Saraºagamanakath±vaººan±

Saraºagamanassa visayapabhedaphalasa½kilesabhed±na½ viya kattu ca vibh±van± tattha kosall±ya hot²ti “saraºagamanesu kosallattha½ saraºa½…pe… veditabbo”ti vutta½ tena vin± saraºagamanasseva asambhavato. Kasm± panettha vod±na½ na gahita½, nanu vod±navibh±van±pi tattha kosall±vah±ti? Saccameta½, ta½ pana sa½kilesaggahaºeneva atthato d²pita½ hot²ti na gahita½. Y±ni hi tesa½ sa½kilesak±raº±ni aññ±º±d²ni, tesa½ sabbena sabba½ anuppann±na½ anupp±danena, uppann±nañca pah±nena vod±na½ hot²ti. Hi½satthassa sara-saddassa vaseneta½ pada½ daµµhabbanti “hi½sat²ti saraºan”ti vatv± ta½ pana hi½sana½ kesa½, katha½, kassa v±ti codana½ sodhento “saraºagat±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha bhayanti vaµµabhaya½. Sant±santi cittutr±sa½. Teneva cetasikadukkhassa gahitatt± dukkhanti idha k±yika½ dukkha½. Duggatiparikilesanti duggatipariy±panna½ sabba½ dukkha½. Tayida½ sabba½ parato phalakath±ya½ ±vi bhavissati. Etanti “saraºan”ti pada½.
Eva½ avisesato saraºasaddassa attha½ dassetv± id±ni visesato dassetu½ “atha v±”ti-±di vutta½. Hite pavattam±nen±ti “sampannas²l±, bhikkhave, viharath±”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.64, 69) atthe niyojanena. Ahit± ca nivattanen±ti “p±º±tip±tassa kho p±pako vip±ko p±paka½ abhisampar±yan”ti-±din± ±d²navadassan±dimukhena anatthato vinivattanena. Bhaya½ hi½sat²ti hit±hitesu appavattipavattihetuka½ byasana½ appavattikaraºena vin±seti Bhavakant±r± utt±raºena maggasaªkh±to dhammo, itaro ass±sad±nena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sat²ti yojan±. K±r±nanti d±navasena p³j±vasena ca upan²t±na½ sakk±r±na½. Vipulaphalapaµil±bhakaraºena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sati anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±vatoti adhipp±yo. Imin±pi pariy±yen±ti imin±pi vibhajitv± vuttena k±raºena.
“Samm±sambuddho bhagav±, sv±kkh±to dhammo, suppaµipanno saªgho”ti eva½ pavatto tattha ratanattaye pas±do tappas±do, tadeva ratanattaya½ garu etass±ti taggaru, tassa bh±vo taggarut±, tappas±do ca taggarut± ca tappas±dataggarut±, t±hi. Vidhutadiµµhivicikicch±sammoha-assaddhiy±dit±ya vihatakileso. “Tadeva ratanattaya½ par±yaºa½ gati t±ºa½ leºan”ti eva½ ±k±rena pavattiy± tappar±yaºat±k±rapavatto cittupp±do saraºagamana½ “saraºanti gacchati eten±”ti. Ta½samaªg²ti tena yath±vuttacittupp±dena samann±gato. Eva½ upet²ti eva½ bhajati sevati payirup±sati, eva½ v± j±n±ti bujjhat²ti evamattho veditabbo. Ettha ca pas±daggahaºena lokiyasaraºagamanam±ha. Tañhi pas±dappadh±na½, na ñ±ºappadh±na½. Garut±gahaºena lokuttara½. Ariy± hi ratanattaya½ guº±bhiññ±t±ya p±s±ºacchatta½ viya garu½ katv± passanti, tasm± tappas±dena vikkhambhanavasena vihatakileso taggarut±ya samucchedavasen±ti yojetabba½. Tappar±yaºat± panettha taggatikat±ti t±ya catubbidhampi vakkham±na½ saraºagamana½ gahitanti daµµhabba½. Avisesena v± pas±dagarut± jotit±ti pas±daggahaºena aveccappas±dassa itarassa ca gahaºa½, tath± garut±gahaºen±ti ubhayenapi ubhaya½ saraºagamana½ yojetabba½.
Maggakkhaºe ijjhat²ti yojan±. Nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv±ti etena atthato catusacc±dhigamoyeva lokuttara½ saraºagamananti dasseti. Tattha hi nibb±nadhammo sacchikiriy±bhisamayavasena, maggadhammo bh±van±bhisamayavasena paµivijjhiyam±noyeva saraºagamanatta½ s±dheti, buddhaguº± pana s±vakagocarabh³t± pariññ±bhisamayavasena, tath± ariyasaªghaguº±. Ten±ha “kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhat²”ti, ijjhantañca saheva ijjhati, na lokiya½ viya paµip±µiy± asammohapaµivedhena paµividdhatt±ti adhipp±yo. Ye pana vadanti “na saraºagamana½ nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv± pavattati, maggassa adhigatatt± pana adhigatameva hoti ekacc±na½ tevijj±d²na½ lokiyavijj±dayo viy±”ti, tesa½ lokiyameva saraºagamana½ siy±, na lokuttara½, tañca ayutta½ duvidhassapi icchitabbatt±. Tanti lokiyasaraºagamana½. Saddh±paµil±bho “samm±sambuddho bhagav±”ti-±din±. Saddh±m³lik±ti yath±vuttasaddh±pubbaªgam± samm±diµµhi buddhasubuddhata½ dhammasudhammata½ saªghasuppaµipatiñca lokiy±vabodhavaseneva samm± ñ±yena dassanato. “Saddh±m³lik± samm±diµµh²”ti etena saddh³panissay± yath±vuttalakkhaº± paññ± lokiyasaraºagamananti dasseti. Ten±ha “diµµhijukammanti vuccat²”ti “diµµhi eva attano paccayehi uju½ kar²yat²”ti katv±. Diµµhi v± uju½ kar²yati eten±ti diµµhijukamma½, tath± pavatto cittupp±do Evañca katv± “tappar±yaºat±k±rapavatto cittupp±do”ti idañca vacana½ samatthita½ hoti. Saddh±pubbaªgamasamm±diµµhiggahaºa½ pana cittupp±dassa tappadh±nat±y±ti daµµhabba½. “Saddh±paµil±bho”ti imin± m±t±d²hi uss±hitad±rak±d²na½ viya ñ±ºavippayuttasaraºagamana½ dasseti, “samm±diµµh²”ti imin± ñ±ºasampayuttasaraºagamana½.
Tayida½ lokiya½ saraºagamana½. Att± sanniyy±t²yati app²yati pariccaj²yati eten±ti attasanniyy±tana½, yath±vutta½ diµµhijukamma½. Ta½ ratanattaya½ par±yaºa½ paµisaraºa½ etass±ti tappar±yaºo, puggalo, cittupp±do v±, tassa bh±vo tappar±yaºat±, yath±vuttadiµµhijukammameva. Saraºanti adhipp±yena sissabh±va½ antev±sikabh±va½ upagacchati eten±ti sissabh±v³pagamana½. Saraºagaman±dhipp±yeneva paºipatati eten±ti paºip±to. Sabbattha yath±vuttadiµµhijukammavaseneva attho veditabbo. Attapariccajananti sa½s±radukkhanittharaºattha½ attano attabh±vassa pariccajana½. Esa nayo sesesupi. Buddh±d²na½yev±ti avadh±raºa½ itaresupi saraºagamanavisesesu yath±raha½ vattabba½. Evañhi tadaññanivattana½ kata½ hoti.
Eva½ attasanniy±tan±d²ni ekena pak±rena dassetv± id±ni aparehipi pak±rehi dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tena pariy±yantarehipi attasanniyy±tan±di katameva hoti atthassa abhinnatt±ti dasseti. ¾¼avak±d²nanti ±di-saddena s±t±girihemavat±d²na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. Nanu cete ±¼avak±dayo maggeneva ±gatasaraºagaman±, katha½ tesa½ tappar±yaºat±saraºagamana½ vuttanti? Maggen±gatasaraºagamanehipi “so aha½ vicariss±mi g±m± g±man”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 1.246) tehi tappar±yaºat±k±rassa paveditatt± tath± vutta½.
ѱti…pe… vasen±ti ettha ñ±tivasena bhayavasena ±cariyavasena dakkhiºeyyavasen±ti pacceka½ “vasen±”ti pada½ yojetabba½. Tattha ñ±tivasen±ti ñ±tibh±vavasena. Eva½ sesesupi. Dakkhiºeyyapaºip±ten±ti dakkhiºeyyat±hetukena paºip±tena. Itareh²ti ñ±tibh±v±divasappavattehi t²hi paºip±tehi. Itareh²ti-±din± saªkhepato vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “tasm±”ti-±di vutta½. Vandat²ti paºip±tassa lakkhaºavacana½. Evar³panti diµµhadhammika½ sandh±ya vadati. Sampar±yikañhi niyy±nika½ v± anus±sana½ pacc±s²santo dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tameva karot²ti adhipp±yo. Saraºagamanappabhedoti saraºagamanavibh±go.
Ariyamaggoyeva lokuttarasaraºagamananti ±ha “catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni vip±kaphalan”ti. Sabbadukkhakkhayoti sakalassa vaµµadukkhassa anupp±danirodho. Etanti “catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, sammappaññ±ya passat²”ti (dha. pa. 190) eva½ vutta½ ariyasaccadassana½.
Niccato anupagaman±divasen±ti niccanti aggahaº±divasena. Aµµh±nanti hetupaµikkhepo. Anavak±soti paccayapaµikkhepo. Ubhayenapi k±raºameva paµikkhipati. Yanti yena k±raºena. Diµµhisampannoti maggadiµµhiy± sampanno sot±panno. Kañci saªkh±ranti catubh³makesu saªkhatasaªkh±resu ekasaªkh±rampi. Niccato upagaccheyy±ti “nicco”ti gaºheyya. Sukhato upagaccheyy±ti “ekantasukh² att± hoti arogo para½ maraº±”ti (d². ni. 1.76) eva½ attadiµµhivasena sukhato g±ha½ sandh±yeta½ vutta½. Diµµhivippayuttacittena pana ariyas±vako pari¼±hav³pasamanattha½ mattahatthiparitt±sito viya cokkhabr±hmaºo ukk±rabh³mi½ kañci saªkh±ra½ sukhato upagacchati. Attav±re kasiº±dipaññattisaªgahaºattha½ “saªkh±ran”ti avatv± “kañci dhamman”ti vutta½. Imesupi v±resu catubh³makavaseneva paricchedo veditabbo tebh³makavaseneva v±. Ya½ yañhi puthujjano g±havasena gaºh±ti, tato tato ariyas±vako g±ha½ viniveµheti. M±taranti-±d²su janik± m±t±, janako pit±, manussabh³to kh²º±savo arah±ti adhippeto. Ki½ pana ariyas±vako añña½ j²vit± voropeyy±ti? Etampi aµµh±na½, puthujjanabh±vassa pana mah±s±vajjabh±vadassanattha½ ariyas±vakassa phalad²panatthañceva½ vutta½. Duµµhacitto vadhakacittena paduµµhacitto. Lohita½ upp±deyy±ti j²vam±nakasar²re khuddakamakkhik±ya pivanamattampi lohita½ upp±deyya. Saªgha½ bhindeyy±ti sam±nasa½v±saka½ sam±nas²m±ya½ µhita½ saªgha½ ‘kammena uddesena voharanto anuss±vanena sal±kagg±hen±”ti (pari. 458) eva½ vuttehi pañcahi k±raºehi bhindeyya Añña½ satth±ranti añña½ titthakara½ “aya½ me satth±”ti eva½ gaºheyy±ti neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²ti attho.
Na te gamissanti ap±yabh³minti te buddha½ saraºa½ gat± tannimitta½ ap±yabh³mi½ na gamissanti, devak±ya½ pana parip³ressant²ti attho.
Dasahi µh±neh²ti dasahi k±raºehi. Adhiggaºhant²ti adhibhavanti. Vel±masutt±divasen±p²ti ettha “catur±s²tisahassasaªkh±na½ suvaººap±tir³piyap±tika½sap±t²na½ yath±kkama½ r³piyasuvaººahiraññap³r±na½ kar²sassa catutthabh±vappam±º±na½ sabb±laªk±rapaµimaº¹it±na½ catur±s²tiy± hatthisahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± assasahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± rathasahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± dhenusahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± kaññ±sahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± pallaªkasahass±na½ catur±s²tiy± vatthakoµisahass±na½ aparim±ºassa ca khajjabhojj±dibhedassa ±h±rassa pariccajanavasena sattam±s±dhik±ni satta sa½vacchar±ni nirantara½ pavattavel±mamah±d±nato ekassa sot±pannassa dinnad±na½ mahapphalatara½, tato sata½ sot±pann±na½ dinnad±nato ekassa sakad±g±missa, tato ekassa an±g±missa, tato ekassa arahato, tato ekassa paccekabuddhassa, tato samm±sambuddhassa, tato buddhappamukhassa saªghassa dinnad±na½ mahapphalatara½, tato c±tuddisa½ saªgha½ uddissa vih±rakaraºa½, tato saraºagamana½ mahapphalataran”ti imamattha½ d²pentassa vel±masuttassa (a. ni. 9.20) vasena. Vuttañheta½ “ya½ gahapati, vel±mo br±hmaºo d±na½ ad±si mah±d±na½, yo eka½ diµµhisampanna½ bhojeyya, ida½ tato mahapphalataran”ti-±di (a. ni. 9.20). Vel±masutt±d²ti ±di-saddena aggappas±dasutt±d²na½ (a. ni. 4.34; itivu. 90) saªgaho daµµhabbo.
Aññ±ºa½ vatthuttayassa guº±na½ aj±nana½ tattha sammoho, “buddho nu kho, na nu kho buddho”ti-±din± vicikicch± sa½sayo, micch±ñ±ºa½ tassa guº±na½ aguºabh±vaparikappanena vipar²tagg±ho. ¾di-saddena an±dar±g±rav±d²na½ saªgaho. Na mah±jutikanti na ujjala½, aparisuddha½ apariyod±tanti attho. Na mah±vipph±ranti anu¼±ra½. S±vajjoti diµµhitaºh±divasena sadoso. Lokiya½ saraºagamana½ sikkh±sam±d±na½ viya aggahitak±lapariccheda½ j²vitapariyantameva hoti, tasm± tassa khandhabhedena bhedoti ±ha “anavajjo k±lakiriy±y±”ti. Soti anavajjo saraºagamanabhedo. Satipi anavajjatte iµµhaphalopi na hot²ti ±ha “aphalo”ti.

Saraºagamanakath±vaººan± niµµhit±.