Dassan±pah±tabba-±savavaººan±

17. Kusal±kusaladhammehi ±lambiyam±n±pi ±rammaºadhamm± ±vajjanamukheneva tabbh±va½ gacchant²ti dassento “manasikaraº²ye”ti padassa “±vajjitabbe”ti attham±ha. Hitasukh±vahabh±vena manasikaraºa½ arahant²ti manasikaraº²y±, tappaµipakkhato amanasikaraº²y±ti ±ha “amanasikaraº²yeti tabbipar²te”ti. Sesapades³ti “manasikaraº²ye dhamme appaj±nanto”ti-±d²su. Yasm± kusaladhammesupi subhasukhanicc±divasena manasik±ro ass±dan±dihetut±ya s±vajjo ahitadukkh±vaho akusaladhammesupi anicc±divasena manasik±ro nibbid±dihetut±ya anavajjo hitasukh±vaho, tasm± “dhammato niyamo natth²”ti vatv± “±k±rato pana atth²”ti ±ha.
V±-saddo yebhuyyena “mama½ v± hi bhikkhave (d². ni. 1.5, 6), devo v± bhaviss±mi devaññataro v±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.186; ma. ni. 2.79, 80) vikappattho diµµho, na samuccayatthoti tattha samuccayatthe payoga½ dassetu½ “yath±”ti-±di vutta½. Evañca katv± samuccayatthad²paka½ paneta½ suttapada½ samud±haµa½.
K±m±savoti pañcak±maguºasaªkh±te k±me ±savo k±m±savo. Ten±ha “pañcak±maguºiko r±go”ti. Bhav±sava½ pana µhapetv± sabbo lobho k±m±savoti yutta½ siy±. R³p±r³pabhaveti kammupapattibhedato duvidhepi r³p±r³pabhave chandar±go. Jh±nanikant²ti jh±nass±do. “Sundaramida½ µh±na½ nicca½ dhuvan”ti-±din± ass±dentassa uppajjam±no sassatucchedadiµµhisahagato r±go bhave ±savoti bhav±savo. Evanti sabbadiµµh²na½ sassatucchedadiµµhisaªgahato bhav±saveneva diµµh±savo gahito ta½sahagatar±gat±y±ti adhipp±yo. Apare pana “diµµh±savo avijj±savena ca saªgahito”ti vadanti. Ettha ca “bhav±savo cat³su diµµhigatavippayuttalobhasahagatacittupp±desu uppajjat²”ti (dha. sa. 1465) vacanato diµµhisampayuttar±gassa bhav±savabh±vo vic±retabbo, atha “k±masahagat± saññ±manasik±r±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 4.332) viya ±rammaºakaraºattho sahagatattho, eva½ sati bhav±save diµµh±savassa samodh±nagamana½ kata½ na siy±. Na hi tampayogatabbh±v±dike asati ta½saªgaho yutto, tasm± yath±vuttap±¼i½ anus±rena diµµhigatasampayuttalobhopi k±m±savoti yutta½ siy±. Diµµhadhammikasampar±yikadukkh±nañhi k±raºabh³t± k±m±sav±dayopi dvidh± vutt±.
Abhidhamme (dha. sa. 1103) ca k±m±savaniddese “k±mes³ti k±mar±gadiµµhir±g±d²na½ ±rammaºabh³tesu tebh³makesu vatthuk±mes³”ti attho sambhavati. Tattha hi uppajjam±n± s± taºh± sabb±pi na k±macchand±din±ma½ na labhat²ti. Yadi pana lobho k±m±savabhav±savavinimuttopi siy±, so yad± diµµhigatavippayuttesu cittesu uppajjati, tad± tena sampayutto avijj±savo ±savavippayuttoti domanassavicikicchuddhaccasampayuttassa viya tassapi ±savavippayuttat± vattabb± siy± “cat³su diµµhigatavippayuttalobhasahagatacittupp±desu uppanno moho siy± ±savasampayutto, siy± ±savavippayutto”ti. “K±m±savo aµµhasu lobhasahagatacittupp±desu uppajjat²’ti (dha. sa. 1465), “k±m±sava½ paµicca diµµh±savo avijj±savo”ti (paµµh±. 3.3.109) ca vacanato diµµhisahagatar±go k±m±savo na hot²ti na sakk± vattu½. Kiñca abhijjh±k±mar±g±na½ viseso ±savadvaya-ek±savabh±vo siy±, na abhijjh±ya ca no-±savabh±voti no-±savalobhassa sabbh±vo vic±retabbo. Na hi atthi abhidhamme “±savo ca no-±savo ca dhamm± ±savassa dhammassa ±savassa ca no-±savassa ca dhammassa hetupaccayo”ti (paµµh±. 3.3.16-17) sattamo navamo ca pañho. Gaºan±yañca “hetuy± satt±”ti (paµµh±. 3.3.40) vutta½, no “nav±”ti. Diµµhisampayutte pana lobhe no-±save vijjam±ne sattamanavam±pi pañh± vissajjana½ labheyyu½, gaºan±ya ca “hetuy± nav±”ti vattabba½ siy±, na pana vutta½. Diµµhivippayutte ca lobhe no-±save vijjam±ne vattabba½ vuttameva. Yasm± pana suttantadesan± n±ma pariy±yakath±, na abhidhammadesan± viya nippariy±yakath±, tasm± balavak±mar±gasseva k±m±sava½ dassetu½ “k±m±savoti pañcak±maguºiko r±go”ti vutta½, tath± bhav±bhinandananti.
S±maññena bhav±savo diµµh±sava½ antogadha½ katv± idha tayo eva ±sav± vutt±ti tassa tadantogadhata½ dassetu½ “eva½ diµµh±savo”ti-±di vutta½. Tath± hi vakkhati bhav±savassa animittavimokkhapaµipakkhata½. Cat³su saccesu aññ±ºanti ida½ suttantanaya½ niss±ya vutta½. Suttantasa½vaººan± hes±ti, tadantogadhatt± v± pubbant±d²na½. Yath± atthato k±m±sav±dayo vavatth±pit±, tath± nesa½ upp±dava¹¹hiyo dassento “k±maguºe”ti-±dim±ha. Ass±dato manasikarototi “subhasukh±”ti-±din± ass±danavasena manasi karontassa. Catuvipall±sapadaµµh±nabh±ven±ti subhasaññ±d²na½ vatthubh±vena. Vuttanayapaccan²katoti “k±m± n±mete anicc± dukkh± vipariº±madhamm±”ti-±din± k±maguºesu ±d²navadassanapubbakanekkhammapaµipattiy± chandar±ga½ vikkhambhayato samucchindantassa ca anuppanno ca k±m±savo na uppajjati, uppanno ca pah²yati. Tath± mahaggatadhammesu ceva sakalatebh³makadhammesu ca ±d²navadassanapubbaka-anicc±dimanasik±ravasena nissaraºapaµipattiy± anuppann± ca bhav±sava-avijj±sav± na uppajjanti, uppann± ca pah²yant²ti eva½ taºh±pakkhe vuttassa nayassa paµipakkhato sukkapakkhe vitth±ro veditabbo.
Tayo ev±ti abhidhamme viya “catt±ro”ti avatv± kasm± tayo eva ±sav± idha imissa½ dassan±pah±tabbakath±ya½ vutt±? Tattha k±m±savassa taºh±paºidhibh±vato appaºihitavimokkhapaµipakkhat± veditabb±. Bhavesu niccagg±h±nus±rato yebhuyyato bhavar±gasampattito bhav±savassa animittavimokkhapaµipakkhat±, bhavadiµµhiy± pana bhav±savabh±ve vattabbameva natthi, anattasaññ±ya ñ±º±nubh±vasiddhito avijj±savassa suññatavimokkhapaµipakkhat±. Etth±ti etissa½ ±savakath±ya½. Vaººitanti kathita½. Abhedatoti s±maññato.
18. K±m±sav±d²nanti manussalokadevalokagaman²y±na½ k±m±sav±d²na½. Niray±digaman²y± pana k±m±sav±dayo “dassan± pah±tabbe ±save”ti ettheva sam±ru¼h±. Atha v± yadaggena so puggalodassan±pah±tabb±na½ ±sav±na½ adhiµµh±na½, tadaggena k±m±sav±d²nampi adhiµµh±na½. Na hi samaññ±bhedena vatthubhedo atth²ti dassetu½ “ett±vat±”ti-±di vutta½. Tenev±ha “s±maññato vutt±nan”ti. Kasm± panettha dassan±pah±tabbesu ±savesu dassetabbesu “ahosi½ nu kho ahan”ti-±din± vicikicch± dassit±ti ±ha “vicikicch±s²sena cetth±”ti-±di. Evanti yath± so¼asavatthuk± vicikicch± uppajjati, eva½ ayonisomanasik±roti.
Vijjam±nata½ avijjam±natañc±ti (sa½. ni. µ². 2.2.20) sassat±saªka½ niss±ya “ahosi½ nu kho ahamat²tamaddh±nan”ti at²te attano vijjam±nata½, adhiccasamuppatti-±saªka½ niss±ya “yato pabhuti aha½, tato pubbe na nu kho ahosin”ti at²te attano avijjam±natañca kaªkhati. Kasm±? Vicikicch±ya ±k±radvay±valambanato. Tass± pana at²tavatthut±ya gahitatt± sassat±dhiccasamuppatti-±k±ranissayat± dassit±. Eva½ ±sappanaparisappan±pavattika½ katthacipi appaµivattihetubh³ta½ vicikiccha½ kasm± upp±det²ti na codetabbametanti dassento ±ha “ki½ k±raºanti na vattabban”ti. Sveva puthujjanabh±vo eva. Yadi eva½ tassa ayonisomanasik±reneva bhavitabbanti ±pannanti ±ha “nanu ca puthujjanopi yoniso manasi karot²”ti. Tatth±ti yonisomanasikaraºe.
J±tiliªg³papattiyoti khattiyabr±hmaº±dij±ti½ gahaµµhapabbajit±diliªga½ devamanuss±di-upapattiñca. Niss±y±ti up±d±ya.
Tasmi½ k±le satt±na½ majjhimappam±ºa½, tena yutto pam±ºiko, tadabh±vato, tato at²tabh±vato v± appam±ºiko veditabbo. Kec²ti s±rasam±s±cariy±. Te hi “katha½ nu khoti issarena v± brahmun± v± pubbakatena v± ahetuto v± nibbattoti cintet²”ti ±hu. Tena vutta½ “hetuto kaªkhat²ti vadant²”ti. Ahetuto nibbattikaªkh±pi hi hetupar±masanamev±ti.
Paramparanti pubb±parappavatti½. Addh±nanti k±l±dhivacana½, tañca bhummatthe upayogavacana½ daµµhabba½.
Vijjam±nata½ avijjam±natañc±ti sassat±saªka½ niss±ya “bhaviss±mi nu kho ahaman±gatamaddh±nan”ti an±gate attano vijjam±nata½, ucched±saªka½ niss±ya “yasmiñca attabh±ve aha½, tato para½ na nu kho bhaviss±m²”ti an±gate attano avijjam±natañca kaªkhat²ti heµµh± vuttanayena yojetabba½.
Paccuppannamaddh±nanti addh±paccuppannassa idh±dhippetatt± “paµisandhi½ ±di½ katv±”ti-±di vutta½. “Ida½ katha½ ida½ kathan”ti pavattanato katha½kath±, vicikicch±, s± assa atth²ti katha½kath²ti ±ha “vicikiccho hot²”ti. K± ettha cint±, ummattako viya hi b±laputhujjanoti paµikacceva vuttanti adhipp±yo. Ta½ mah±m±t±ya putta½. Muº¹esunti muº¹ena anicchanta½ j±garaºak±le na sakk±ti sutta½ muº¹esu½ kuladhammat±ya yath± ta½ ekacce kulat±pas±, r±jabhayen±ti ca vadanti.
S²tibh³tanti ida½ madhurakabh±vappattiy± k±raºavacana½. “Setibh³tan”tipi p±µho, udake ciraµµh±nena setabh±va½ pattanti attho.
Attano khattiyabh±va½ kaªkhati kaººo viya s³taputtasaññ². J±tiy± vibh±viyam±n±ya “ahan”ti tassa attano par±masana½ sandh±y±ha “evañhi siy± kaªkh±”ti. Manuss±pi ca r±j±no viy±ti manuss±pi keci ekacce r±j±no viy±ti adhipp±yo.
Vuttanayameva “saºµh±n±k±ra½ niss±y±”ti-±din±. Etth±ti “katha½ nu khosm²”ti pade. Abbhantare j²voti paraparikappita½ antaratt±na½ vadati. So¼asa½s±d²nanti ±di-saddena sar²ra-parim±ºa-parimaº¹ala-aªguµµhayavaparam±ºu-parim±ºat±dike saªgaºh±ti.
“Sattapaññatti j²vavisay±”ti diµµhigatik±na½ matimatta½, paramatthato pana s± attabh±vavisay±v±ti ±ha “attabh±vassa ±gatigatiµµh±nan”ti, yat±ya½ ±gato, yattha ca gamissati, ta½ µh±nanti attho.
19. Yath± aya½ vicikicch± uppajjat²ti aya½ vuttappabhed± vicikicch± yath± uppajjati, eva½ ayoniso manasikaroto. Etena vicikicch±ya att±bhinivesasannissayatam±ha. Yath± hi vicikicch± att±bhinivesa½ niss±ya pavattati, yato s± sassat±dhiccasamuppattisassatucched±k±r±valambin² vutt±, eva½ att±bhinivesopi ta½ niss±ya pavattati “ahosi½ nu kho ahan”ti-±din± antogadh±ha½k±rassa katha½kathibh±vassa attagg±hasannissayabh±vato. Tenev±ha “savicikicchassa ayonisomanasik±rassa th±magatatt±”ti. Vikappatthoti aniyamattho. “Aññatar± diµµhi uppajjat²”ti hi vutta½. Suµµhu da¼habh±ven±ti abhinivesassa ativiya th±magatabh±vena. Tattha tatth±ti tasmi½ bhave. Paccuppannamev±ti avadh±raºena an±gate atthibh±va½ nivatteti, na at²te tatthapi sati atthit±ya ucchedagg±hassa sabbh±vato. At²te eva natthi, na an±gatep²ti adhipp±yo.
Saññ±kkhandhas²sen±ti saññ±kkhandhapamukhena, saññ±kkhandha½ pamukha½ katv±ti attho. Khandheti pañcapi khandhe. Att±ti gahetv±ti “sañj±nanasabh±vo me att±”ti abhinivissa. Pak±setabba½ vatthu½ viya, att±nampi pak±sento pad²po viya, sañj±nitabba½ n²l±di-±rammaºa½ viya att±nampi sañj±n±t²ti eva½diµµhitopi diµµhigatito hot²ti vutta½ “attan±va att±na½ sañj±n±m²”ti. Sv±yamattho sañña½ tadaññataradhamme ca “att± anatt±”ti ca gahaºavasena hot²ti vutta½ “saññ±kkhandhas²sen±”ti-±di. Ettha ca khandhavinimutto att±ti gaºhato sassatadiµµhi, khandha½ pana “att±”ti gaºhato ucchedadiµµh²ti ±ha “sabb±pi sassatucchedadiµµhiyov±”ti.