Da¼hataraniviµµh± vicikicch± kaªkh±. N±tisa½sappan± matibhedamatt± vimati. Assaddhiya½ vin±seti bhagavat± desitatt±, sammukh±vassa paµiggahitatt±, khalitadurutt±digahaºados±bh±vato ca. Ettha ca paµham±dayo tisso atthayojan± ±k±r±di-atthesu aggahitavisesameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± dassit±, tato par± catasso ±k±ratthameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± vibh±vit±, pacchim± pana tisso yath±kkama½ ±k±rattha½ nidassanattha½ avadh±raºatthañca eva½-sadda½ gahetv± yojit±ti daµµhabba½.
Eka-saddo aññaseµµh±sah±yasaªkhy±d²su dissati. Tath± hesa “sassato att± ca loko ca, idameva sacca½ moghamaññanti ittheke abhivadant²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.27) aññatthe dissati “cetaso ekodibh±van”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.228) seµµhatthe, “eko v³pakaµµho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.405) asah±ye, “ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su saªkhy±ya½. Idh±pi saªkhy±yanti dassento ±ha “ekanti gaºanaparicchedaniddeso”ti. K±lañca samayañc±ti yuttak±lañca paccayas±maggiñca khaºoti ok±so. Tath±gatupp±d±diko hi maggabrahmacariyassa ok±so tappaccayapaµil±bhahetutt±. Khaºo eva ca samayo. Yo “khaºo”ti ca “samayo”ti ca vuccati, so ekov±ti hi attho mah±samayoti mah±sam³ho. Samayopi khoti sikkh±padap³raºassa hetupi. Samayappav±daketi diµµhippav±dake. Tattha hi nisinn± titthiy± attano attano samaya½ pavadant²ti. Atth±bhisamay±ti hitapaµil±bh±. Abhisametabboti abhisamayo, abhisamayo attho abhisamayaµµhoti p²¼an±d²ni abhisametabbabh±vena ek²bh±va½ upanetv± vutt±ni. Abhisamayassa v± paµivedhassa visayabh³to attho abhisamayaµµhoti. T±neva tath± ekattena vutt±ni. Tattha p²¼ana½ dukkhasaccassa ta½samaªgino hi½sana½ avipph±rikat±karaºa½. Sant±po dukkhadukkhat±divasena sant±pana½ paridahana½.
Tattha sahak±r²k±raºa½ sannijjha½ sameti samavet²ti samayo, samav±yo. Sameti sam±gacchati maggabrahmacariya½ ettha tad±dh±rapuggaleh²ti samayo, khaºo. Sameti ettha, etena v± sa½gacchati satto, sabh±vadhammo v± sahaj±t±d²hi upp±d±d²hi v±ti samayo, k±lo. Dhammappavattimattat±ya atthato abh³topi hi k±lo dhammappavattiy± adhikaraºa½ karaºa½ viya ca kappan±mattasiddhena r³pena vohar²yat²ti. Sama½, saha v± avayav±na½ ayana½ pavatti avaµµh±nanti samayo, sam³ho yath± “samud±yo”ti. Avayavasah±vaµµh±nameva hi sam³hoti. Avasesapaccay±na½ sam±game eti phala½ etasm± uppajjati pavattati c±ti samayo, hetu yath± “samudayo”ti. Sameti sa½yojanabh±vato sambandho eti attano visaye pavattati, da¼haggahaºabh±vato v± sa½yutt± ayanti pavattanti satt± yath±bhinivesa½ eten±ti samayo, diµµhi; diµµhisaññojanena hi satt± ativiya bajjhant²ti. Samiti saªgati samodh±nanti samayo, paµil±bho. Samayana½, samm± v± ayana½ apagamoti samayo, pah±na½. Abhimukha½ ñ±ºena samm± etabbo abhisametabboti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²to sabh±vo. Abhimukhabh±vena samm± eti gacchati bujjhat²ti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±v±vabodho. Eva½ tasmi½ tasmi½ atthe samaya-saddassa pavatti veditabb±. Samayasaddassa atthuddh±re abhisamayasaddassa ud±haraºa½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½. Ass±ti samayasaddassa K±lo attho samav±y±d²na½ atth±na½ idha asambhavato, desadesakaparis±na½ viya suttassa nid±nabh±vena k±lassa apadisitabbato ca.
Kasm± panettha aniyamitavaseneva k±lo niddiµµho, na utusa½vacchar±divasena niyametv±ti? ¾ha– “tattha kiñc±p²”ti-±di. Utusa½vacchar±divasena niyama½ akatv± samayasaddassa vacanena ayampi guºo laddho hot²ti dassento “ye v± ime”ti-±dim±ha. S±maññajotan± hi visese avatiµµhat²ti. Tattha diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo devasika½ jh±naphalasam±patt²hi v²tin±manak±lo, visesato sattasatt±h±ni. Suppak±s±ti dasasahassilokadh±tusa½kampana-obh±sap±tubh±v±d²hi p±kaµ±. Yath±vuttabhedesu eva samayesu ekadesa½ pak±rantarehi saªgahetv± dassetu½ “yo c±yan”ti-±dim±ha. Tath± hi ñ±ºakiccasamayo attahitapaµipattisamayo ca abhisambodhisamayo, ariyatuºh²bh±vasamayo diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo, karuº±kiccaparahitapaµipattidhammikath±samayo desan±samayo eva.
Karaºavacanena niddeso katoti sambandho. Tatth±ti abhidhammatadaññasuttapadavinayesu. Tath±ti bhummakaraºehi. Adhikaraºattho ±dh±rattho. Bh±vo n±ma kiriy±, t±ya kiriyantaralakkhaºa½ bh±venabh±valakkhaºa½. Tattha yath± k±lo sabh±vadhammaparicchinno saya½ paramatthato avijjam±nopi ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±to taªkhaºappavatt±na½ tato pubbe parato ca abh±vato “pubbaºhe j±to, s±yanhe gacchat²”ti ca ±d²su, sam³ho ca avayavavinimutto avijjam±nopi kappan±mattasiddho avayav±na½ ±dh±rabh±vena paññ±p²yati “rukkhe s±kh±, yavar±siya½ sambh³to”ti-±d²su, eva½ idh±p²ti dassento ±ha “adhikaraºañhi…pe… dhamm±nan”ti. Yasmi½ k±le dhammapuñje v± k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½ eva k±le dhammapuñje ca phass±dayopi hont²ti ayañhi tattha attho. Yath± ca “g±v²su duyham±n±su gato, duddh±su ±gato”ti dohanakiriy±ya gamanakiriy± lakkh²yati, eva½ idh±pi “yasmi½ samaye, tasmi½ samaye”ti ca vutte “sat²”ti ayamattho viññ±yam±no eva hoti padatthassa satt±virah±bh±vatoti samayassa satt±kiriy±ya cittassa upp±dakiriy± phass±d²na½ bhavanakiriy± ca lakkh²yati. Yasmi½ samayeti yasmi½ navame khaºe, yasmi½ yonisomanasik±r±dihetumhi, paccayasamav±ye v± sati k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva khaºe, hetumhi, paccayasamav±ye v± phass±dayopi hont²ti ubhayattha samayasadde bhummaniddeso kato lakkhaºabh³tabh±vayuttoti dassento ±ha “khaºa…pe… lakkh²yat²”ti.
Hetu-attho karaºattho ca sambhavati “annena vasati, ajjhenena vasati, pharasun± chindati, kud±lena khaºat²”ti-±d²su viya. V²tikkamañhi sutv± bhikkhusaªgha½ sannip±t±petv± otiººavatthuka½ puggala½ paµipucchitv± vigarahitv± ca ta½ ta½ vatthu½ otiººak±la½ anatikkamitv± teneva k±lena sikkh±pad±ni paññapento bhagav± viharati sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no tatiyap±r±jik±d²su viya.
Accantameva ±rambhato paµµh±ya y±va desan±niµµh±na½ parahitapaµipattisaªkh±tena karuº±vih±rena. Tadatthajotanatthanti accantasa½yogatthajotanattha½. Upayogavacananiddeso kato yath± “m±sa½ ajjhet²”ti.
Por±º±ti aµµhakath±cariy±. Abhil±pamattabhedoti vacanamattena viseso. Tena suttavinayesu vibhattibyattayo katoti dasseti.
Seµµhanti seµµhav±caka½ vacana½ “seµµhan”ti vutta½ seµµhaguºasahacaraºato. Tath± uttamanti etth±pi. G±ravayuttoti garubh±vayutto garuguºayogato, garukaraº±rahat±ya v± g±ravayutto. Vuttoyeva, na pana idha vattabbo visuddhimaggassa imiss± aµµhakath±ya ekadesabh±vatoti adhipp±yo.
Aparo nayo (sa½. ni. µ². 1.1.1; s±rattha. µ². 1.vinay±nisa½sakath±vaººan±; visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.144; itivu. aµµha. ganth±rambhakath±)– bh±gav±ti bhagav±, bhatav±ti bhagav±, bh±ge van²ti bhagav±, bhage van²ti bhagav±, bhattav±ti bhagav±, bhage vam²ti bhagav±, bh±ge vam²ti bhagav±.
Bhagav± bhatav± bh±ge, bhage ca vani bhattav±;
bhage vami tath± bh±ge, vam²ti bhagav± jino.
Tattha katha½ bh±gav±ti bhagav±? Ye te s²l±dayo dhammakkhandh± guºabh±g± guºakoµµh±s±, te anaññas±dh±raº± niratisay± tath±gatassa atthi upalabbhanti. Tath± hissa s²la½, sam±dhi, paññ±, vimutti, vimuttiñ±ºadassana½, hir², ottappa½, saddh±, v²riya½, sati sampajañña½, s²lavisuddhi, diµµhivisuddhi, samatho, vipassan±, t²ºi kusalam³l±ni, t²ºi sucarit±ni, tayo samm±vitakk±, tisso anavajjasaññ±, tisso dh±tuyo, catt±ro satipaµµh±n±, catt±ro sammappadh±n±, catt±ro iddhip±d±, catt±ro ariyamagg±, catt±ri ariyaphal±ni, catasso paµisambhid±, catuyonipaµicchedakañ±ºa½, catt±ro ariyava½s±, catt±ri ves±rajjañ±º±ni, pañca padh±niyaªg±ni, pañcaªgiko samm±sam±dhi, pañcañ±ºiko samm±sam±dhi, pañcindriy±ni, pañca bal±ni, pañca niss±raº²y± dh±tuyo, pañca vimutt±yatanañ±º±ni, pañca vimuttiparip±can²y± saññ±, cha anussatiµµh±n±ni, cha g±rav±, cha niss±raº²y± dh±tuyo, cha satatavih±r±, cha anuttariy±ni, cha nibbedhabh±giy± saññ±, cha abhiññ±, cha as±dh±raºañ±º±ni, satta aparih±niy± dhamm±, satta ariyadhamm±, satta ariyadhan±ni, satta bojjhaªg±, satta sappurisadhamm±, satta nijjaravatth³ni, satta saññ±, satta dakkhiºeyyapuggaladesan±, satta kh²º±savabaladesan±, aµµha paññ±paµil±bhahetudesan±, aµµha sammatt±ni, aµµha lokadhamm±tikkam±, aµµha ±rambhavatth³ni, aµµha akkhaºadesan±, aµµha mah±purisavitakk±, aµµha abhibh±yatanadesan±, aµµha vimokkh±, nava yonisomanasik±ram³lak± dhamm±, nava p±risuddhipadh±niyaªg±ni, nava satt±v±sadesan±, nava ±gh±tapaµivinay±, nava saññ±, nava n±natt±, nava anupubbavih±r±, dasa n±thakaraº± dhamm±, dasa kasiº±yatan±ni, dasa kusalakammapath±, dasa sammatt±ni, dasa ariyav±s±, dasa asekkhadhamm±, dasa tath±gatabal±ni, ek±dasa mett±nisa½s±, dv±dasa dhammacakk±k±r±, terasa dhutaguº±, cuddasa buddhañ±º±ni, pañcadasa vimuttiparip±can²y± dhamm±, so¼asavidh± ±n±p±nassati, so¼asa aparantapan²y± dhamm±, aµµh±rasa buddhadhamm±, ek³nav²sati paccavekkhaºañ±º±ni, catucatt±l²sa ñ±ºavatth³ni, paññ±sa udayabbayañ±º±ni, paropaºº±sa kusaladhamm±, sattasattati ñ±ºavatth³ni, catuv²satikoµisatasahassasaªkh±sam±pattisañc±rimah±vajirañ±ºa½, anantanayasamantapaµµh±napavicayapaccavekkhaºadesan±ñ±º±ni tath± anant±su lokadh±t³su anant±na½ satt±na½ ±say±divibh±vanañ±º±ni c±ti evam±dayo anant±parim±ºabhed± anaññas±dh±raº± niratisay± guºabh±g± guºakoµµh±s± sa½vijjanti upalabbhanti, tasm± yath±vuttavibh±g± guºabh±g± assa atth²ti “bh±gav±”ti vattabbe ±-k±rassa rassatta½ katv± “bhagav±”ti vutto. Eva½ t±va bh±gav±ti bhagav±.
Yasm± s²l±dayo sabbe, guºabh±g± asesato;
vijjanti sugate tasm±, bhagav±ti pavuccat²ti.
Katha½ bhatav±ti bhagav±? Ye te sabbalokahit±ya ussukkam±pannehi manussatt±dike aµµha dhamme samodh±netv± samm±sambodhiy± katamah±bhin²h±rehi mah±bodhisattehi parip³ritabb± d±nap±ram², s²la, nekkhamma, paññ±, v²riya, khanti, sacca, adhiµµh±na, mett±, upekkh±p±ram²ti dasa p±ramiyo dasa upap±ramiyo dasa paramatthap±ramiyoti samati½sa p±ramiyo, d±n±d²ni catt±ri saªgahavatth³ni, sacc±d²ni catt±ri adhiµµh±n±ni, aªgaparicc±go nayanadhanarajjaputtad±raparicc±goti pañca mah±paric±g±, pubbayogo, pubbacariy±, dhammakkh±na½, ñ±tatthacariy±, lokatthacariy±, buddhicariy±ti evam±dayo, saªkhepato v± sabbe puññañ±ºasambh±r± buddhakaradhamm±, te mah±bhin²h±rato paµµh±ya kapp±na½ satasahass±dhik±ni catt±ri asaªkheyy±ni yath± h±nabh±giy± sa½kilesabh±giy± µhitibh±giy± v± na honti, atha kho uttaruttari visesabh±giy±va honti, eva½ sakkacca½ nirantara½ anavasesato bhat± sambhat± assa atth²ti “bhatav±”ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vutto niruttinayena ta-k±rassa ga-k±ra½ katv±. Atha v± bhatav±ti teyeva yath±vutte buddhakaradhamme vuttanayeneva bhari sambhari, parip³res²ti attho. Evampi bhatav±ti bhagav±.