3. Dhammad±y±dasuttavaººan±

29. Tasm± ta½ dassetv±ti yasm± suttantavaººan± suttanikkhepa½ dassetv± vuccam±n± p±kaµ± hoti, yasm± cassa dhammad±y±dasuttassa aµµhuppattiko nikkhepo, tasm± ta½ nikkhepa½ dassetv±, kathetv±ti attho. L±bhasakk±reti (sa½. ni. µ². 2.2.63) l±bhasakk±rasaªkh±t±ya aµµhuppattiy±ti keci, l±bhasakk±re v± aµµhuppattiy±ti apare. Y± hi l±bhasakk±ranimitta½ tad± bhikkh³su paccayab±hullikat± j±t±, ta½ aµµhuppatti½ katv± bhagav± ima½ deses²ti. Yamakamah±meghoti heµµh±-olambana-upari-uggamanavasena satapaµalo sahassapaµalo yuga¼amah±megho. Tiµµhanti ceva bhagavati katthaci nibaddhav±sa½ vasante, c±rika½ pana gacchante anubandhanti ca. Bhikkh³nampi yebhuyyena kappasatasahassa½ tato bhiyyopi p³ritad±nap±ramisañcayatt± tad± mah±l±bhasakk±ro uppajj²ti vutta½ “eva½ bhikkhusaªghassap²”ti.
Sakkatoti sakk±rappato. Garukatoti garuk±rappatto. M±nitoti bahumato manas± piy±yito ca. P³jitoti m±l±dip³j±ya ceva catupaccay±bhip³j±ya ca p³jito. Apacitoti apac±yanappatto. Yassa hi catt±ro paccaye sakkatv±pi abhisaªkhate paº²tapaº²te upanenti, so sakkato. Yasmi½ garubh±va½ paccupaµµhapetv± te denti, so garukato. Ya½ manas± piy±yanti bahumaññanti ca, so bahumato. Yassa sabbameta½ p³j±vasena karonti, so p³jito. Yassa abhiv±danapaccuµµh±nañjalikamm±divasena paramanipaccak±ra½ karonti, so apacito. Bhagavati bhikkhusaªghe ca loko eva½ paµipanno. Tena vutta½ “tena kho pana…pe… parikkh±r±nan”ti. L±bhaggayasaggapattanti l±bhassa ca yasassa ca agga½ ukka½sa½ patta½.
Paccay± c²var±dayo garuk±tabb± etesanti paccayagaruk±, ±misacakkhuk±ti attho. Paccayesu giddh± gadhit± paccay±na½ bahulabh±v±ya paµipann±ti paccayab±hulik±. Bhagavatopi p±kaµ± ahosi pakatic±rittavasen±ti adhipp±yo aññath± ap±kaµasseva abh±vato. Dhammasabh±vacint±vasena pavatta½ sahottappañ±ºa½ dhammasa½vego, idha pana so bhikkh³na½ l±bhagarut±dhammavasena veditabbo. Samaºadhammavutt²ti samaºadhammakaraºa½. ti dhammad±y±dadesan±. Paµibimbadassanavasena sabbak±yassa dassanayoggo ±d±soti sabbak±yika-±d±so.
Pitu-d±ya½, tena d±tabba½, tato laddhabba½ arahabh±vena ±diyant²ti d±y±d±, putt±. Tañca loke ±misameva, s±sane pana dhammop²ti tattha ya½ s±vajja½ aniyy±nikañca, ta½ paµikkhipitv±, ya½ niyy±nika½ anavajjañca, tattha bhikkh³ niyojento bhagav± avoca “dhammad±y±d± me, bhikkhave, bhavatha, m± ±misad±y±d±”ti. Dhammassa me d±y±d±ti mama dhammassa og±hino, dhammabh±gabh±ginoti attho. Tath± hi vakkhati “dhammakoµµh±sasseva s±mino”ti (ma. ni. aµµha.1.29). Nibbattitadhammoti asa½kilesik±nuttar±dibh±vena dhammas±maññato niddh±ritadhammo. Pariy±yeti sabh±vato parivattetv± ñ±peti eten±ti pariy±yo, leso, lesak±raºa½ v±. Tadabh±vato nippariy±yadhammo maggappattiy± ap±yapatan±dito accantameva v±raºato. Itaro vuttavipariy±yato pariy±yadhammo accanta½ ap±yadukkhavaµµadukkhap±tanato parampar±ya v±raºato. Yath± hi lokiya½ kusala½ d±nas²l±di vivaµµa½ uddissa nibbattita½, aya½ ta½ asamp±dentampi ta½ samp±pakassa dhammassa nibbattak±raºabh±vapariy±yena pariy±yadhammo n±ma hoti, eva½ ta½ vaµµa½ uddissa nibbattita½, ya½ taºh±d²hi savisesa½ ±masitabbato ±misanti loke p±kaµa½ acch±danabhojan±di, tassa, ta½sadisassa ca phalavisesassa nimittabh±vapariy±yena pariy±y±misanti vuccat²ti dassento ±ha “ya½ panida½…pe… ida½ pariy±y±misa½ n±m±”ti.
“Sakalameva hida½, ±nanda, brahmacariyassa yadida½ kaly±ºamittat±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.2, 3) ±divacanato s±vakehi adhigatopi lokuttaradhammo satthuyev±ti vattabbata½ arahat²ti vutta½ “nippariy±yadhammopi bhagavatoyeva santako”ti. S±vak±nañhi dhammadiµµhipaccayassapi yonisomanasik±rassa visesapaccayo paratoghoso ca tath±gat±dh²noti tehi paµividdhopi dhammo dhammass±minoyev±ti vattu½ yutta½. Ten±ha “bhagavat± h²”ti-±di. Tattha anuppannassa maggass±ti kassapassa bhagavato s±sanantaradh±nato pabhuti y±va imasm± buddhupp±d± asambodhavasena na uppannassa ariyamaggassa. Upp±det±ti nibbattet±. Ta½ paneta½ maggassa bhagavato nibbattana½, na paccekabuddh±na½ viya sasant±neyeva, atha kho parasant±nep²ti dassetu½ “asañj±tassa maggassa sañjanet±, anakkh±tassa maggassa akkh±t±”ti vutta½. Tayida½ maggassa upp±dana½ sañj±nanañca atthato j±nanaññeva asammohapaµivedhabh±vatoti vutta½ “maggaññ³ maggavid³”ti. Akkh±na½ panassa sukusalabh±ven±ti vutta½ “maggakovido”ti. Satth±r± yath±gata½ magga½ anugacchant²ti magg±nug± bhagavato eva ta½ magga½ suµµhu adhigamanato. Pacch± parato samm± anu anu ±gat± paµipann±ti pacch± samann±gat±.
J±na½ j±n±t²ti j±nitabbameva abhiññeyy±dibheda½ j±n±ti ekantahitapaµipattito. Passa½ passat²ti tath± passitabbameva passati. Atha v± j±na½ j±n±t²ti sabbaññutaññ±ºena j±nitabba½ j±n±tiyeva. Na hi padesañ±ºena j±nitabba½ sabba½ ekantato j±n±ti. Passa½ passat²ti dibbacakkhu paññ±cakkhu dhammacakkhu buddhacakkhu samantacakkhusaªkh±tehi pañcahi cakkh³hi passitabba½ passatiyeva. Atha v± j±na½ j±n±t²ti yath± aññe savipall±s± k±mar³papariññ±v±dino j±nant±pi vipall±savasena j±nanti, na eva½ bhagav±. Bhagav± pana pah²navipall±satt± j±nanto j±n±tiyeva, diµµhidassanassa ca abh±v± passanto passatiyev±ti attho. Cakkhubh³toti paññ±cakkhumayatt± tassa ca pattatt± sattesu ca tadupp±danato dassanapariº±yakaµµhena lokassa cakkhu viya bh³to. ѱºabh³toti etassa ca evameva attho daµµhabbo. Dhamm± bodhipakkhiy±, brahm± maggo, tehi uppannatt±, tesa½v± pattatt± adhigatatt±, lokassa ca tadupp±danato “dhammabh³to, brahmabh³to”ti ca veditabbo. Vatt±ti catusaccadhamma½ vadat²ti vatt±. Cira½ saccappaµivedha½ pavattento vadat²ti pavatt±. Atthassa ninnet±ti dhammat±saªkh±ta½ paramattha½ nibb±nañca niddh±retv± dasset±, p±payit± v±. Amatassa d±t±ti amata½ sacchikiriya½ sattesu upp±dento amata½ dad±t²ti amatassa d±t±. Bodhipakkhiyadhamm±na½ tad±yattabh±vato dhammass±m².
“Y± ca nibb±nasampatti, sabbametena labbhati;
sukho vip±ko puññ±na½, adhipp±yo samijjhati. (Peµako. 23).
Nibb±napaµisa½yutto, sabbasampattid±yako”ti–
Evam±di½ bhagavato vacana½ sutv± eva bhikkh³ d±n±dipuññ±na½ vivaµµasannissayata½ j±nanti, na aññath±ti vutta½ “pariy±yadhammopi…pe… paµilabhat²”ti. “Edisa½ paribhuñcitabban”ti kappiyassa ca c²var±dipaccayassa bhagavato vacanena vin± paµiggahopi bhikkh³na½ na sambhavati, kuto paribhogoti ±ha “nippariy±y±misamp²”ti-±di.
Pariy±y±misassa bhagavato santakabh±vo pariy±yadhammassa tabbh±veneva d²pito. Tadeva s±mibh±va½ dassentoti sambandho. Tasm±ti att±dh²napaµil±bhapaµiggahat±ya attano santakatt± ca. Tatth±ti tasmi½ dhamm±mise.
Paccay± c²var±dayo param± p±puºitabbabh±vena uttamamariy±d± etassa na uttarimanussadhamm± appicchat±dayo c±ti paccayaparamo, l±bhagar³ti attho. Taºhupp±des³ti “c²varahetu v±, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno taºh± uppajjam±n± uppajjati, piº¹ap±tasen±sana-itibhav±bhavahetu v±, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno taºh± uppajjam±n± uppajjat²”ti (d². ni. 3.311; a. ni. 4.9; itivu. 105) eva½ vuttesu cat³su taºhuppattikoµµh±sesu. Appicchat±santuµµhisallekhapavivek±dayo appicchat±dayo.
Tatth±ti tasmi½ ov±de, tesu v± dhammapaµigg±hakesu bhikkh³su. Bhavissati v± yesa½ tatth±ti yojan±. Imasmi½ pakkhe tatth±ti tasmi½ ov±de icceva attho daµµhabbo. Adhipp±yo ±misad±y±dat±ya uppajjanaka-anatth±nupp±dassa dhammad±y±dat±ya uppajjanaka-aµµhuppattiy± ca ±kaªkh±. Ten±ha “passat²”ti-±di. Tattha ±mise upakkhalit±nanti ±misahetu vippaµipann±na½. At²tak±leti kassapasamm±sambuddhak±le. Kapilassa bhikkhuno vatthu kapilasuttena, “saªgh±µipi-±ditt± hot²”ti-±din± lakkhaºasuttena (sa½. ni. 2.218) ca vibh±vetabba½. ¾misagaruko appagghabh±vena k³µakah±paºo viya nittejo samaºatejena anujjalato nibbutaªg±ro viya nippabho ca hot²ti yojan±. Tatoti paccayagarukabh±vato. Vivattitacittoti vinivattitam±naso, sallekhavutt²ti attho.
Dhammad±y±d±ti ett±vat± antogadh±vadh±raºa½ vacananti tena avadh±raºena nivattitamattha½ vibh±vetu½ “m± ±misad±y±d±”ti paµikkhepo dassito. Tatheva ca vibh±vetu½ adhipp±y±nisa½savibh±vanesupi dassito, tath± ±d²navavibh±vanena dhammad±y±dat±paµikkhepo. Apadisitabb±ti heµµh± katv± vattabb±ti. ¾diy±ti ettha yasm± ±-k±ro mariy±dattho, tasm± dhammad±y±dat±vidhurena ±misad±y±dabh±vena hetubh³tena, karaºabh³tena v± ±diya½ vivecana½ viññ³hi visu½ karaºa½ vavatth±nassa hot²ti ±ha “visu½ k±tabb±”ti. Ten±ha “viññ³hi g±rayh± bhaveyy±th±ti vutta½ hot²”ti.
“Atthi me tumhesu anukamp±…pe… no ±misad±y±d±”ti bhikkh³su attano karuº±yan±kittana½ tesa½ mudukaraºa½, “ahampi ten±”ti-±di pana tatopi savisesa½ mudukaraºanti ±ha “at²va mudukaraºatthan”ti.
N±¼akapaµipad±dayo n±¼akasutt±d²su (su. ni. 684-728) ±gatapaµipattiyo. T± pana yasm± n±¼akatther±d²hi paµipann± paramasallekhavuttibh³t± ati-ukkaµµhapaµipattiyo, tasm± idha dhammad±y±dapaµipad±ya ud±haraºabh±vena uddhaµ±. Sakkhibh³t±ti t±ya paµipattiy± vuccam±n±ya “ki½ me vin± paµipajjanako atth²”ti asaddahant±na½ paccakkhakaraºena sakkhibh³t±. Imasminti “tumhe ca me bhikkhave dhammad±y±d±”ti-±dike v±kye. Sesanti “tumhe ca me”ti-±dika½ sukkapakkhe ±gata½ p±¼ipada½. Vuttanayapaccan²ken±ti “tena dhammad±y±dabh±vena no ±misad±y±dabh±ven±”ti eva½ kaºhapakkhe vuttanayassa paµipakkhena.
30. Thomana½ sutv±ti paµipajjanakassa puggalassa pasa½sana½ sutv± yath± ta½ saparisassa ±yasmato upasenassa paµipattiy± s²lathomana½ sutv±. Nip±tapadanti imin± idha-saddassa anatthakatam±ha. Pav±ritoti paµikkhepito. Yo hi bhuñjanto bhojanena titto parivesakena upan²tabhojana½ paµikkhipati, so tena pav±ritena paµikkhepito n±ma hoti. Ten±ha “pav±ritoti…pe… vutta½ hot²”ti. Pak±rehi diµµh±d²hi v±reti saªgh±dike y±c±peti bhatte karoti et±y±ti pav±raº±, ±pattivisodhan±ya attavossaggo ok±sad±na½. S± pana yasm± yebhuyyena vassa½vutthehi k±tabb± vutt±, tasm± “vassa½vutthapav±raº±”ti vutta½. Pav±reti paccaye icch±peti et±y±ti pav±raº±, c²var±d²hi upanimantan±. Pak±rayutt± v±raº±ti pav±raº±, vippakatabhojanat±dicaturaªgasahito bhojanapaµikkhepo. S± pana yasm± anatirittabhojananimitt±ya ±pattiy± k±raºa½ hoti, tasm± “anatirittapav±raº±”ti vutt±. Y±vadatthabhojanassa pav±raº± y±vadatthapav±raº±, pariyositabhojanassa upan²t±h±rapaµikkhepoti attho.