Sacc±nanti catunna½ ariyasacc±na½. Dassanapariº±yakaµµhen±ti dassanassa pariññ±bhisamay±dibhedassa parito sabbath± nayanaµµhena pavattanaµµhena. Cakkhukaraº²ti dhammacakkhussa karaº² nipph±dik±. Tayida½ satipi paµipad±ya dhammacakkhuto anaññatte avayavavasena sijjham±no attho samud±yena kato n±ma hot²ti upac±ravasena vuttanti daµµhabba½. Tath± hi vakkhati “maggoyeva hi maggatth±ya sa½vattati maggena k±tabbakiccakaraºato”ti. ѱº±y±ti y±th±vato j±nan±ya. Ten±ha “viditakaraºaµµhen±”ti. Visesañ±tabh±v±p±danañhi viditakaraºa½. V³pasamanatoti samucchindanavasena v³pasamanato. Dukkh±d²na½ pariññeyy±dibh±vo viya abhiññeyyabh±vopi maggavaseneva p±kaµo hot²ti ±ha “catunnampi sacc±na½ abhiññeyyabh±vadassanato”ti, vibh±vanatoti attho. Sambodhoti maggo “sambujjhati eten±”ti katv±. Tassatth±y±ti maggakiccatth±ya. Na hi maggato añño maggakiccakaro atthi. Ten±ha “maggoyeva h²”ti-±di. Atha v± samm±diµµhi uppajjam±n± sahaj±t±dipaccayabh±vena itare upp±deti, eva½ sesamaggadhamm±p²ti evampi maggatth±ya sa½vattana½ veditabba½. Sacchikiriy±ya paccakkhakamm±y±ti sacchikaraºasaªkh±tapaccakkhakamm±ya. Nibb±n±y±ti v± anup±disesanibb±n±ya. Upasam±y±ti imin± sa-up±disesanibb±na½ gahitanti. Ayanti “s± hi sacc±nan”ti-±din± yath±vutto atthanayo. Etth±ti “cakkhukaraº²”ti-±d²su padesu. S±ro sundaro anapan²to. Ito aññath±ti “dukkhassa pariññ±ya diµµhivisuddhi½ karot²ti cakkhukaraº²”ti-±din± atthavaººan±papañco kevala½ vitth±ratth±ya.
Ayamev±ti ettha ayanti imin± attano aññesañca tassa½ paris±ya½ ariy±na½ maggassa paccakkhabh±va½ dasseti. ¾sannapaccakkhav±c² hi aya½-saddo. Aññamaggapaµisedhanatthanti aññassa nibb±nag±mimaggassa atthibh±vapaµisedhanattha½. Satt±paµikkhepo hi idha paµisedhana½ alabbham±natt± aññassa maggassa. Buddh±d²na½ s±dh±raºabh±vo anaññat±. Ten±ha brahm± sahampati–
“Ek±yana½ j±tikhayantadass²,
magga½ paj±n±ti hit±nukamp²;
etena maggena tari½su pubbe,
tarissanti ye ca taranti oghan”ti. (Sa½. ni. 5.384, 409; mah±ni. 191; c³¼ani. 107, 121; netti. 170).
¾rakatt±ti imin± niruttinayena ariya-saddasiddhim±ha. Aripah±n±y±ti atthavacanamatta½. Arayo p±padhamm± yanti apagamanti eten±ti ariyo. Ariyena desitoti ettha ariyassa bhagavato ayanti ariyo. Ariyabh±vappaµil±bh±y±ti ettha ariyakaro ariyoti uttarapadalopena ariya-saddasiddhi veditabb±. Yasm± maggaªgasamud±ye maggavoh±ro hoti, samud±yo ca samud±y²hi samann±gato n±ma hot²ti ±ha “aµµhahi aªgehi upetatt±”ti, tasm± attano avayavabh³t±ni aµµha aªg±ni etassa sant²ti aµµhaªgiko. Yasm± pana paramatthato aªg±niyeva maggo, tasm± vutta½ “na ca aªgavinimutto”ti yath± “cha¼aªgo vedo”ti. Sadis³d±haraºa½ pana dassento “pañcaªgikat³riy±d²ni viy±”ti ±ha. ¾di-saddena caturaªgin² sen±ti evam±d²na½ saªgaho. M±rento gacchat²ti niruttinayena saddasiddhim±ha. Maggat²ti gavesati. Ariyamaggo hi nibb±na½ ±rammaºa½ karonto ta½ gavesanto viya hot²ti. Magg²yati nibb±natthikehi vivaµµ³panissayapuññakaraºato paµµh±ya tadattha½ paµipattito. Gammat²ti etena ±di-antavipariy±yena saddasiddhim±ha yath± “kak³”ti. “Seyyathidanti nip±to”ti vatv± tassa sabbaliªgavibhattivacanas±dh±raºat±ya “katam±ni t±ni aµµhaªg±n²”ti vutta½. Nanu ca aªg±ni samudit±ni maggo antamaso sattaªgavikalassa ariyamaggassa abh±vatoti? Saccameta½ saccapaµivedhena, maggapaccayat±ya pana yath±saka½ kiccakaraºena paccekampi t±ni maggoyev±ti ±ha “ekamekañhi aªga½ maggoyev±”ti, aññath± samudit±nampi nesa½ maggakicca½ na sambhaveyy±ti. Id±ni tamevattha½ p±¼iy± samatthetu½ “samm±diµµhimaggo ceva hetu c±”ti vutta½.
Samm± avipar²ta½ pariññ±bhisamay±divasena catunna½ sacc±na½ dassana½ paµivijjhana½ lakkhaºa½ etiss±ti samm±dassanalakkhaº±. Samm± avipar²ta½ sampayuttadhamme nibb±n±rammaºe abhiniropana½ appan±lakkhaºa½ etass±ti samm±-abhiniropanalakkhaºo mus±v±d±d²na½ visa½v±dan±dikiccat±ya l³kh±na½ aparigg±hak±na½ paµipakkhabh±vato siniddhasabh±vatt± sampayuttadhamme, samm±v±cappaccayasubh±sitasot±rañca jana½ sammadeva pariggaºh±t²ti samm±v±c± samm±pariggaho lakkhaºa½ etiss±ti samm±pariggahalakkhaº±. Yath± k±yik± kiriy± kiñci kattabba½ samuµµh±peti, sayañca samuµµhahana½ ghaµana½ hoti, tath± samm±kammantasaªkh±t± viratip²ti samm±samuµµh±nalakkhaºo samm±kammanto. Sampayuttadhamm±na½ v± ukkhipana½ samuµµh±na½ k±yikakiriy±ya bh±rukkhipana½ viya. J²vam±nassa sattassa, sampayuttadhamm±na½ v± suddhi vod±na½, ±j²vasseva v± j²vitappavattiy± suddhi vod±na½ eten±ti samm±vod±nalakkhaºo samm±-±j²vo. Kosajjapakkhe patitu½ adatv± sampayuttadhamm±na½ paggaºhana½ anubalappad±na½ paggaho. ¾rammaºa½ upagantv± µh±na½, tassa v± anissajjana½ upaµµh±na½. ¾rammaºe sampayuttadhamm±na½ samm±, sama½ v± ±dh±na½ sam±dh±na½. Samm± saªkappeti sampayuttadhamme ±rammaºe abhiniropet²ti samm±saªkappo. Samm± vadati et±y±ti samm±v±c±. Samm± karoti eten±ti samm±kamma½, tadeva samm±kammanto. Samm± ±j²vati eten±ti samm±-±j²vo. Samm± v±yamati ussahati eten±ti samm±v±y±mo. Samm± sarati anussarat²ti samm±sati Samm± sam±dhiyati citta½ eten±ti samm±sam±dh²ti eva½ samm±saªkapp±d²na½ nibbacana½ veditabba½.
Micch±diµµhinti sabbampi micch±dassana½. Tappaccan²yakileseti ettha ta½-saddena samm±diµµhi. Na hi micch±diµµhiy± kiles± paccan²y±, atha kho samm±diµµhiy±. Avijjañc±ti avijj±ggahaºa½ tass± sa½kilesadhamm±na½ pamukhabh±vato. Ten±ha “avijj±, bhikkhave, pubbaªgam± akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±pattiy±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1). Dassananiv±rakassa sammohassa samuggh±tena asammohato. Ettha ca micch±diµµhi½…pe… pajahat²ti etena pah±n±bhisamaya½, nibb±na½ ±rammaºa½ karot²ti etena sacchikiriy±bhisamaya½, sampayuttadhammeti-±din± bh±van±bhisamaya½ samm±diµµhikicca½ dasseti. Pariññ±bhisamayo pana n±nantariyat±ya atthato vutto eva hot²ti daµµhabbo.
Katha½ pana ekameva ñ±ºa½ ekasmi½ khaºe catt±ri kicc±ni s±dhenta½ pavattati. Na hi t±disa½ loke diµµha½, na ±gamo v± t±diso atth²ti na vattabba½. Yath± hi pad²po ekasmi½yeva khaºe vaµµi½ dahati, sneha½ pariy±diyati, andhak±ra½ vidhamati, ±lokañca vida½seti, evameta½ ñ±ºanti daµµhabba½. Maggasamaªgissa ñ±ºa½ dukkhepeta½ ñ±ºa½, dukkhasamudayepeta½ ñ±ºa½ dukkhanirodhepeta½ ñ±ºa½, dukkhanirodhag±miniy± paµipad±yapeta½ ñ±ºanti suttapada½ (vibha. 754) ettha ud±haritabba½. Yath± ca samm±diµµhi pubbabh±ge dukkh±d²su visu½ visu½ pavattitv± maggakkhaºe ek±va catunna½ ñ±º±na½ kicca½ s±dhent² pavattati, eva½ samm±saªkapp±dayo pubbabh±ge nekkhammasaªkapp±din±mak± hutv± k±masaªkapp±d²na½ pajahanavasena visu½ visu½ pavattitv± maggakkhaºe tiººa½ catunnañca kicca½ s±dhent± pavattanti. Samm±sam±dhi pana pubbabh±gepi maggakkhaºepi n±n±yeva hutv± pavattat²ti k±mañcettha samm±diµµhiy± sabbepi p±padhamm± paµipakkh±, ujuvipaccan²kat±dassanavasena pana samm±diµµhiy± kiccaniddese micch±diµµhiggahaºa½ kata½. Teneva ca “tappaccan²yakilese c±”ti vutta½.
Yesa½ kiles±na½ anupacchindane samm±diµµhi na uppajjeyya, te micch±diµµhiy± sahajekaµµhat±ya tadekaµµh±va tappaccan²yakiles± daµµhabb±. Samm±saªkapp±d²na½ kiccaniddesepi eseva nayo. Sot±pattimagg±divasena catt±ro lokuttaramaggabh±vas±maññena ekato katv±. Lobhados± samudayasacca½, yassa pana so samudayo ta½ dukkhasacca½, pah±nabh±vo maggasacca½, yattha ta½ pah±na½, ta½ nirodhasaccanti im±ni catt±ri sacc±ni. Kasm± panettha lobhados±na½ visu½ ±dito ca gahaºa½? Visu½ gahaºa½ t±va tath±bujjhanak±na½ puggal±na½ ajjh±sayavasena, imehi lobhadosehi ±misad±y±dat±, tappah±nena ca dhammad±y±dat±ti dassanattha½, tadanus±rena catusaccayojan±ya eva½ ekekassa niyy±namukha½ hot²ti dassanatthañca. Sesav±resupi eseva nayo. ¾dito gahaºa½ pana ativiya o¼±rikat±ya sup±kaµabh±vato vakkham±n±na½ aññesañca p±padhamm±na½ m³labh±vato tadekaµµhat±ya ca veditabba½.
Kujjhanalakkhaºoti kuppanasabh±vo, cittassa by±pajjan±ti attho. Caº¹ikka½ luddat±, kururabh±voti attho. ¾gh±takaraºarasoti “anattha½ me acar²”ti-±din± citte ±gh±tassa karaºaraso. Dussanapaccupaµµh±noti saparasant±nassa vin±sanapaccupaµµh±no laddhok±so viya sapatto. Upanandhana½ n±nappak±rassa upar³pari nandhana½ viya hot²ti katv±. Tath± hesa “vera-appaµinissajjanaraso, kodh±nupabandhabh±vapaccupaµµh±no”ti ca vutto. Aparak±le upan±hoti-±d²ti ±di-saddena “upanayhan± upanayhitatta½ ±µhapan± µhapan± saºµhapan± anusa½sandan± anuppabandhan± da¼h²kamman”ti-±d²na½ (vibha. 891) niddesapad±na½ atthavaººana½ saªgayhati. Upan±hasamaªg² hi puggalo verassa anissajjanato ±dittap³ti-al±ta½ viya jalati eva, cittañcassa dhoviyam±na½ acchacamma½ viya, masimakkhitapilotik± viya ca na sujjhateva.
Paraguºamakkhanalakkhaºoti udakapuñchaniy± udaka½ viya paresa½ guº±na½ makkhanasabh±vo. Tath±bh³to c±ya½ attano k±raka½ g³thena paharanta½ g³tho viya paµhamatara½ makkheti ev±ti daµµhabbo. Tath± hessa saparasant±nesu guºa½ makkhet²ti makkhoti vuccati. Yugagg±ho samadhuraggahaºa½ asam±nassapi abh³tassa sam±ropana½. Samabh±vakaraºa½ sam²karaºa½. Paresa½ guºappam±ºena attano guº±na½ upaµµh±na½ paccupaµµhapet²ti ±ha “paresa½ guºappam±ºena upaµµh±napaccupaµµh±no”ti. Tath± hesa paresa½ guºe ¹a½sitv± viya attano guºehi same karot²ti pa¼±soti vuccati.
Parasampattikh²yana½ parasampattiy± us³yana½. Issati parasampatti½ na sahat²ti iss±. Tath± hes± “parasampattiy± akkhamanalakkhaº±”ti vuccati. Tatth±ti parasampattiya½. Anabhiratiras± abhiratipaµipakkhakicc±. Vimukhabh±vapaccupaµµh±n± parasampatti½ passitumpi appad±nato. Nig³hanalakkhaºa½ attano sampattiy± parehi s±dh±raºabh±v±sahanato. Asukh±yana½ na sukhana½ dukkhana½, arocananti adhipp±yo.
Katassa k±yaduccarit±dip±passa paµicch±dana½ katap±papaµicch±dana½. Tassa p±passa ±varaºabh±vena paccupatiµµhat²ti tad±varaºapaccupaµµh±n±, m±y±, y±ya samann±gato puggalo bhasmachanno viya aªg±ro, udakachanno viya kh±ºu, pilotikapaµicch±dita½ viya ca sattha½ hoti. Avijjam±naguºappak±sana½ attani avijjam±nas²l±diguºavibh±vana½, yena s±µheyyena samann±gatassa puggalassa asantaguºasambh±vanena citt±nur³pakiriy±viharato “eva½citto, eva½kiriyo”ti dubbiññeyyatt± kucchi½ v± piµµhi½ v± j±nitu½ na sakk±. Yato–