4. Bhayabheravasuttavaººan±

34. Eva½ me sutanti bhayabheravasutta½. Ko nikkhepo? Keci t±va evam±hu “pucch±vasiko nikkhepo”ti. Duvidh± hi pucch± p±kaµ±p±kaµabhedato. Tattha yass± desan±ya nimittabh³to ñ±tu½ icchito attho ki½-saddapubbakena pak±s²yati, s± p±kaµ± pucch± yath± “ki½s³dha vitta½ purisassa seµµhan”ti evam±di (sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 183). Yass± pana desan±ya nimittabh³to ñ±tu½ icchito attho ki½-saddarahitena kevaleneva saddapayogena pak±s²yati, s± ap±kaµ± pucch±. ѱtu½ icchito hi attho “pañh±, pucch±”ti vuccati, tasm±yeva idha “ye me bho gotam±”ti-±dik± ap±kaµ±ti “pucch±vasiko nikkhepo”ti. Tayida½ ak±raºa½, yasm± so br±hmaºo “yeme bho gotam±”ti-±d²ni vadanto na tattha kaªkh² vicikicch² sa½sayam±panno avoca, atha kho attan± yath±nicchitamattha½ bhagavati pas±dabh±vabahum±na½ pavedento kathesi. Ten±ha “bhagavati pas±da½ alatth±”ti-±di (ma. ni. aµµha. 1.34). Vih±reti vih±rake niv±se. Avicchinneyev±ti pavattam±neyeva. Padadvayassapi vasante ev±ti attho. Eta½ purohitaµµh±na½ uºh²s±dikakudhabhaº¹ehi saddhi½ laddha½, tath± ca “assa raññ± dinnan”ti vadanti. Ten±ha “ta½ tassa raññ± dinnan”ti. Brahmanti veda½. So pana mantabrahmakappavasena tividho. Tattha mant± padh±na½ m³labh±vato, ye aµµhak±d²hi pavutt±, itare tannissayena j±t±, tena tesa½yeva gahaºa½ “mante sajjh±yat²”ti Te hi guttabh±sitabbat±ya “mant±”ti vuccanti. Idameva h²ti avadh±raºena “brahmato j±t±”ti-±dika½ nirutti½ paµikkhipati.
Yena v± k±raºen±ti (s±rattha. µ². verañjakaº¹avaººan±ya½ 2; sa½. ni. µ². 1.1.1; a. ni. µ². 2.2.16) hetumhi ida½ karaºavacana½. Hetu-attho hi kiriy±k±raºa½, na karaºa½ viya kiriyattho, tasm± n±nappak±raguºavises±dhigamatth± idha upasaªkamanakiriy±ti “annena vasat²”ti-±d²su viya hetu-atthameveta½ karaºavacana½ yutta½, na karaºattha½ tassa ayujjam±natt±ti vutta½ “yena v± k±raºen±”ti-±di. Bhagavato satatappavattaniratisayas±duvipul±matarasasaddhammaphalat±ya s±duphalaniccaphalitamah±rukkhena bhagav± upamito, s±duphal³pabhog±dhipp±yaggahaºeneva hi mah±rukkhassa s±duphalat± gahit±ti.
Upasaªkam²ti upasaªkanto. Sampattuk±mat±ya hi kiñci µh±na½ gacchanto ta½ta½pades±tikkamanena upasaªkami, upasaªkantoti v± vattabbata½ labhati. Ten±ha “gatoti vutta½ hot²”ti, upagatoti attho. Upasaªkamitv±ti pubbak±lakiriy±niddesoti ±ha “upasaªkamanapariyos±nad²panan”ti. Tatoti ya½ µh±na½ patto “upasaªkam²”ti vutto, tato upagataµµh±nato. Yath± khaman²y±d²ni pucchantoti (sa½. ni. µ². 1.1.112) yath± bhagav± “kacci te br±hmaºa khaman²ya½, kacci y±pan²yan”ti-±din± khaman²y±d²ni pucchanto tena br±hmaºena saddhi½ samappavattamodo ahosi pubbabh±sit±ya, tadanukaraºena eva½ sopi br±hmaºo bhagavat± saddhi½ samappavattamodo ahos²ti yojan±. Ta½ pana samappavattamodata½ upam±ya dassetu½ “s²todaka½ viy±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha sammoditanti sa½sandita½. Ek²bh±vanti sammodanakiriy±ya sam±nata½ ekar³pata½. Khaman²yanti “ida½ catucakka½ navadv±ra½ sar²rayanta½ khaºabhaªgurat±ya sabh±vato dussaha½, kacci khamitu½ sakkuºeyyan”ti pucchati. Y±pan²yanti paccay±yattavuttika½ cirappabandhasaªkh±t±ya y±pan±ya kacci y±petu½ sakkuºeyya½. S²sarog±di-±b±dh±bh±vena kacci app±b±dha½. Dukkhaj²vik±bh±vena kacci app±taªka½. Ta½ta½kiccakaraºe uµµh±nasukhat±ya kacci lahuµµh±na½. Tadanar³pabalayogato kacci bala½. Sukhavih±rasabbh±vena kacci ph±suvih±ro atth²ti tattha tattha kacci-sadda½ yojetv± attho veditabbo.
Balavappatt± p²ti p²tiyeva. Taruºap²ti p±mojja½. Sammodana½ janeti karot²ti sammodanika½, tadeva sammodan²yanti ±ha “sammodajananato”ti. Sammoditabbato sammodan²yanti ima½ pana attha½ dassento “sammoditu½ yuttabh±vato”ti ±ha. Saritabbabh±vatoti anussaritabbabh±vato. “Saraº²yan”ti vattabbe d²gha½ katv± “s±raº²yan”ti vutta½. Suyyam±nasukhatoti ±p±thamadhurata½ ±ha, anussariyam±nasukhatoti vimaddaramaº²yata½. Byañjanaparisuddhat±y±ti sabh±vaniruttibh±vena tass± kath±ya vacanac±turiyam±ha, atthaparisuddhat±y±ti atthassa nirupakkilesata½. Anekehi pariy±yeh²ti anekehi k±raºehi.
Abhid³ra-acc±sannapaµikkhepena n±tid³ran±cc±sanna½ n±ma gahita½, ta½ pana avaka½sato ubhinna½ pas±ritahatthasaªghaµµanena daµµhabba½. G²va½ pas±retv±ti g²va½ parivattanavasena pas±retv±.
Yemeti ettha sandhivasena ik±ralopoti dassento “ye ime”ti-±dim±ha. Ucc±kul²nat±ya j±tivasena abhij±t± j±tikulaputt±. Ten±ha “ucc±kulappasut±”ti. ¾c±rasampattiy± abhij±t± ±c±rakulaputt±. Ten±ha “±c±rasampann±”ti. Yattha katthaci ap±kaµepi kule. Tena br±hmaºena adhippet± bhikkh³su duvidh±pi sa½vijjant²ti ±ha “idha pana dv²hipi k±raºehi kulaputt±yev±”ti.
Saddh±ti ida½ karaºatthe paccattavacananti ±ha “saddh±y±”ti, saddh±ti v± saddahitv±ti attho. Imasmi½ pakkhe p±¼iya½ ya-k±ralopena niddesoti daµµhabba½. Ag±ratoti ag±rav±sato, uttarapadalopena, nissay³pac±rena v± aya½ niddesoti. Bhikkhanas²lat±dilakkhaºo bhikkhubh±vo pabbajj±sahacarit±ya saddhi½ bhikkhubh±va½ anv±cinantoti ±ha “pabbajja½ bhikkhubh±vañc±”ti. Kammav±c±lakkhaºe pana bhikkhubh±ve adhippete samuccayattho ca-saddo daµµhabbo. Anag±rassa bh±voti etena pabbajj±nissito suvisuddho s²l±c±raguºaviseso gahito, kasigorakkh±dikammapaµikkhepo idha anupp±d±d²hi veditabbo. Sesaggahaºe pana saraºagaman±divasena pabbajj±ya, saraºagaman±divasena upasampad±ya ca anekabhedatt± ±ha “sabbath±p²”ti, tena tena pak±ren±ti attho. Puratog±mit± paµipattigamanena, na k±yagamanen±ti ±ha “n±yako”ti samm±paµipattiy± nibb±nasamp±pakoti attho. Hitakiriy±y±ti diµµhadhammik±dihitacariy±ya. G±haºa½ adhis²l±d²su accant±ya niyojana½, na kathanamattanti dassento “g±het±”ti vatv± “sikkh±pet±”ti ±ha. Diµµh±nugatinti diµµhiy± anugamananti dassento “dassan±nugatin”ti vatv± sikkh±ttayasaªgaha½ bhagavato s±sana½ tena diµµhatt± diµµhi, tassa tasseva khamanavasena khanti, ruccanavasena ruci, ta½diµµhikhantirucik±va bhagavato s±vak±ti ±ha “ya½diµµhiko”ti-±di.
Esa kira alatth±ti sambandho. Devaputte viy±ti-±di kassaci p±rijuññassa abh±vad²panato “saddh±y±”ti-±din± vuttassa pabbajitabh±vassa p±kaµ²karaºa½. Saddh±ya ghar± nikkhamma pabbajitv±ti ida½ haµµhapahaµµh±dibh±vassa k±raºavacana½. Gh±sacch±danaparamat±ya santuµµheti ida½ anussaªkit±parisaªkitat±ya k±raºavacananti daµµhabba½.
Evametanti-±din± ±me¹itavacana½ sampaha½sanavasena, pas±davasena v± katanti daµµhabba½. Tath± hi eva½-saddo sampaµicchanattho abbhanumodanattho ca vutto. Mamanti upayogatthe s±mivacana½, nip±tapada½ v± eta½ “man”ti imin± sam±natthanti daµµhabba½. ¾d²n²ti ±di-saddena naj²vik±pakat±di½ saªgaºh±ti ²dis±na½yev±ti saddh±pabbajj±ya vibh±vita-anabhijjh±lu-±disabh±v±na½yeva, na itaresa½ abhijjh±lusabh±v±na½. Vuttañheta½–
“Saªgh±µikaººe cepi me, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gahetv± piµµhito piµµhito anubandho assa pade pada½ nikkhipanto, so ca hoti abhijjh±lu k±mesu tibbas±r±go by±pannacitto paduµµhamanasaªkappo muµµhassati asampaj±no asam±hito vibbhantacitto p±kaµindriyo, atha kho ±rak±va mama ahañca tass±”ti (itivu. 92).
Ajjhog±hetv± adhippetattha½ sambhavitu½ s±dhetu½ dukkh±n²ti durabhisambhav±ni. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana tattha niv±soyeva dukkhoti dassetu½ “sambhavitu½ dukkh±ni dussah±n²”ti vutta½. Araññavanapatth±n²ti araññalakkhaºappatt±ni vanasaº¹±ni. Vanapattha-saddo hi saº¹abh³te rukkhasam³hepi vattat²ti araññaggahaºa½. Kiñc±p²ti anuj±nanasambh±vanatthe nip±to. Ki½ anuj±n±ti? Nippariy±yato araññ±bh±va½ “g±mato bahi araññan”ti. Ten±ha “nippariy±yen±”ti-±di. Ki½ sambh±veti? ¾raññakaªganipph±dakatta½. Yañhi ±raññakaªganipph±daka½, ta½ visesato “araññan”ti vuttanti. Tenev±ha “ya½ ta½ pañcadhanusatikan”ti-±di. Nikkhamitv± bahi indakh²l±ti indakh²lato bahi nikkhamitv±, tato bahi paµµh±y±ti attho. Bahi indakh²l±ti yattha dve t²ºi indakh²l±ni, tattha bahiddh± indakh²lato paµµh±ya, yattha ta½ natthi, tattha tadarahaµµh±nato paµµh±y±ti vadanti. Yasm± bahi indakh²lato paµµh±ya manuss³pac±re bhayabherava½ natthi, tasm± idha n±dhippetanti daµµhabba½.
G±mantanti g±masam²pa½. Anupac±raµµh±nanti niccakiccavasena nupacaritabbaµµh±na½. Ten±ha “yattha na kas²yati na vap²yat²”ti. Pant±n²ti imin± “pariyant±nan”ti imassa pariy±yassa idha p±¼iya½ gahitatt± vutta½ “pariyant±nanti imameka½ pariy±ya½ µhapetv±”ti. D³r±nanti pana aya½ pariy±yo µhapetabbo siy± tass±pi “pant±n²”ti imin±va atthato gahitatt±, tath± sati “na manuss³pac±r±nan”ti edis±nampi µhapetabbat± ±pajjati, tasm± saddato eva µhapana½ daµµhabba½. Pavivekanti pak±rato, pak±rehi v± vivecana½, r³p±diputhutt±rammaºe pak±rato gaman±di-iriy±pathappak±rehi attano k±yassa vivecana½ gacchatopi tiµµhatopi nisajjatopi ekasseva pavattati. Teneva hi vivecetabb±na½ vivecan±k±rassa ca bhedato bahuvidhatt± te ekattena gahetv± “pavivekan”ti ekavacanena vutta½. Dukkara½ pavivekanti v± paviveka½ kattu½ na sukhanti attho. Ek²bh±veti ekikabh±ve. Dvaya½dvay±r±moti dvinna½ dvinna½ bh±v±bhirato. Haranti viy±ti sa½haranti viya vigh±tupp±danena. Ten±ha “ghasanti viy±”ti, bhayasant±supp±danena kh±ditu½ ±gat± yakkharakkhasapis±c±dayo viy±ti adhipp±yo. ¿disass±ti aladdhasam±dhino. Tiºapaººamig±disaddeh²ti v±terit±na½ tiºapaºº±d²na½ migapakkhi-±d²nañca bhi½sanakehi bheravehi saddehi vividhehi ca aññehi kh±ºu-±d²hi yakkh±di-±k±rehi upaµµhitehi bhi½sanakehi. Eva½ dukkara½ durabhisambhava½ n±ma karonto aho acchariy± eteti vimhito.