutta½, sahaj±tar³pesu pana vatthuno sampayuttapaccaya½ µhapetv± vippayuttapaccayena, sesar³passa aññamaññapaccayañca µhapetv± vuttanayenevayojan± k±tabb±. T±n²ti napu½sakaniddeso anapu½sak±nampi napu½sakehi saha vacanato.
S±sav± kusal±kusalacetan±va vutt±. Visesapaccayabh±vadassana½ hetanti. Ten±ha “avisesena pan±”ti-±di. Paµisandhiviññ±ºameva vuttanti etth±pi eseva nayo. Yath± tassa tassa phalassa visesato paccayat±ya etesa½ ±h±raµµho, eva½ avisesatop²ti dassantena “avisesena pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ta½sampayuttata½samuµµh±nadhamm±nanti tehi phass±d²hi sampayuttadhamm±nañceva ta½samuµµh±nar³padhamm±nañca. Tattha sampayuttaggahaºa½ yath±rahato daµµhabba½, samuµµh±naggahaºa½ pana avisesato.
Upatthambhento ±h±rakicca½ s±dhet²ti upatthambhentoyeva r³pa½ samuµµh±peti, ojaµµhamakar³pasamuµµh±paneneva panassa upatthambhanakiccasiddhi. Phusantoyev±ti phusanakicca½ karonto eva. ¾y³ham±n±v±ti cetayam±n± eva abhisandahant² eva. Vij±nantamev±ti upapattiparikappanavasena vij±nantameva ±h±rakicca½ s±dhet²ti yojan±. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo. ¾h±rakiccas±dhanañca tesa½ vedan±di-uppattihetut±ya attabh±vassa pavattanameva.
K±yaµµhapanen±ti kasm± vutta½? Nanu kammaj±dir³pa½ kamm±din±va pavattat²ti codana½ sandh±y±ha “kammajanitop²”ti-±di. Up±dinnar³pasantatiy± upatthambhaneneva utucittajar³pasantat²nampi upatthambhanasiddhi hot²ti “dvinna½ r³pasantat²nan”ti vutta½. Upatthambhanameva sandh±ya “anup±lako hutv±”ti ca vutta½. R³pak±yassa µhitihetut± hi y±pan± anup±lan±.
Sukh±divatthubh³tanti sukh±d²na½ pavattiµµh±nabh³ta½. ¾rammaºampi hi vasati ettha ±rammaºakaraºavasena tad±rammaº± dhamm±ti vatth³ti vuccati. Phusantoyev±ti ida½ phassassa phusanasabh±vatt± vutta½. Na hi dhamm±na½ sabh±vena vin± pavatti atthi. Vedan±pavattiy± vin± satt±na½ sandh±vanat± natth²ti ±ha “sukh±di…pe… hot²”ti, na cettha saññ²bhavakath±ya½ asaññ²bhavo dassetabbo, tass±pi v± k±raºabh³tavedan±pavattivaseneva µhitiy± hetuno aby±pit±. Tath± hi “manosañcetan±…pe… bhavam³lanipph±danato satt±na½ µhitiy± hot²”ti vutt±, tato eva “viññ±ºa½ vij±nantamev±ti upapattiparikappanavasena vij±nantamev±”ti vuttov±yamatthoti.
Catt±ri bhay±ni daµµhabb±ni ±d²navavibh±vanato. Nikant²ti nik±man±. Rasataºha½ sandh±ya vadati. S± hi kaba¼²k±re ±h±re balavat². Teneva tattha avadh±raºa½ kata½. Bh±yati etasm±ti bhaya½, nikantiyevabhaya½ mah±natthahetuto. Upagamana½ visayindriyaviññ±ºesu visayaviññ±ºesu eva ca saªgativasena pavatti, ta½ vedan±di-uppattihetut±ya “bhayan”ti vutta½. Avadh±raºe payojana½ vuttanayameva. Sesadvayepi esevanayo. ¾y³hana½ abhisandahana½, sa½vidh±nantipi vadanti. Ta½ bhav³papattihetut±ya “bhayan”ti vutta½. Abhinip±to tattha tattha bhave paµisandhiggahaºavasena nibbatti. So bhav³papattihetuk±na½ sabbesa½ anatth±na½ m³lak±raºatt± “bhayan”ti vutto. Id±ni nikanti-±d²na½ sappaµibhayata½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “ki½k±raº±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha nikanti½ katv±ti ±laya½ janetv±, taºha½ upp±detv±ti attho.
Phassa upagacchant±ti cakkhusamphass±dibheda½ phassa½ pavattent±. Phassass±dinoti k±yasamphassavasena phoµµabbasaªkh±tassa phassassa ass±danas²l±. K±yasamphassavasena hi satt±na½ phoµµhabbataºh± pavattat²ti dassetu½ phass±h±r±d²navadassane phoµµhabb±rammaºa½ uddhaµa½ “paresa½ rakkhitagopites³”ti-±din±. Phassass±dinoti v± phass±h±rass±dinoti attho. Sati hi phass±h±re satt±na½ phass±rammaºe ass±do, n±sat²ti. Ten±ha “phassass±dam³lakan”ti-±di.
J±tinimittassa bhayassa abhinip±tasabh±vena gahitatt± “tamm³lakan”ti vutta½, kamm±y³hananimittanti attho.
Abhinipatat²ti abhinibbattati. Paµham±bhinibbatti hi satt±na½ tattha tattha aªg±rak±susadise bhave abhinip±tasadis²ti. Tamm³lakatt±ti n±mar³panibbattim³lakatt±.
Tatr±ti t±su upam±su. Bh³tamattha½ katv±ti na parikappitamattha½, atha kho bh³ta½ bh³tapubba½ attha½ katv±. P±theyyahatthesu gacchantesu p±theyya½, gacchanta½ viya hot²ti vutta½ “gantv± p±theyya½ niµµh±s²”ti. Gantv±ti v±gamanahet³ti attho. Khuppip±s±turat±ya ghanacch±ya½ rukkha½ upagantu½ asamatth± vira¼hacch±y±ya½ nis²di½su. Na d±ni sakk± ta½ may± k±tu½ atidubbalabh±vato. Parikkhalitagatitaruºad±rako khuppip±s±bhibh³to ca, tasm± gacchantoyeva mato.
Saj±tima½sat±y±ti (sa½. ni. µ². 2.2.63) sam±naj±tima½sat±ya, manussama½sat±y±ti attho. Ya½ manussama½sa½, tañhi loke jigucchan²yatt± paµikula½. Tath± hi ta½ viññ³hi vajjita½, manussama½sesupi ñ±tima½sa½ ayuttaparibhogat±ya paµik³la½, tatth±pi puttama½sa½, tatth±pi piyaputtama½sa½, tatth±pi taruºama½sa½, tatth±pi ±makama½sa½, tatth±pi agoras±bhisaªkhata½, tatth±pi aloºa½, tatth±pi adh³pitanti eva½ heµµhimato uttaruttarassa paµik³latarabh±vak±raºat± daµµhabb±. Puttama½sasadisanti paµik³lat±-upaµµh±panena puttama½sasadisa½ katv± passati. Tattha nikanti½ pariy±diyat²ti ariyamaggena ±h±re s±pekkha½ khepeti.
S± g±v²ti “seyyath±pi bhikkhave g±v²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.63) eva½ sutte vuttag±v². Udd±letv±ti upp±µetv±. Niss±ya tiµµhat²ti paµiccapaccaya½ katv± pavattati. Dukkhadukkhat±divasena tiººampi vedayit±na½ dukkhabh±va½ sandh±y±ha “vedayitadukkhass±”ti.
S±dhusammat±pi gati vipariº±masaªkh±radukkhat±vasena kilesadukkhavasena ca mah±pari¼±h±yev±ti vutta½ “mah±pari¼±haµµhena tayo bhav±”ti. Yath± upaka¹¹hak± dve puris±, eva½ kusal±kusalavasena dve manosañcetan±. Yath± manosañcetan± na pavattati, tath± paµipajjanto tattha nikanti½ pariy±diyat²ti veditabbo.
Sattisatena hat± eva upam± sattisatahat³pam±, tassa½ sattisatahat³pam±ya½. Ta½ sattisata½. Assa purisassa. Patitok±seti purimasatt²hi patitappadese. Dukkhassa pam±ºa½ natthi anekassa apar±para½ uppajjanato. Khandhajanananti khandh±na½ apar±parupp±do, paµham±bhinibbatti pana paµisandhi eva. ¾guc±r² puriso viya paµisandhiviññ±ºa½ n±nappak±radukkhupp±dasannissayato, tehi ca dukkhehi upagantabbato. Sampayuttadhamm±na½ pamukhabh±vena pavattiy± “viññ±ºassa dukkhupp±doti vutt±. Tath± hi vutta½ “manopubbaªgam± dhamm±”ti (dha. pa. 1, 2) yath± viññ±ºa½ ±yati½ paµisandhivasena na pavattati, eva½ karaºa½ tattha nikantipariy±d±na½ daµµhabba½.
Pariññ±ta½ vatth³ti dukkhasaccam±ha. Pañcak±maguºiko r±goti pañcak±maguº±rammaºo r±go. Pariññ±to hot²ti paricchijja j±nanena samatikkanto hoti. Rasataºh±ya hi sammadeva vigat±ya r³pataºh±dayopi vigat±yeva honti. Tath± ca sati k±mar±gasa½yojana½ samucchinnameva hoti, eva½ karaºa½ tattha nikantipariy±d±na½ daµµhabba½. Pariññ±bhisamaye hi siddhe pah±n±bhisamayo siddho ev±ti. Pah²ne ca k±mar±gasa½yojane orambh±giyasa½yojan±na½ lesopi n±vasissat²ti dassento ±ha “natthi ta½ sa½yojanan”ti-±di. Tena kaba¼²k±r±h±rapariññ± an±g±mita½ p±pet²ti dasseti. Ses±h±rapariññ± pana arahattaniµµh± ev±ti dassento “phasse bhikkhave”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tisso taºh±ti k±mataºh± r³pataºh± ar³pataºh±ti im± tisso taºh±.
“Purimataºh±samuday±”ti saªkhepato vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “kathan”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha taºh±paccayanibbatt±ti taºh±paccay± nibbatt±. Paµisandhikkhaºe purimataºh±samuday± ±h±r±na½ samudayadassaneneva pavattikkhaºepi up±dinnaka-±h±rasamudayo dassito hot²ti ta½ an±masitv± anup±dinnak±na½ taºh±samudaya½ dassetu½ “yasm± pan±”ti-±di vutta½. Idh±ti imasmi½ sutte missitv± kathit± avisesitatt±. Sahaj±tataºh±paccayanibbattoti ettha sahaj±taggahaºa½ asahaj±tataºh±paccayanibbattopi anup±dinnaka-±h±ro labbhat²ti dassanattha½. So pana asahaj±tataºh±paccayanibbattat±s±maññenapi yath±vutta-up±dinnak±h±rena sa½saya½ janeyy±ti na uddhaµo, na ca eta½ k±raºa½ “r±ga½ upaniss±ya domanassa½ uppajjat²”ti vacanato, taºhopanissayapaµighacittasamuµµh±n±ya ca oj±ya vasena anup±dinnaka-±h±rassa labbhanato. Katha½ pana taºh± oj±ya upanissayapaccayo; na hi paµµh±ne katthaci r³passa upanissayapaccayo vutto atth²ti. N±ya½ virodho “yasmi½ sati ya½ hoti, so tassa upanissayo”ti suttantanayassa adhippetatt± yath±vuttatthasambhavato. Tenev±ha “imiss±…pe… taºh±ya nirodhen±”ti.
K±raºe sabbaso niruddhe phalampi sabbaso nirujjhat²ti ±ha “±h±ranirodho paññ±yat²”ti. ¾h±r±na½ dukkhasaccekadesatt± ±h±raggahaºa½ dukkhasaccaggahaºameva hot²ti ±ha “idha catt±ripi sacc±ni sar³peneva vutt±n²”ti. Saccadesan± dukkh±d²na½ y±vadeva pariññeyy±dibh±vasandassanatth±, tasm± jar±maraº±d²su pariññeyy±dibh±vo asammohato sallakkhetabboti dassento “sabbattha asammuyhantena sacc±ni uddharitabb±n²”ti ±ha.

¾h±rav±ravaººan± niµµhit±.