3. Mah±gop±lakasuttavaººan±

346. Tatth±ti gop±lakasutte. Tisso kath±ti (a. ni. µ². 3.11.17) tisso aµµhakath±, tividh± suttassa atthavaººan±ti attho. Ekeka½ pada½ n±¼a½ m³la½ etiss±ti eva½saññit± ekan±¼ik±, ekeka½ v± pada½ n±¼a½ atthaniggamanamaggo etiss±ti ekan±¼ik±. Ten±ha “ekekapadassa atthakathanan”ti. Catt±ro a½s± bh±g± atthasallakkhaº³p±y± etiss±ti caturass±. Ten±ha “catukka½ bandhitv± kathanan”ti. Niyamato nisinnassa ±raddhassa vatto sa½vatto etiss± atth²ti nisinnavattik±, yath±raddhassa atthassa visu½ visu½ pariyos±pik±ti attho. Ten±ha “paº¹ita½ gop±laka½ dassetv±”ti-±di. Ekekapadass±ti piº¹atthadassanavasena bahunna½ pad±na½ ekajjha½ attha½ akathetv± ekamekassa padassa atthavaººan±. Aya½ sabbattheva labbhati. Catukka½ bandhitv±ti kaºhapakkhe upam³pameyyadvaya½, tath± sukkapakkheti ida½ catukka½ yojetv±. Aya½ ²disesu eva suttesu labbhati. Pariyos±nagamananti keci t±va ±hu– “kaºhapakkhe upama½ dassetv± upam± ca n±ma y±vadeva upameyyasampaµid±natth±ti upameyyattha½ ±haritv± sa½kilesapakkhaniddeso ca vod±napakkhavibh±vanatth±y±ti sukkapakkhampi upam³pameyyavibh±gena ±haritv± suttatthassa pariyos±panan”ti. Kaºhapakkhe upameyya½ dassetv± pariyos±nagaman±d²supi eseva nayo. Apare pana “kaºhapakkhe sukkapakkhe ca ta½ta½upam³pameyyatth±na½ visu½ visu½ pariyos±petv±va kathana½ pariyos±nagamanan”ti vadanti. Ayanti nisinnavattik±. Idh±ti imasmi½ gop±lakasutte. Sabb±cariy±na½ ±ciºº±ti sabbehipi pubb±cariyehi ±carit± sa½vaººit±, tath± ceva p±¼i pavatt±ti.
Aªg²yanti avayavabh±vena ñ±yant²ti aªg±ni, bh±g±. T±ni panettha yasm± s±vajjasabh±v±ni, tasm± ±ha “aªgeh²ti aguºakoµµh±seh²”ti. Gomaº¹alanti gosam³ha½. Pariharitunti rakkhitu½. Ta½ pana pariharaºa½ pariggahetv± vicaraºanti ±ha “pariggahetv± vicaritun”ti. Va¹¹hinti gunna½ bahubh±va½ bahugorasat±saªkh±ta½ parivuddhi½. “Ettakamidan”ti r³p²yat²ti r³pa½, parim±naparicchedopi sar²rar³pamp²ti ±ha “gaºanato v± vaººato v±”ti. Na pariyesati vinaµµhabh±vasseva aj±nanato. N²l±ti ettha iti-saddo ±di-attho. Tena setasabal±divaººa½ saªgaºh±ti.
Dhanusattis³l±d²ti ettha iss±s±cariy±na½ g±v²su kata½ dhanulakkhaºa½. Kum±rabhattigaº±na½ g±v²su kata½ sattilakkhaºa½. Issarabhattigaº±na½ g±v²su kata½ s³lalakkhaºanti yojan±. ¾di-saddena r±mav±sudevagaº±d²na½ g±v²su kata½ pharasucakk±dilakkhaºa½ saªgaºh±ti.
N²lamakkhik±ti piªgalamakkhik±, khuddamakkhik± eva v±. Saµati rujati et±y±ti s±µik±, sa½vaddh± s±µik±ti ±s±µik±. Ten±ha “va¹¹hant²”ti-±di.
V±ken±ti v±kapattena. C²raken±ti pilotikena. Antovasseti vassak±lassa abbhantare. Nigg±hanti susum±r±digg±harahita½. P²tanti p±n²yassa p²tabh±va½. S²habyaggh±diparissayena s±saªko sappaµibhayo.
Pañca ah±ni bh³t±ni etass±ti pañc±hito, so eva v±roti pañc±hikav±ro. Eva½ satt±hikav±roti veditabbo. Ciººaµµh±nanti caritaµµh±na½ gocaraggahitaµµh±na½.
Pituµµh±nanti pitar± k±tabbaµµh±na½, pitar± k±tabbakaraºanti attho. Yath±ruci½ gahetv± gacchant²ti gunna½ ruci-anur³pa½ gocarabh³miya½ v± nadip±ra½ v± gahetv± gacchanti. Gobhattanti kapp±saµµhik±dimissa½ gobhuñjitabba½ bhatta½, bhattaggahaºeneva y±gupi gahit±.
347. “Dv²h±k±reh²”ti vutta½ ±k±radvaya½ dassetu½ “gaºanato v± samuµµh±nato v±”ti vutta½. Eva½ p±¼iya½ ±gat±ti “upacayo santat²”ti j±ti½ dvidh± bhinditv± hadayavatthu½ aggahetv± “dasa ±yatan±ni pañcadasa sukhumar³p±n²”ti eva½ r³pakaº¹ap±¼iya½ (dha. sa. 651-655) ±gat±. Pañcav²sati r³pakoµµh±s±ti salakkhaºato aññamaññasaªkar±bh±vato r³pabh±g±. R³pakoµµh±s±ti v± visu½ visu½ appavattitv± kal±pabh±veneva pavattanato r³pakal±p±. Koµµh±s±ti ca a½s±, avayav±ti attho. Koµµhanti v± sar²ra½, tassa a½s± kes±dayo koµµh±s±ti aññepi avayav± koµµh±s± viya koµµh±s±. Seyyath±p²ti upam±sa½sandana½. Tattha r³pa½ pariggahetv±ti yath±vutta½ r³pa½ salakkhaºato ñ±ºena pariggaºhitv±. Ar³pa½ vavatthapetv±ti ta½ r³pa½ niss±ya ±rammaºañca katv± pavattam±ne vedan±dike catt±ro khandhe “ar³pan”ti vavatthapetv±. R³p±r³pa½ pariggahetv±ti puna tattha ya½ ruppanalakkhaºa½, ta½ r³pa½, tadañña½ ar³pa½, ubhayavinimutta½ kiñci natthi att± v± attaniya½ v±ti eva½ r³p±r³pa½ pariggahetv±. Tadubhayañca avijj±din± paccayena sappaccayanti paccaya½ sallakkhetv± anicc±dilakkhaºa½ ±ropetv± yo kal±pasammasan±dikkamena kammaµµh±na½ matthaka½ p±petu½ na sakkoti, so na va¹¹hat²ti yojan±.
Ettaka½ r³pa½ ekasamuµµh±nanti cakkh±yatana½, sotagh±najivh±k±y±yatana½ itthindriya½ purisindriya½ j²vitindriyanti aµµhavidha½ kammavasena, k±yaviññatti vac²viññatt²ti ida½ dvaya½ cittavasen±ti ettaka½ r³pa½ ekasamuµµh±na½. Sadd±yatanameka½ utucittavasena dvisamuµµh±na½. R³passa lahut± mudut± kammaññat±ti ettaka½ r³pa½ utucitt±h±ravasena tisamuµµh±na½. R³pagandharasaphoµµhabb±yatana½ ±k±sadh±tu ±podh±tu kaba¼²k±ro ±h±roti ettaka½ r³pa½ utucitt±h±rakammavasena catusamuµµh±na½. Upacayo santati jarat± r³passa aniccat±ti ettaka½ r³pa½ na kutoci samuµµh±t²ti na j±n±ti. Samuµµh±nato r³pa½ aj±nantoti-±d²su vattabba½ “gaºanato r³pa½ aj±nanto”ti-±desu vuttanayeneva veditabba½.
Kammalakkhaºoti attan± kata½ duccaritakamma½ lakkhaºa½ etass±ti kammalakkhaºo, b±lo. Vuttañheta½– “t²ºim±ni, bhikkhave, b±lassa b±lalakkhaº±ni. Katam±ni t²ºi? Duccintitacint² hoti, dubbh±sitabh±s², dukkaµakammak±r². Im±ni kho…pe… lakkhaº±n²”ti (a. ni. 3.2; netti. 116). Attan± kata½ sucaritakamma½ lakkhaºa½ etass±ti kammalakkhaºo, paº¹ito. Vuttampi ceta½– “t²ºim±ni, bhikkhave, paº¹itassa paº¹italakkhaº±ni. Katam±ni t²ºi? Sucintitacint² hoti, subh±sitabh±s², sukatakammak±r². Im±ni kho…pe… paº¹italakkhaº±n²”ti (ma. ni. 3.253; a. ni. 3.3; netti. 116). Ten±ha “kusal±kusala½ kamma½ paº¹itam±lalakkhaºan”ti. B±le vajjetv± paº¹ite na sevat²ti ya½ b±lapuggale vajjetv± paº¹itasevana½ atthak±mena k±tabba½, ta½ na karoti. Tath±bh³tassa ayam±d²navoti dassetu½ puna “b±le vajjetv±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ya½ bhagavat± “ida½ vo kappat²”ti anuññ±ta½, tadanulomañce, ta½ kappiya½. Ya½ “ida½ vo na kappat²”ti paµikkhitta½, tadanulomañce, ta½ akappiya½. Ya½ kosallasambh³ta½, ta½ kusala½, tappaµipakkha½ akusala½. Tadeva s±vajja½, kusala½ anavajja½. ¾pattito ±dito dve ±pattikkhandh± garuka½, tadañña½ lahuka½. Dhammato mah±s±vajja½ garuka½, appas±vajja½ lahuka½. Sappaµik±ra½ satekicca½, appaµik±ra½ atekiccha½. Dhammat±nugata½ k±raºa½, itara½ ak±raºa½. Ta½ aj±nantoti kappiy±kappiya½ garukalahuka½ satekicch±tekiccha½ aj±nanto suvisuddha½ katv± s²la½ rakkhitu½ na sakkoti, kusal±kusala½ s±vajj±navajja½ k±raº±k±raºa½ aj±nanto khandh±d²su akusalat±ya r³p±r³papariggahampi k±tu½ na sakkoti, kuto tassa kammaµµh±na½ gahetv± va¹¹han±. Ten±ha “kammaµµh±na½ gahetv± va¹¹hetu½ na sakkot²”ti.
Govaºasadise attabh±ve uppajjitv± tattha dukkhuppattihetuto micch±vitakk± ±s±µik± viy±ti ±s±µik±ti ±ha “akusalavitakka½ ±s±µika½ ah±retv±”ti.
“Gaº¹oti kho, bhikkhave, pañcanneta½ up±d±nakkhandh±na½ adhivacanan”ti vacanato (a. ni. 8.56) chahi vaºamukhehi vissandam±nay³so gaº¹o viya pilotikakhaº¹ena chahi dv±rehi vissandam±nakiles±suci attabh±vavaºo satisa½varena pidahitabbo, aya½ pana eva½ na karot²ti ±ha “yath± so gop±lako vaºa½ na paµicch±deti, eva½ sa½vara½ na samp±det²”ti.
Yath± dh³mo indhana½ niss±ya uppajjam±no saºho sukhumo ta½ ta½ vivara½ anupavissa by±pento satt±na½ ¹a½samakas±diparissaya½ vinodeti, aggij±lasamuµµh±nassa pubbaªgamo hoti, eva½ dhammadesan±ñ±ºassa indhanabh³ta½ r³p±r³padhammaj±ta½ niss±ya uppajjam±n± saºh± sukhum± ta½ ta½ khandhantara½ ±yatanantarañca anupavissa by±peti, satt±na½ micch±vitakk±diparissaya½ vinodeti, ñ±ºaggij±lasamuµµh±nassa pubbaªgamoti dh³mo viy±ti dh³moti ±ha “gop±lako dh³ma½ viya dhammadesan±dh³ma½ na karot²”ti. Attano santika½ upagantv± nisinnassa k±tabb± tadanucchavik± dhammakath± upanisinnakath±. Katassa d±n±dipuññassa anumodanakath± anumodan±. Tatoti dhammakath±d²na½ akaraºato. “Bahussuto guºav±”ti na j±nant²ti kasm± vutta½, nanu attano j±n±panattha½ dhammakath±di na k±tabbamev±ti? Sacca½, na k±tabbameva, suddh±sayena pana dhamme kathite tassa guºaj±nanata½ sandh±yeta½ vutta½. Ten±ha bhagav±–
“N±bh±sam±na½ j±nanti, missa½ b±lehi paº¹ita½;
bh±saye jotaye dhamma½, paggaºhe isina½ dhajan”ti. (Sa½. ni. 2.241).
Taranti etth±ti tittha½, nad²ta¼±k±d²na½ nah±n±di-attha½ otaraºaµµh±na½. Yath± pana ta½ udakena otiººasatt±na½ sar²ramala½ pav±heti, parissama½ vinodeti, visuddhi½ upp±deti, eva½ bahussut± attano sam²pa½ otiººasatt±na½ dhamm³dakena cittamala½ pav±henti, parissama½ vinodenti, visuddhi½ upp±denti, tasm± te tittha½ viy±ti tittha½. Ten±ha “titthabh³te bahussutabhikkh³”ti. Byañjana½ katha½ ropetabbanti, bhante, ida½ byañjana½ aya½ saddo katha½ imasmi½ atthe ropetabbo, kena pak±rena imassa atthassa v±cako j±to. “Nir³petabban”ti v± p±µho, nir³petabba½ aya½ sabh±vanirutti kathamettha niru¼h±ti adhipp±yo. Imassa bh±sitassa ko atthoti saddattha½ pucchati. Imasmi½ µh±neti imasmi½ p±¼ipadese. P±¼i ki½ vadet²ti bh±vattha½ pucchati. Attho ki½ d²pet²ti bh±vattha½ v± saªketattha½ v±. Na paripucchat²ti vimaticchedanapucch±vasena sabbaso puccha½ na karoti. Na paripañhat²ti pari pari attano ñ±tu½ iccha½ na ±cikkhati na vibh±veti. Ten±ha “na j±n±pet²”ti. Teti bahussutabhikkh³. Vivaraºa½ n±ma atthassa vibhajitv± kathananti ±ha “bh±jetv± na dassent²”ti. Anutt±n²katanti ñ±ºena ap±kaµ²kata½ guyha½ paµicchanna½. Na utt±n²karont²ti sinerum³laka½ v±lika½ uddharanto viya pathav²sandh±rodaka½ vivaritv± dassento viya ca utt±na½ na karonti. Eva½ yassa dhammassa vasena bahussut± “titthan”ti vutt± pariy±yato, id±ni tameva dhamma½ nippariy±yato titthanti dassetu½ “yath± c±”ti-±di vutta½. Dhammo hi taranti etena nibb±na½ n±ma ta¼±kanti “titthan”ti vuccati. Ten±ha bhagav± sumedhabh³to–
“Eva½ kilesamaladhova½, vijjante amatanta¼e;
na gavesati ta½ ta¼±ka½, na doso amatanta¼e”ti. (Bu. va½. 2.14).
Dhammasseva nibb±nassotaraºatitthabh³tassa otaraºapak±ra½ aj±nanto “dhammatittha½ na j±n±t²”ti vutto.
P²t±p²tanti gogaºe p²ta½ ap²tañca gor³pa½ na j±n±ti na vindati. Avindanto hi na labhat²ti vutto. “¾nisa½sa½ na vindat²”ti vatv± tassa avindan±k±ra½ dassento “dhammassavanagga½ gantv±”ti-±dim±ha.
Aya½ lokuttaroti pada½ sandh±y±ha “ariyan”ti. Pacc±sattiñ±yena anantaravidhippaµisedho v±, ariya-saddo v± niddosapariy±yo daµµhabbo. Aµµhaªgikanti ca visu½ ekajjhañca aµµhaªgika½ up±d±ya gahetabba½, aµµhaªgat± b±hullato ca. Evañca katv± sattaªgassapi ariyamaggassa saªgaho siddho hoti.
Catt±ro satipaµµh±neti-±d²su avisesena satipaµµh±n± vutt±. Tattha k±yavedan±cittadhamm±rammaº± satipaµµh±n± lokiy±, tattha sammohaviddha½sanavasena pavatt± nibb±n±rammaº± lokuttar±ti eva½ ime lokiy±, ime lokuttar±ti yath±bh³ta½ na paj±n±ti.
Anavasesa½ duhat²ti paµiggahaºe matta½ aj±nanto kismiñci d±yake saddh±h±niy± kismiñci paccayah±niy± anavasesa½ duhati. V±c±ya abhih±ro v±c±bhih±ro. Paccay±na½ abhih±ro paccay±bhih±ro.
Ime amhesu garucitt²k±ra½ na karont²ti imin± navak±na½ bhikkh³na½ dhammasampaµipattiy± abh±va½ dasseti ±cariyupajjh±yesu pitupemassa anupaµµh±panato. Tena ca sikkh±g±ravat±bh±vad²panena saªgahassa abh±janabh±va½, tena ther±na½ tesu anuggah±bh±va½. Na hi s²l±diguºehi s±sane thirabh±vappatt± ananuggahetabbe sabrahmac±r² anuggaºhanti, niratthaka½ v± anuggaha½ karonti. Ten±ha “navake bhikkh³”ti. Dhammakath±bandhanti paveºi-±gata½ pakiººakadhammakath±magga½. Saccasattapaµisandhipaccay±k±rapaµisa½yutta½ suññat±d²pana½ guyhagantha½. Vuttavipall±savasen±ti “na r³paññ³”ti-±d²su vuttassa paµisedhassa paµikkhepavasena aggahaºavasena. Yojetv±ti “r³paññ³ hot²ti gaºan±to v± vaººato v± r³pa½ j±n±t²”ti-±din±, “tassa gogaºopi na parih±yati, pañcagorasaparibhogatopi na parib±hiro hot²”ti-±din± ca attha½ yojetv±. Veditabboti tasmi½ tasmi½ padese yath±raha½ attho veditabbo.

Mah±gop±lakasuttavaººan±ya l²natthappak±san± samatt±.