9. Brahmanimantanikasuttavaººan±

501. “Sassato att± ca loko c±”ti (d². ni. 1.30) eva½ pavatt± diµµhi sassatadiµµhi (sa½. ni. µ². 1.1.175). Saha k±yen±ti saha tena brahmattabh±vena. Brahmaµµh±nanti attano brahmavatthu½. “Anicca½ niccan”ti vadati aniccat±ya attano apaññ±yam±natt±. Thiranti da¼ha½, vin±s±bh±vato s±rabh³tanti attho. Upp±davipariº±m±bh±vato sad± vijjam±na½. Kevalanti paripuººa½. Ten±ha “akhaº¹an”ti. Kevalanti v± j±ti-±d²hi amissa½, virahitanti adhipp±yo. Upp±d±d²na½ abh±vato eva acavanadhamma½. Koci j±yanako v±…pe… upapajjanako v± natthi niccabh±vato. Ýh±nena saddhi½ tanniv±s²na½ niccabh±vañhi so paµij±n±ti. Tisso jh±nabh³miyoti dutiyatatiyacatutthajjh±nabh³miyo. Catutthajjh±nabh³mivises± hi asaññasuddh±v±s±ruppabhav±. Paµib±hat²ti santa½yeva sam±na½ aj±nantova natth²ti paµikkhipati. Avijj±ya gatoti avijj±ya saha gato pavatto. Sahayoge hi ida½ karaºavacana½. Ten±ha “samann±gato”ti. Aññ±º²ti avidv±. Paññ±cakkhuvirahato andho bh³to, andhabh±va½ v± pattoti andh²bh³to.
502. Tad± bhagavato subhagavane viharaºassa avicchinnata½ sandh±ya vutta½ “subhagavane viharat²ti ñatv±”ti. Tattha pana tad±ssa bhagavato adassana½ sandh±y±ha “kattha nu kho gatoti olokento”ti. Brahmaloka½ gacchanta½ disv±ti imin± katipayacittav±ravasena tad± bhagavato brahmalokagamana½ j±ta½, na ekacittakkhaºen±ti dasseti. Na cettha k±yagatiy± cittapariº±mana½ adhippeta½– “seyyath±pi n±ma balav± puriso samiñjita½ v± b±ha½ pas±reyy±”ti-±divacanato (ma. ni. 1.501). Ya½ panettha vattabba½, ta½ heµµh± vuttameva. Vichandanti chandavigama½. Apas±ditoti diµµhiy± g±hassa viparivattanena santajjito. “Metam±sado”ti vacanena upatthambho hutv±.
Anv±visitv±ti ±visanavasena tassa attabh±va½ adhibhavitv±. Tath± abhibhavato hi tassa sar²ra½ paviµµho viya hot²ti vutta½ “sar²ra½ pavisitv±”ti. Yañhi satta½ devayakkhan±g±dayo ±visanti, tassa p±katikakiriyamaya½ cittappavatti½ niv±retv± attano iddh±nubh±vena ya½ icchita½ hasitalapit±di, ta½ tena k±r±penti, k±rent± ca ±viµµhapuggalassa cittavasena k±renti. “Attanov±”ti na vattabbameta½ acinteyyatt± kammajassa iddh±nubh±vass±ti keci. Apare pana yath± tad± cakkhuviññ±º±dipavatti ±viµµhapuggalasseva, eva½ kiriyamayacittapavattipi tasseva, ±vesak±nubh±vena pana s±maññat± parivattati. Tath± hi mah±nubh±va½ puggala½ te ±visitu½ na sakkonti, tikicch±vuµµh±pane pana chavasar²ra½ anupavisitv± satanta½ karoti vijj±nubh±vena. Korakhattiy±d²na½ pana chavasar²rassa uµµh±na½ vac²nicch±raºañca kevala½ buddh±nubh±vena. Acinteyy± hi buddh±na½ buddh±nubh±v±ti. Abhibhavitv± µhitoti sakalaloka½ attano ±nubh±vena abhibhavitv± µhito. Jeµµhakoti padh±no, t±disa½ v± ±nubh±vasampannatt± uttamo. Passat²ti daso. Visesavacanicch±ya abh±vato anavasesavisayo daso-saddoti ±ha “sabba½ passat²”ti. Sabbajananti laddhan±ma½ sabbasattak±ya½. Vase vatteti, seµµhatt± nimm±pakatt± ca attano vase vatteti. Lokassa ²sanas²lat±ya issaro. Satt±na½ kammassa k±rakabh±vena katt±. Th±varajaªgamavibh±ga½ sakala½ loka½ nimm±net²ti nimm±t±.
Guºavisesena loke p±sa½satt± seµµho. T±diso ca ukkaµµhatamo hot²ti ±ha “uttamo”ti. Satt±na½ nimm±na½ tath± tath± sajana½ visajana½ viya hot²ti ±ha “tva½ khattiyo”ti-±di. Jh±n±d²su attano citte ca ciººavasitt± vas². Bh³t±nanti nibbatt±na½. Bhava½ abhij±ta½ arahant²ti bhaby±, sambhavesino, tesa½ bhaby±na½. Ten±ha “aº¹ajajal±buj± satt±”ti-±di.
Pathav²-±dayo nicc± dhuv± sassat±. Ye tesa½ “anicc±”ti-±din± garahak± jigucch± satt±, te ayath±bh³tav±dit±ya matak±le ap±yaniµµh± ahesu½. Ye pana pathav²-±d²na½ “nicc± dhuv±”ti-±din± pasa½sak±, te yath±bh³tav±dit±ya brahmak±y³pag± ahesunti m±ro p±pim± anvayato byatirekato ca pathav²-±dimukhena saªkh±r±na½ pariññ±paññ±pane ±d²nava½ vibh±veti tato vivecetuk±mo. Ten±ha “pathav²garahak±”ti-±di. Ettha ca m±ro pathav²-±didh±tumah±bh³taggahaºena manussaloka½, bh³taggahaºena c±tumah±r±jike, devaggahaºena avasesak±madevaloka½, paj±patiggahaºena attano µh±na½, brahmaggahaºena brahmak±yike gaºhi. ¾bhassar±dayo pana avisayat±ya eva anena aggahit±ti daµµhabba½. Taºh±diµµhivasen±ti taºh±bhinandan±ya diµµh±bhinandan±ya ca vasena. “Eta½ mama, eso me att±”ti abhinandino abhinandak±, abhinandanas²l± v±. Brahmuno ov±de µhit±na½ iddh±nubh±va½ dasset²ti tesa½ tattha sannipatitabrahm±na½ iddh±nubh±va½ tassa mah±brahmuno ov±de µhitatt± nibbatta½ katv± dasseti. Yasen±ti ±nubh±vena. Siriy±ti sobh±ya. Ma½ brahmaparisa½ upanes²ti y±dis± brahmaparis± issariy±disampattiy±, tattha ma½ uyyojesi. Mah±janassa m±raºatoti mah±janassa vivaµµ³panissayaguºavin±sanena ±nubh±vena m±raºato. Ayasanti yasapaµipakkha½ akittikamm±nubh±vañc±ti attho.
503. Kasiºa½ ±yunti vassasata½ sandh±ya vadati. Upaniss±ya set²ti upasayo, upasayova opas±yiko yath± “venayiko”ti (ma. ni. 1.246; a. ni. 8.11; p±r±. 8) ±ha “sam²pasayo”ti. Sayaggahaºañcettha nidassanamattanti dassetu½ “ma½ gacchantan”ti-±di vutta½. Anekatthatt± dh±t³na½ vattanattho daµµhabbo. Mama vatthusmi½ sayanakoti mayha½ µh±ne visaye vattanako. B±hitv±ti n²ca½ katv±, abhibhavitv± v±. Jajjharik±gumbatoti ettha jajjharik± n±ma pathavi½ pattharitv± j±t± ek± gacchaj±ti.
Imin±ti “sace kho tva½ bhikkh³”ti-±divacanena. Esa brahm±. Upal±pet²ti saªgaºh±ti. Apas±det²ti niggaºh±ti. Sesapadeh²ti vatthus±yiko yath±k±makaraº²yo b±hiteyyoti imehi padehi. Mayha½ ±rakkha½ gaºhissas²ti mama ±rakkhako bhavissasi. Lakuº¹akataranti n²catara½ nih²navuttisar²ra½.
Phusitumpi samattha½ kiñci na passati, pageva ñ±ºavibhavanti adhipp±yo. Nipphattinti nipphajjana½, phalanti attho. Tañhi k±raºavasena gantabbato adhigantabbato gat²ti vuccati. ¾nubh±vanti pabh±va½. So hi jotanaµµhena virocanaµµhena jut²ti vuccati. Mahat± ±nubh±vena paresa½ abhibhavanato mahesoti akkh±yat²ti mahesakkho. Tayida½ abhibhavana½ kittisampattiy± pariv±rasampattiy± c±ti ±ha “mah±yaso mah±pariv±ro”ti.
Pariharant²ti sineru½ dakkhiºato katv± parivattanti. Dis±ti bhummatthe eta½ paccattavacananti ±ha “dis±su virocam±n±”ti. Attano jutiy± dibbam±n±ya v±. Teh²ti candimas³riyehi. Tattakena pam±ºen±ti yattake candimas³riyehi obh±siyam±no lokadh±tusaªkh±to eko loko, tattakena pam±ºena. Ida½ cakkav±¼a½ buddh±na½ uppattiµµh±nabh³ta½ seµµha½ uttama½ padh±na½, tasm± yebhuyyena etthupapann± devat± aññesu cakkav±¼esu devat± abhibhuyya vattanti. Tath± hi brahm± sahampati dasasahassabrahmapariv±ro bhagavato santika½ upagañchi. Ten±ha “ettha cakkav±¼asahasse tuyha½ vaso vattat²”ti. Id±ni “ettha te vattate vaso”ti vutta½ vase vattana½ sar³pato dassetu½ “paroparañca j±n±s²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha paµhamag±th±ya½ vutta½ ettha-sadda½ ±netv± attho veditabboti dassento “ettha cakkav±¼asahasse”ti ±ha. Uccan²ceti j±tikular³pabhogapariv±r±divasena u¼±re ca anu¼±re ca. Aya½ iddho aya½ pakatimanussoti imin± “sar³pato evassa satt±na½ paroparaj±nana½, na samud±gamato”ti dasseti. Ya½ pana vakkhati “satt±na½ ±gati½ gatinti, ta½ k±maloke satt±na½ ±d±nanikkhepaj±nanamatta½ sandh±ya vutta½, na kammavip±kaj±nana½. Yadi hi samud±gamato j±neyya, attanopi j±neyya, na cassa ta½ atth²ti, tath± ±ha “itthambh±voti ida½ cakkav±¼an”ti-±di. R±gayogato r±go etassa atth²ti v± r±go, virajjanas²lo vir±g², ta½ r±gavir±gina½. Sahassibrahm± n±ma tva½ c³¼aniy± eva lokadh±tuy± j±nanato. Tay±ti nissakke karaºavacana½. Catuhatth±y±ti anekahatthena s±ºip±k±rena k±tabbapaµappam±ºa½ d²ghato catuhatth±ya, vitth±rato dvihatth±ya pilotik±ya k±tu½ v±yamanto viya gopphake udake nimujjituk±mo viya ca pam±ºa½ aj±nanto vihaññat²ti niggaºh±ti.
504. Ta½ k±yanti tadeva nik±ya½. J±nitabbaµµh±na½ patv±p²ti anaññas±dh±raº± mayha½ s²l±dayo guºavises± t±va tiµµhantu, ²disa½ lokiya½ parittaka½ j±nitabbaµµh±nampi patv±. Aya½ imesa½ atisayena n²coti n²ceyyo, tassa bh±vo n²ceyyanti ±ha “tay± n²catarabh±vo pana mayha½ kuto”ti.
Heµµh³papattikoti upar³parito cavitv± heµµh± laddh³papattiko. Eva½ saªkhepato vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “anuppanne buddhupp±de”ti ±ha. Heµµh³papattika½ katv±ti heµµh³papattika½ patthana½ katv±. Yath± kenaci bah³su ±nantariyesu katesu ya½ tattha garutara½ balava½, tadeva paµisandhi½ deti, itar±ni pana tassa anubalappad±yak±ni honti, na paµisandhid±yak±ni, eva½ cat³su r³pajjh±nesu bh±vitesu ya½ tattha garutara½ chandapaºidhi-adhimokkh±divasena s±bhisaªkh±rañca, tadeva ca paµisandhi½ deti, itar±ni pana aladdhok±sat±ya tassa anubalappad±yak±ni honti, na paµisandhid±yak±ni, tannibbattitajjh±neneva ±yati½ punabbhav±bhinibbatti hot²ti ±ha “tatiyajjh±na½ paº²ta½ bh±vetv±”ti. Tatth±ti subhakiºhabrahmaloke. Puna tatth±ti ±bhassarabrahmaloke. Paµhamak±leti tasmi½ bhave paµhamasmi½ k±le. Ubhayanti at²ta½ attano nibbattaµµh±na½, tattha nibbattiy± hetubh³ta½ attano katakammanti ubhaya½. Pamussitv± k±lassa ciratarabh±vato. V²tin±meti paµipajjant²ti ca tad± tass± kiriy±ya pavattikkhaºa½ up±d±ya pavattam±napayogo.
Ap±yes²ti p±yesi. Pip±siteti tasite. Ghamman²ti ghammak±le. Sampareteti ghammapari¼±hena pip±s±ya abhibh³te. Nti p±n²yad±na½. Vatas²lavattanti sam±d±navasena vatabh³ta½ c±rittas²labh±vena sam±ciººatt± s²lavatta½. Suttappabuddhova anussar±m²ti supitv± pabuddhamatto viya supina½ tava pubbanivuttha½ mama pubbeniv±s±nussatiñ±ºena anussar±mi, sabbaññutaññ±ºena viya paccakkhato pass±m²ti attho.
Karamareti vilumpitv± ±n²te. Kammasajjanti yuddhasajja½, ±vudh±d±yininti attho.
Eº²k³lasminti eº²migab±hullena “eº²k³lan”ti saªkha½ gate gaªg±ya t²rappadese. Gayhaka n²yam±nanti gayhavasena karamarabh±vena corehi attano µh±na½ n²yam±na½.
¾v±haviv±havasena mittasanthava½ katv±. “Eva½ amhesu k²¼antesu gaªgeyyako n±go kupito”ti mayi saññampi na karont²ti. Susuk±ranti sus³ti pavatta½ bheravan±ganiss±sa½.
Gah²tan±vanti viheµhetuk±mat±ya gatiniv±raºavasena gahita½ niggahita½ n±va½. Ludden±ti kur³rena. Manussakapp±ti n±v±gat±na½ manuss±na½ viheµhetuk±mat±ya.
Baddhacaroti paµibaddhacariyo. Ten±ha “antev±siko”ti. Ta½ niss±yev±ti raññ± upaµµhiyam±nopi r±j±na½ pah±ya ta½ kappa½ antev±si½ niss±yeva.
Sambuddhimanta½ vatina½ amaññ²ti aya½ sammadeva buddhim± vatasampannoti amaññi sambh±vesi ca.
N±nattabh±ves³ti n±n± visu½ visu½ attabh±vesu.
Addh±ti eka½sena. Mametam±yunti mayha½ eta½ yath±vutta½ tattha tattha bhave pavatta½ ±yu½. Na kevala½ mama ±yumeva, atha kho aññampi sabbaññeyya½ j±n±si, na tuyha½ avidita½ n±ma atthi. Tath± hi buddho samm±sambuddho tuva½. No ce kathamayamattho ñ±to? Tath± hi samm±sambuddhatt± eva te aya½ jalito jotam±no ±nubh±vo obh±saya½ sabbampi brahmaloka½ obh±sento dibbam±no tiµµhat²ti satthu asamasamata½ pavedesi.
Pathavatten±ti pathav²-attena. Ten±ha “pathav²sabh±ven±”ti. Ettha ca yasm±– “sabbasaªkh±rasamathoti”±din± (mah±va. 7; d². ni. 2.64, 67; ma. ni. 1.281; sa½. ni. 1.172) s±dh±raºato, “yattha neva pathav²”ti as±dh±raºato ca pathaviy± asabh±vena nibb±nassa gahetabbat± atthi, ta½ nivattetv± pathaviy± anaññas±dh±raºa½ sabh±va½ gahetu½ “pathaviy± pathavatten±”ti vutta½. N±pahosinti na p±puºi½. Idha pathaviy± p±puºana½ n±ma “eta½ mam±”ti-±din± gahaºanti ±ha “taºh±diµµhim±nagg±hehi na gaºhin”ti.
V±dit±y±ti v±das²lat±ya. Sabbanti akkhara½ niddisitv±ti “sabba½ kho aha½ brahme”ti-±din± bhagavat± vutta½ sabba-sadda½– “sace kho te m±risa sabbassa sabbattena ananubh³tan”ti paccanubh±sanavasena niddisitv±. Akkhare dosa½ gaºhantoti bhagavat± sakk±yasabba½ sandh±ya sabba-sadde gahite sabbasabbavasena tadatthaparivattanena sabba-saddavacan²yat±s±maññena ca dosa½ gaºhanto. Ten±ha “satth± pan±”ti-±di. Tattha yadi sabba½ ananubh³ta½ “natthi sabban”ti loke anavasesa½ pucchati. Sace sabbassa sabbattena anavasesasabh±vena ananubh³ta½ appatta½, ta½ gaganakusuma½ viya kiñci na siy±. Athassa ananubh³ta½ atth²ti assa sabbattena ananubh³ta½ yadi atthi, “sabban”ti ida½ vacana½ micch±, sabba½ n±ma ta½ na hot²ti adhipp±yo. Ten±ha “m± heva te rittakamev±”ti-±di.
Aha½ sabbañca vakkh±mi, ananubh³tañca vakkh±m²ti aha½ “sabban”ti ca vakkh±mi, “ananubh³tan”ti ca vakkh±mi, ettha ko dosoti adhipp±yo. K±raºa½ ±harantoti sabbassa sabbattena ananubh³tassa atthibh±ve k±raºa½ niddisanto. Vij±nitabbanti maggaphalapaccavekkhaºañ±ºehi visesato sabbasaªkhatavisiµµhat±ya j±nitabba½. Anidassananti ida½ nibb±nassa sanidassanaduke dutiyapadasahitat±dassananti adhipp±yena “cakkhuviññ±ºassa ±p±tha½ anupagamanato anidassana½ n±m±”ti vutta½. Sabbasaªkhatavidhurat±ya v± natthi etassa nidassananti anidassana½. Natthi etassa antoti ananta½. Tena vutta½ “tayidan”ti-±di.
Bh³t±n²ti paccayasambh³t±ni. Asambh³tanti paccayehi asambh³ta½, nibb±nanti attho. Apabhassarabh±vahet³na½ sabbaso abh±v± sabbato pabh±ti sabbatopabha½. Ten±ha “nibb±nato h²”ti-±di. Tath± hi vutta½– “tamo tattha na vijjat²”ti. (Netti. 104) pabh³tamev±ti pakaµµhabh±vena ukkaµµhabh±vena vijjam±nameva. Ar³p²bh±vena adesikatt± sabbato pabhavati vijjat²ti sabbatopabha½. Ten±ha “puratthimadis±d²s³”ti-±di. Pavisanti etth±ti pavisa½, tadeva sa-k±rassa bha-k±ra½, vi-k±rassa ca lopa½ katv± vutta½ “pabhan”ti. Ten±ha “titthassa n±man”ti. V±da½ patiµµhapes²ti eva½ may± sabbañca vutta½, ananubh³tañca vutta½, tattha ya½ tay± adhipp±ya½ aj±nantena sahas± appaµisaªkh±ya dosaggahaºa½, ta½ micch±ti brahm±na½ niggaºhanto bhagav± attano v±da½ patiµµhapesi.
Gahitagahitanti “ida½ niccan”ti-±din± gahitagahita½ g±ha½. Tattha tattha dosadassanamukhena niggaºhantena satth±r± vissajj±pito kiñci gahetabba½ attano paµisaraºa½ adisv± par±jaya½ paµicch±detu½ la¼itaka½ k±tuk±mo v±da½ pah±ya iddhiy± p±µih±riyal²¼a½ dassetuk±mo. Yadi sakkosi mayha½ antaradh±yitu½, na pana sakkhissas²ti adhipp±yo. M³lapaµisandhi½ gantuk±moti attano p±katikena attabh±vena µh±tuk±mo. So hi paµisandhik±le nibbattasadisat±ya m³lapaµisandh²ti vutto. Aññesanti heµµh± aññak±yik±na½ brahm³na½. Na ad±si abhisaªkhatak±yenev±ya½ tiµµhatu, na p±katikar³pen±ti citta½ upp±desi. Tena so abhisaªkhatak±ya½ apanetu½ avisahanto attabh±vapaµicch±daka½ andhak±ra½ nimminitu½ ±rabhi. Satth± ta½ tama½ viddha½seti. Tena vutta½ “m³lapaµisandhi½ v±”ti-±di.
Bhavev±hanti bhave eva aha½. Ayañca eva-saddo aµµh±napayuttoti dassento ±ha “aha½ bhave bhaya½ disv±yev±”ti, sabbasmi½ bhave j±ti-±dibhaya½ ñ±ºacakkhun± y±th±vato disv±. Sattabhavanti sattasaªkh±ta½ bhava½. Kammabhavapaccaye hi upapattibhave sattasamaññ±. Vibhavanti vimutti½. Pariyesam±nampi up±yassa anadhigatatt± bhaveyeva disv±. Bhavañca vibhavesina½ vibhava½ nibbuti½ esam±n±na½ satt±na½ bhava½, bhavesu uppattiñca disv±ti eva½ v± ettha attho daµµhabbo. Na abhivadinti “aho vata sukhan”ti eva½ abhivad±pan±k±r±bh±vato na abhinivisi½, lakkhaºavacanameta½. G±hattho eva v± abhiv±da-saddoti ±ha “n±bhivadin”ti, “na gavesin”ti. Bhavaggahaºenettha dukkhasacca½, nand²gahaºena samudayasacca½, vibhavaggahaºena nirodhasacca½, nandiñca na up±diyinti imin± maggasacca½ pak±sitanti ±ha “iti catt±ri sacc±ni pak±sento”ti. Tadida½ catunna½ ariyasacc±na½ g±th±ya vibh±vanadassana½. Satth± pana tesa½ brahm³na½ ajjh±say±nur³pa½ sacc±ni vitth±rato pak±sento vipassana½ p±petv± arahattena desan±ya k³µa½ gaºhi. Te ca brahm±no keci sot±pattiphale, keci sakad±g±miphale, keci an±g±miphale, keci arahatte ca patiµµhahi½su. Tena vutta½ “sacc±ni pak±sento satth± dhamma½ deses²”ti-±di. Acchariyaj±t±ti sañj±tacchariy±. Sam³la½ bhavanti taºh±vijj±hi sam³la½ bhava½.
505. Mama vasa½ ativattit±n²ti sabbaso k±madh±tusamatikkamanapaµipad±ya mayha½ visaya½ atikkamit±ni. Katha½ pan±ya½ tesa½ ariyabh³misamokkamana½ j±n±t²ti? Nayagg±hato– “samaºo gotamo dhamma½ desento sa½s±re ±d²nava½, nibb±ne ca ±nisa½sa½ pak±sento veneyyajana½ nibb±na½ diµµhameva karoti, tassa desan± avañjh± amogh± indena vissaµµhavajirasadis±, tassa ca ±º±ya µhit± sa½s±re na dissantev±”ti nayagg±hena anum±nena j±n±ti. Sace tva½ eva½ anubuddhoti yath± tva½ paresa½ sacc±bhisambodha½ vadati, eva½ tva½ attano anur³pato sayambhuñ±ºena buddho dhamma½ paµivijjhitv± µhito. Ta½ dhamma½ m± upanayas²ti tay± paµividdhadhamma½ m± s±vakapaµivedha½ p±pesi. Idanti ida½ anantara½ vutta½ brahmaloke patiµµh±na½yeva sandh±ya m±ro vadati, te dassento “anuppanne h²”ti-±dim±ha. Ap±yapatiµµh±na½ pana ±j²vakanigaºµh±dipabbajja½ upagate titthakare, ye keci v± pabbajitv± micch±paµipanne jane sandh±ya vadati. Anuppanneti asañj±te, appatteti attho. Anullapanat±y±ti yath± m±ro upari kiñci uttara½ lapitu½ na sakkoti, eva½ tath± uttarabh±sanena. Nimantanavacanen±ti viññ±panavacanena. Brahma½ seµµha½ nimantana½, brahmuno v± nimantana½ ettha atth²ti brahmanimantanika½, sutta½. Ya½ panettha atthato avibhatta½, ta½ suviññeyyameva.

Brahmanimantanikasuttavaººan±ya l²natthappak±san± samatt±.