5. C³¼ayamakavaggo

1. S±leyyakasuttavaººan±

439. Mah±janak±ye sannipatiteti keci “paha½sanavidhi½ dassetv± r±jakum±ra½ h±sess±m±”ti, keci “ta½ k²¼ana½ passiss±m±”ti eva½ mah±janasam³he sannipatite. Devanaµanti dibbagandhabba½. Kusala½ kusalanti vacana½ up±d±y±ti “kacci kusala½? ¾ma kusalan”ti vacanapaµivacanavasena pavattakusalav±dit±ya te manuss± ±dito kusal±ti samañña½ labhi½su. Tesa½ kusal±na½ issar±ti r±jakum±r± kosal±. Kosale j±t±. Tesa½ niv±soti sabba½ pubbe vuttanayameva. Ten±ha “so padeso kosal±ti vuccat²”ti.
C±rika½ caram±noti s±maññavacanampi “mahat±…pe… tadavasar²”ti vacanato visesa½ niviµµhamev±ti ±ha “aturitac±rika½ caram±no”ti. Mahat±ti guºamahattenapi saªkhy±mahattenapi mahat±. Tasmiñhi bhikkhusam³he keci adhis²lasikkh±vasena s²lasampann±, tath± keci s²lasam±dhisampann±, keci s²lasam±dhipaññ±sampann±ti guºamahattenapi so bhikkhusam³ho mah±ti. Ta½ an±masitv± saªkhy±mahattameva dassento “sata½ v±”ti-±dim±ha. Aññag±mapaµibaddhaj²vik±vasena samosaranti etth±ti samosaraºa½, g±mo niv±sag±mo. Nti s±la½ br±hmaºag±ma½. Vih±roti bhagavato viharaºaµµh±na½. Etth±ti etasmi½ s±leyyakasutte. Aniyamitoti asukasmi½ ±r±me pabbate rukkham³le v±ti na niyamito, sar³paggahaºavasena na niyamitv± vutto. Tasm±ti aniyamitatt±. Atth±pattisiddhamattha½ parikappanavasena dassento “vanasaº¹o bhavissat²”ti ±ha, addh± bhaveyy±ti attho.
Upalabhi½s³ti (s±rattha. µ². 1.1.verañjakaº¹avaººan±; d². ni. µ². 1.255; a. ni. µ². 2.3.64) savanavasena upalabhi½s³ti imamattha½ dassento “sotadv±ra…pe… j±ni½s³”ti ±ha. Avadh±raºaphalatt± sabbampi v±kya½ antogadh±vadh±raºanti ±ha “padap³raºamatte v± nip±to”ti. Avadh±raºattheti pana imin± iµµhatth±vadh±raºattha½ kho-saddaggahaºanti dasseti. “Assosun”ti pada½ kho-sadde gahite tena phullitamaº¹itavibh³sita½ viya honta½ p³rita½ n±ma hoti, tena ca purimapacchimapad±ni sa½siliµµh±ni honti, na tasmi½ aggahiteti ±ha “padap³raºena byañjanasiliµµhat±mattamev±”ti. Matta-saddo visesanivatti-attho. Tenassa anatthantarad²panata½ dasseti, eva-saddena pana byañjanasiliµµhat±ya ekantikata½. S±l±ya½ j±t± sa½va¹¹hak± s±leyyak± yath± “katteyyak± ubbheyyak±”ti.
Samitap±patt±ti accanta½ anavasesato sav±sana½ samitap±patt±. Evañhi b±hirakav²tar±gasekkh±sekkhap±pasamanato bhagavato p±pasamana½ visesita½ hoti. Anekatthatt± nip±t±na½ idha anussavattho adhippetoti ±ha “khal³ti anussavanatthe nip±to”ti. ¾lapanamattanti piy±l±pavacana½. Piyasamud±h±r± hete “bho”ti v± “±vuso”ti v± “dev±na½piy±”ti v±. Gottavasen±ti ettha ta½ t±yat²ti gotta½. Gotamoti hi pavattam±na½ abhidh±na½ buddhiñca eka½sikavisayat±ya t±yati rakkhat²ti gotamagotta½. Yath± hi buddhi ±rammaºabh³tena atthena vin± na vattati, eva½ abhidh±na½ abhidheyyabh³tena, tasm± so t±ni t±yati rakkhat²ti vuccati. So pana atthato aññakulaparampar±s±dh±raºa½ tassa kulassa ±dipurisasamud±gata½ ta½kulapariy±pannas±dh±raºa½ s±maññar³panti daµµhabba½. Ucc±kulaparid²pana½ uditoditavipulakhattiyakulavibh±vanato. Sabbakhattiy±nañhi ±dibh³tamah±sammatamah±r±jato paµµh±ya asambhinna½ u¼±ratama½ sakyar±jakula½. Kenaci p±rijuññen±ti ñ±tip±rijuññabhogap±rijuññ±din± kenacipi p±rijuññena parih±niy± anabhibh³to anajjhotthaµo. Tath± hi kad±cipi tassa kulassa t±disap±rijuññ±bh±vo, abhinikkhamanak±le ca tato samiddhatamabh±vo loke p±kaµo paññ±toti. Sakyakul± pabbajitoti ida½ vacana½ bhagavato saddh±pabbajitabh±vad²pana½ vutta½ mahanta½ ñ±tiparivaµµa½ mahantañca bhogakkhandha½ pah±ya pabbajitabh±vad²panato. Ettha ca samaºoti imin± parikkhakajanehi bhagavato bahumatabh±vo dassito samitap±pat±d²panato, gotamoti imin± lokiyajanehi u¼±ratamakul²nat±d²panato.
Abbhuggatoti ettha abhi-saddo itthambh³t±khy±ne, ta½yogato pana “bhavanta½ gotaman”ti upayogavacana½ s±mi-atthepi sam±na½ itthambh³tayogad²panato “itthambh³t±khy±natthe”ti vutta½. Ten±ha “tassa kho pana bhoto gotamass±ti attho”ti. Kaly±ºoti bhaddako. S± cassa kaly±ºat± u¼±ravisayat±y±ti ±ha “kaly±ºaguºasamann±gato”ti. Ta½visayat± hettha samann±gamo. Seµµhoti etth±pi eseva nayo yath± “bhagav±ti vacana½ seµµhan”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 1.verañjakaº¹avaººan±; visuddhi. 1.142; ud±. aµµha. 1; itivu. aµµha. nid±navaººan±; mah±ni. aµµha. 50). “Bhagav± arahan”ti-±din± guº±na½ sa½kittanato sa½saddanato ca kittisaddo vaººoti ±ha “kittiyev±”ti. Kittipariy±yopi hi sadda-saddo yath± ta½ “u¼±rasadd± isayo guºavanto tapassino”ti. Thutighosoti abhitthavud±h±ro. Ajjhottharitv±ti paµipakkh±bh±vena anaññas±dh±raºat±ya ca abhibhavitv±.
So bhagav±ti yo so samati½sa p±ramiyo p³retv± sabbakilese bhañjitv± anuttara½ samm±sambodhi½ abhisambuddho dev±na½ atidevo sakk±na½ atisakko brahm±na½ atibrahm± lokan±tho bh±gyavantat±d²hi k±raºehi bhagav±ti laddhan±mo, so bhagav±. “Bhagav±”ti hi ida½ satthu n±makittana½. Tath± hi vutta½ “bhagav±ti neta½ n±ma½ m±tar± katan”ti-±di (mah±ni. 149, 198, 210; c³¼ani. ajitam±ºavapucch±niddesa 2). Parato pana “bhagav±”ti guºakittanameva. Eva½ “arahan”ti-±d²hi padehi ye sadevake loke ativiya paññ±t± buddhaguº±, te n±nappak±rato vibh±vit±ti dassetu½ pacceka½ itipi-saddo yojetabboti ±ha “itipi araha½, itipi sam±sambuddho…pe… itipi bhagav±”ti. “Itipeta½ bh³ta½, itipeta½ tacchan”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.6) viya hi idha iti-saddo ±sannapaccakkhak±raºattho, pi-saddo sampiº¹anattho tena tesa½ guº±na½ bahubh±vad²panato. T±ni guºasallakkhaºak±raº±ni saddh±sampann±na½ viññuj±tik±na½ paccakkh±ni ev±ti dassento “imin± ca imin± ca k±raºen±ti vutta½ hot²”ti-±di. Tato visuddhimaggato. Tesanti “arahan”ti-±d²na½. Vitth±ro atthaniddeso gahetabbo. Tato eva ta½sa½vaººan±ya½ (visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.130) vutto “±rak±ti araha½ suvid³rabh±vato, ±rak±ti araha½ ±sannabh±vato, rahitabbassa abh±vato, sayañca arahitabbato, natthi etassa rahogamana½ gat²su pacc±j±ti, p±sa½sabh±vato v± arahan”ti-±din± “arahan”ti-±d²na½ pad±na½ attho vitth±rato veditabbo.
Bhavanti cettha (visuddhi. mah±µ². 1.130; s±rattha. µ². 1.verañjakaº¹avaººan±)–
“Samm± nappaµipajjanti, ye nih²n±say± nar±;
±rak± tehi bhagav±, d³re ten±raha½ mato.
Ye samm± paµipajjanti, suppaº²t±dhimuttik±;
bhagav± tehi ±sanno, ten±pi araha½ jino.
P±padhamm± rah± n±ma, s±dh³hi rahitabbato;
tesa½ suµµhu pah²natt±, bhagav± araha½ mato.
Ye sacchikatasaddhamm±, ariy± suddhagocar±;
na tehi rahito hoti, n±tho ten±raha½ mato.
Raho v± gamana½ yassa, sa½s±re natthi sabbaso;
pah²naj±timaraºo, araha½ sugato mato.
Guºehi sadiso natthi, yasm± loke sadevake;
tasm± p±sa½siyatt±pi, araha½ dvipaduttamo.
¾rak± mandabuddh²na½, ±sann± ca vij±nata½;
rah±na½ suppah²natt±, vid³namaraheyyato;
bhavesu ca rah±bh±v±, p±sa½s± araha½ jino”ti.
Sundaranti bhaddaka½. Tañca passantassa hitasukh±vahabh±vena veditabbanti ±ha “atth±vaha½ sukh±vahan”ti. Tattha atth±vahanti diµµhadhammikasampar±yikaparamatthasañhitahit±vaha½. Sukh±vahanti tappariy±pannatividhasukh±vaha½. Tath±r³p±nanti t±dis±na½. Y±disehi pana guºehi bhagav± samann±gato, tehi catuppam±ºikassa lokassa sabbath±pi accant±ya pas±dan²yoti dassetu½ “anekehip²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha yath±bh³ta…pe… arahatanti imin± dhammappam±º±na½ l³khappam±º±na½ satt±na½ bhagavato pas±d±vahatam±ha, itarena itaresa½. Dassanamattampi s±dhu hot²ti ettha kosiyasakuºassa vatthu kathetabba½. Eka½ padampi sotu½ labhiss±ma, s±dhutara½yeva bhavissat²ti ettha maº¹³kadevaputtavatthu kathetabba½.
Imin± nayena ag±rikapucch± ±gat±ti ida½ yebhuyyavasena vutta½. Yebhuyyena hi ag±rik± eva½ pucchanti. Anag±rikapucch±yapi eseva nayo. Yath± na sakkonti…pe… vissajjentoti imin± satthu tesa½ br±hmaºagahapatik±na½ niggaºhanavidhi½ dasseti. Tesañhi sa½khittarucit±ya saªkhepadesan±, t±ya attha½ aj±nant± vitth±radesana½ ±y±canti, s± ca nesa½ sa½khittarucit± paº¹itam±nit±ya, so ca m±no yath±desitassa atthassa aj±nante appatiµµho hoti iti bhagav± tesa½ m±naniggahavidhi½ cintetv± saªkhepeneva pañha½ vissajjesi, na sabbaso desan±ya asallakkhaºattha½. Ten±ha “paº¹itam±nik± h²”ti-±di. Yasm± ma½ tumhe y±catha, sa½khittena vuttamattha½ na j±nitth±ti adhipp±yo.
440. “Ekavidhena ñ±ºavatthun”ti-±d²su (vibha. 751) viya koµµh±sattho vidha-saddo, so ca vibhattivacanavipall±sa½ katv± paccatte karaºavacanavasena “tividhan”ti vutto. Attho pana karaºaputhuvacanavasena daµµhabboti ±ha “tividhanti t²hi koµµh±seh²”ti. Pak±rattho v± vidha-saddo, pak±ratthatt±yeva labbham±na½ adhammacariy±visamacariy±bh±vas±mañña½, k±yadv±rikabh±vas±mañña½ v± up±d±ya ekatta½ netv± “tividhan”ti vutta½. Pak±rabhede pana apekkhite “tividh±”icceva vutta½ hoti. K±yen±ti ettha k±yoti copanak±yo adhippeto, so ca adhammacariy±ya dv±rabh³to tena vin± tass± appavattanato. K±yen±ti ca hetumhi karaºavacana½. Kiñc±pi hi adhammacariy±saªkh±tacetan±samuµµh±n± s± viññatti, na ca s± paµµh±ne ±gatesu catuv²satiy± paccayesu ekenapi paccayena cetan±ya paccayo hoti, tass± pana tath±pavattam±n±ya k±yakammasaññit±ya cetan±ya pavatti hot²ti tena dv±rena lakkhitabbabh±vato tass± k±raºa½ viya ca sabboh±ramatta½ hoti. K±yadv±ren±ti v± k±yena dv±rabh³tena k±yadv±rabh³ten±ti ta½ itthambh³talakkhaºe karaºavacana½. Adhamma½ carati et±y±ti adhammacariy±, tath±pavatt± cetan±. Adhammoti pana ta½samuµµh±no payogo daµµhabbo. Dhammato anapet±ti dhamm±, na dhamm±ti adhamm±, adhamm± ca s± cariy± c±ti adhammacariy±. Paccan²kasamanaµµhena sama½, sam±na½ sadisa½ yuttanti v± sama½, sucarita½. Samato vigata½, viruddha½ v± tass±ti visama½, duccarita½. S± eva visam± cariy±ti visamacariy±. Sabbesu kaºhasukkapades³ti “catubbidha½ v±c±ya adhammacariy±visamacariy± hot²”ti-±din± uddesaniddesavasena ±gatesu sabbesu kaºhapadesu– “tividha½ kho gahapatayo k±yena dhammacariy±samacariy± hot²”ti-±din± uddesaniddesavasena ±gatesu sabbesu sukkapadesu ca.