Tesa½ tatth±ti ettha tattha-saddassa “pah±natthan”ti etena yojan±. Parato tesa½ tatth±ti etth±pi esevanayo. Pañca k±maguº± savises± k±ye labbhant²ti visesena k±yo k±moghassa vatthu, bhavesu sukhaggahaºavasena bhavass±do hoti bhavoghassa vedan± vatthu, santatighanagahaºavasena visesato citte att±bhiniveso hot²ti diµµhoghassa citta½ vatthu, dhammesu vinibbhogassa dukkaratt± dhamm±na½ dhammamattat±ya duppaµivijjhatt± sammoho hot²ti avijjoghassa dhamm± vatthu, tasm± tesa½ pah±nattha½ catt±rova vutt±.
Yadaggena ca k±yo k±moghassa vatthu, tadaggena abhijjh±k±yaganthassa vatthu, dukkh±ya vedan±ya paµigh±nusayo anuset²ti dukkhadukkhavipariº±madukkhasaªkh±radukkhabh³t± vedan± visesena by±p±dak±yaganthassa vatthu, citte niccaggahaºavasena sassatassa attano s²lena suddh²ti-±di par±masana½ hot²ti s²labbatapar±m±sassa citta½ vatthu, n±mar³paparicchedena bh³ta½ bh³tato apassantassa bhavavibhavadiµµhisaªkh±to ida½sacc±bhiniveso hot²ti tassa dhamm± vatthu, sukhavedan±ss±davasena paralokanirapekkho “natthi dinnan”ti-±dika½ par±m±sa½ upp±det²ti diµµhup±d±nassa vedan± vatthu santatighanagahaºavasena sar±g±dicitte sammoho hot²ti moh±gatiy± citta½ vatthu, dhammasabh±v±navabodhena bhaya½ hot²ti bhay±gatiy± dhamm± vatthu. Ye panettha avutt±, tesa½ vuttanayena vatthubh±vo yojetabbo. Tath± hi oghesu vuttanay± eva yog±savesupi yojan± atthato abhinnatt±. Tath± paµhamoghatatiyacatutthaganthayojan±ya vuttanay± eva k±yacittadhamm±na½ itar³p±d±navatthut± yojan±, tath± k±moghaby±p±dak±yaganthayojan±ya vuttanay± eva k±yavedan±na½ chandados±gati vatthut± yojan± v±.
“¾h±rasamuday± k±yasamudayo, phassasamuday± vedan±samudayo, (sa½. ni. 5.408) saªkh±rapaccay± viññ±ºa½, viññ±ºapaccay± n±mar³pan”ti (ma. ni. 3.126; ud±. 1; vibha. 225) vacanato k±y±d²na½ samudayabh³t± kaba¼²k±r±h±raphassamanosañcetan±viññ±º±h±r± k±y±diparij±nanena pariññ±t± hont²ti ±ha “catubbidh±h±rapariññatthan”ti pakaraºanayoti nettipakaraºavasena suttantasa½vaººan±nayo.
Saraºavasen±ti k±y±d²na½ kusal±didhamm±nañca upadh±raºavasena. Saranti gacchanti nibb±na½ et±y±ti sat²ti imasmi½ atthe ekatte ekasabh±ve nibb±ne samosaraºa½ sam±gamo ekattasamosaraºa½. Etadeva hi dassetu½ “yath± h²”ti-±di vutta½. Ekanibb±napavesahetubh³t± v± sam±nat± eko satipaµµh±nassa bh±vo ekatta½, tattha samosaraºa½ ta½sabh±gat± ekattasamosaraºa½. Ekanibb±napavesahetubh±va½ pana dassetu½ “yath± h²”ti-±dim±ha. Etasmi½ atthe saraºekattasamosaraº±ni saheva satipaµµh±nekabh±vassa k±raºatthena vutt±n²ti daµµhabb±ni, purimasmi½ visu½. Saraºavasen±ti v± “gamanavasen±”ti atthe sati tadeva gamana½ samosaraºanti, samosaraºe v± satisaddatthavasena avuccam±ne dh±raºat±va sat²ti satisaddatthantar±bh±v± purima½ satibh±vassa k±raºa½, pacchima½ ekabh±vass±ti nibb±nasamosaraºepi sahit±neva t±ni satipaµµh±nekabh±vassa k±raº±ni vutt±ni honti. Cuddasavidhena, navavidhena, so¼asavidhena, pañcavidhen±ti ida½ upari p±¼iya½ (ma. ni. 1.107) ±gat±na½ ±n±p±napabb±d²na½ vasena vutta½, tesa½ pana antarabhedavasena tadanugatabhedavasena ca bh±van±ya anekavidhat± labbhatiyeva. Cat³su dis±su uµµh±nakabhaº¹asadisat± k±y±nupassan±dita½ta½satipaµµh±nabh±van±nubh±vassa daµµhabb±.
“Gocare, bhikkhave, caratha sake pettike visaye”ti-±divacanato (d². ni. 3.80; sa½. ni. 5.372) bhikkhugocar± ete dhamm±, yadida½ k±y±nupassan±dayo. Tattha yasm± k±y±nupassan±dipaµipattiy± bhikkhu hoti, tasm± “k±y±nupass² viharat²”ti-±din± bhikkhu½ dasseti, bhikkhumhi ta½ niyamatoti ±ha “paµipattiy± bhikkhubh±vadassanato”ti. Satthu cariy±nuvidh±yakatt± sakalas±sanasampaµigg±hakatt± ca sabbappak±r±ya anus±saniy± bh±janabh±vo.
Sama½ careyy±ti k±y±divisamacariya½ pah±ya k±y±d²hi sama½ careyya. R±g±div³pasamena santo. Indriyadamena danto. Catumagganiy±mena niyato. Seµµhacarit±ya brahmac±r². K±yadaº¹±di-oropanena nidh±ya daº¹a½. Ariyabh±ve µhito so evar³po b±hitap±pasamitap±pabhinnakilesat±hi br±hmaºo samaºo bhikkh³ti veditabbo.
“Ayañceva k±yo bahiddho ca n±mar³pan”ti-±d²su (d². ni. µ². 2.373) khandhapañcaka½, “sukhañca k±yena paµisa½vedet²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.271, 287; p±r±. 11) n±mak±yo k±yoti vuccat²ti tato visesanattha½ “k±yeti r³pak±ye”ti ±ha.
Asammissatoti “vedan±dayopi ettha sit± ettha paµibaddh±”ti k±ye vedan±di-anupassan±pasaªgepi ±panne tato asammissatoti attho. Sam³havisayat±ya cassa k±ya-saddassa samud±yup±d±nat±ya ca asubh±k±rassa “k±ye”ti ekavacana½, tath± ±rammaº±divibh±gena anekabhedabhinnampi citta½ cittabh±vas±maññena ekajjha½ gahetv± “citte”ti ekavacana½, vedan± pana sukh±dibhedabhinn± visu½ visu½ anupassitabb±ti dassentena “vedan±s³”ti bahuvacanena vutt±, tatheva ca niddeso pavattito, dhamm± ca paropaºº±sabhed± anupassitabb±k±rena ca anekabhed± ev±ti tepi bahuvacanavaseneva vutt±. Avayav²g±ha-samaññ±tidh±vana-s±r±d±n±bhinivesanisedhanattha½ k±ya½ aªgapaccaªgehi, t±ni ca kes±d²hi, kes±dike ca bh³tup±d±yar³pehi vinibbhujjanto “tath± na k±ye”ti-±dim±ha. P±s±d±dinagar±vayavasam³he avayav²v±dinopi avayav²g±ha½ na karonti, nagara½ n±ma koci attho atth²ti pana kesañci samaññ±tidh±vana½ siy±ti itthipuris±disamaññ±tidh±vane nagaranidassana½ vutta½. Aªgapaccaªgasam³ho, kesalom±disam³ho bh³tup±d±yasam³ho ca yath±vuttasam³he tabbinimutto k±yopi n±ma koci natthi, pageva itthi-±dayoti ±ha “k±yo v±…pe… dissat²”ti. Koci dhammoti imin± sattaj²v±di½ paµikkhipati, avayav² pana k±yapaµikkhepeneva paµikkhittoti. Yadi eva½ katha½ k±y±disaññ±bhidh±n±n²ti-±ha “yath±vutta…pe… karont²”ti.
Ya½ passati itthi½ purisa½ v±. Nanu cakkhun± itthipurisadassana½ natth²ti? Saccameta½, “itthi½ pass±mi, purisa½ pass±m²”ti pana pavattasaññ±ya vasena “ya½ passat²”ti vutta½. Micch±dassanena v± diµµhiy± ya½ passati, na ta½ diµµha½, ta½ r³p±yatana½ na hot²ti attho vipar²tagg±havasena micch±parikappitar³patt±. Atha v± ta½ kes±dibh³tup±d±yasam³hasaªkh±ta½ diµµha½ na hoti acakkhuviññ±ºaviññeyyatt±, diµµha½ v± ta½ na hoti. Ya½ diµµha½ ta½ na passat²ti ya½ r³p±yatana½ kes±dibh³tup±d±yasam³hasaªkh±ta½ diµµha½, ta½ paññ±cakkhun± bh³tato na passat²ti attho. Apassa½ bajjhateti ima½ attabh±va½ yath±bh³ta½ paññ±cakkhun± apassanto “eta½ mama, esohamasmi, eso me atto”ti kilesabandhanena bajjhati.
Na aññadhamm±nupass²ti na aññasabh±v±nupass², asubh±dito aññ±k±r±nupass² na hot²ti attho. Ki½ vutta½ hot²ti-±din± tamevattha½ p±kaµa½ karoti. Pathav²k±yanti kes±dikoµµh±sapathavi½ dhammasam³hatt± “k±yo”ti vadati, lakkhaºapathavimeva v± anekappabheda½ sakalasar²ragata½ pubb±pariyabh±vena ca pavattam±na½ sam³havasena gahetv± “k±yo”ti vadati. ¾pok±yanti-±d²supi eseva nayo.
Eva½ gahetabbass±ti “aha½ maman”ti eva½ attattaniyabh±vena andhab±lehi gahetabbassa. Id±ni sattanna½ anupassan±k±r±nampi vasena k±y±nupassana½ dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha aniccato anupassat²ti catusamuµµh±nikak±ya½ “aniccan”ti anupassati, eva½ passanto eva½ cassa anicc±k±rampi anupassat²ti vuccati. Tath±bh³tassa cassa niccagg±hassa lesopi na hot²ti vutta½ “no niccato”ti tath±hesa “niccasañña½ pajahat²”ti (paµi. ma. 3.35) vutto. Ettha ca “aniccato eva anupassat²”ti eva-k±ro luttaniddiµµhoti tena nivattitamattha½ dassetu½ “no niccato”ti vutta½. Na cettha dukkhato anupassan±dinivattanam±saªkitabba½ paµiyog²nivattanaparatt± eva-k±rassa, uparidesan±ru¼hatt± ca t±sa½.
Dukkhato anupassat²ti-±d²supi eseva nayo. Aya½ pana viseso– aniccassa dukkhatt± tameva k±ya½ dukkhato anupassati, dukkhassa anattatt± anattato anupassati. Yasm± pana ya½ anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±, ta½ anabhinanditabba½, na tattha rajjitabba½, tasm± vutta½ “nibbindati no nandati, virajjati no rajjat²”ti. So eva½ arajjanto r±ga½ nirodheti no samudeti, samudaya½ na karot²ti attho. Eva½ paµipanno ca paµinissajjati no ±diyati. Ayañhi anicc±di-anupassan± tadaªgavasena saddhi½ k±yatannissayakhandh±bhisaªkh±rehi kiles±na½ pariccajanato, saªkhatadosadassanena tabbipar²te nibb±ne tanninnat±ya pakkhandanato “paricc±gapaµinissaggo ceva pakkhandanapaµinissaggo c±”ti vuccati, tasm± t±ya samann±gato bhikkhu vuttanayena kilese ca pariccajati, nibb±ne ca pakkhandati tath±bh³to ca nibbattanavasena kilese na ±diyati, n±pi adosadassit±vasena saªkhat±rammaºa½. Tena vutta½ “paµinissajjati no ±diyat²”ti. Id±nissa t±hi anupassan±hi yesa½ dhamm±na½ pah±na½ hoti, ta½ dassetu½ “so ta½ aniccato anupassanto niccasañña½ pajahat²”ti. Tattha niccasaññanti “saªkh±r± nicc±”ti eva½ pavattavipar²tasañña½. Diµµhicittavipall±sapah±namukheneva saññ±vipall±sappah±nanti saññ±gahaºa½, saññ±s²sena v± tesampi gahaºa½ daµµhabba½. Nandinti sapp²tikataºha½. Sesa½ vuttanayemeva.
Viharat²ti imin± k±y±nupassan±samaªgino iriy±pathavih±ro vuttoti ±ha “iriyat²”ti iriy±patha½ pavattet²ti attho. ¾rammaºakaraºavasena abhiby±panato “t²su bhaves³”ti vutta½, uppajjanavasena pana kiles± parittabh³mak± ev±ti. Yadipi kiles±na½ pah±na½ ±t±pananti ta½ samm±diµµhi-±d²nampi attheva, ±t±pa-saddo pana v²riyeyeva niru¼hoti vutta½ “v²riyasseta½ n±man”ti. Atha v± paµipakkhapah±ne sampayuttadhamm±na½ abbhussahanavasena pavattam±nassa v²riyassa s±tisaya½ tad±t±pananti v²riyameva tath± vuccati, na aññe dhamm±. ¾t±p²ti c±yam²k±ro pasa½s±ya, atisayassa v± d²pakoti ±t±p²gahaºena sammappadh±nasamaªgita½ dasseti. Samm±, samantato, s±mañca paj±nanto sampaj±no, asammissato vavatth±ne aññadhamm±nupassit±bh±vena samm± avipar²ta½, sabb±k±rapaj±nanena samantato, upar³pari vises±vahabh±vena pavattiy± saya½ paj±nantoti attho. Yadi paññ±ya anupassati, katha½ satipaµµh±nat±ti ±ha “na h²”ti-±di. Sabbatthikanti sabbattha bhava½ sabbattha l²ne uddhate ca citte icchitabbatt±, sabbe v± l²ne uddhate ca bh±vetabb± bojjhaªg± atthik± et±y±ti sabbatthik±. Satiy± laddh³pak±r±ya eva paññ±ya ettha yath±vutte k±ye kammaµµh±niko bhikkhu k±y±nupass² viharati. Antosaªkhepo anto ol²yano, kosajjanti attho. Up±yapariggaheti ettha s²lavisodhan±di gaºan±di uggahakosall±di ca up±yo, tabbipariy±yato anup±yo veditabbo. Yasm± ca upaµµhitassati yath±vutta-up±ya½ na pariccajati, anup±yañca na up±diyati, tasm± vutta½ “muµµhassati…pe… asamattho hot²”ti. Ten±ti up±y±nup±y±na½ pariggahaparivajjanesu aparicc±g±pariggahesu ca asamatthabh±vena assa yogino.
Yasm± satiyevettha satipaµµh±na½ vutt±, tasm±ssa sampayutt± dhamm± v²riy±dayo aªganti ±ha “sampayogaªgañcassa dassetv±”ti. Aªga-saddo cettha k±raºapariy±yo daµµhabbo, satiggahaºeneva cettha sam±dhissati gahaºa½ daµµhabba½ tass± sam±dhikkhandhe saªgahitatt±. Yasm± v± satis²sen±ya½ desan±. Na hi keval±ya satiy± kilesappah±na½ hoti, nibb±n±dhigamo v±, na ca keval± sati pavattati, tasm±ssa jh±nadesan±ya½ savitakk±divacanassa viya sampayogaªgadassanat±ti aªga-saddassa avayavapariy±yat± daµµhabb±. Pah±naªganti “vivicceva k±meh²”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.226; ma. ni. 1.271, 287; sa½. ni. 2.152; a. ni. 4.123; p±r±. 11) viya pah±tabbaªga½ dassetu½. Yasm± ettha lokiyamaggo adhippeto, na lokuttaramaggo, tasm± pubbabh±giyameva vinaya½ dassento “tadaªgavinayena v± vikkhambhanavinayena v±”ti ±ha. Tesa½ dhamm±nanti vedan±didhamm±na½. Tesañhi tattha anadhippetatt± “atthuddh±ranayeneta½ vuttan”ti vutta½.
Avisesena dv²hipi n²varaºappah±na½ vuttanti katv± puna ekekena vutta½ pah±navisesa½ dassetu½ “visesen±”ti ±ha. Atha v± “vineyya n²varaº±n²”ti avatv± abhijjh±domanassavacanassa payojana½ dassento “visesen±”ti-±dim±ha. K±y±nupassan±bh±van±ya hi ujuvipaccan²k±na½ anurodh±d²na½ pah±na½ dassana½ etassa payojananti. K±yasampattim³lakass±ti r³pa-bala-yobban±rogy±di-sar²rasampad±-nimittassa. Vuttavipariy±yato k±yavipattim³lako virodho veditabbo. K±yabh±van±y±ti k±y±nupassan±bh±van±ya. S± hi idha “k±yabh±van±”ti adhippet±. Ten±ti anurodh±dippah±navacanena. Yog±nubh±vo h²ti-±di vuttassevatthassa p±kaµakaraºa½.
Satisampajaññen±ti atisampajaññaggahaºena. Sabbatthikakammaµµh±nanti buddh±nussati mett± maraºassati asubhabh±van± ca. Idañhi catukka½ yogin± parihariyam±na½ “sabbatthikakammaµµh±nan”ti vuccati atisampajaññabalena avicchinnassa tassa pariharitabbatt±, satiy± v± samatho vutto tass± sam±ddhikkhandhena saªgahitatt±.
Ten±ti saddattha½ an±diyitv± bh±vatthasseva vibhajanavasena pavattena vibhaªgap±µhena saha. Aµµhakath±nayoti saddatthassapi vivaraºavasena yath±raha½ vutto atthasa½vaººan±nayo. Yath± sa½sandat²ti yath± atthato adhipp±yato ca avilomento aññadatthu sa½sandati sameti, eva½ veditabbo.
Vedan±d²na½ puna vacaneti ettha nissayapaccayabh±vavasena cittadhamm±na½ vedan±sannissitatt± pañcavok±rabhave ar³padhamm±na½ r³papaµibaddhavuttito ca vedan±ya k±y±di-anupassan±pasaªgepi ±panne tadasammissato vavatth±nadassanattha½ ghanavinibbhog±didassanatthañca dutiyavedan±gahaºa½. Tena na vedan±ya½ k±y±nupass², cittadhamm±nupass² v±, atha kho vedan±nupass²yev±ti vedan±saªkh±te vatthusmi½ vedan±nupassan±k±rasseva dassanena asammissato vavatth±na½ dassita½ hoti. Tath± “yasmi½ samaye sukh± vedan±, na tasmi½ samaye dukkh± adukkhamasukh± v± vedan±. Yasmi½ v± pana samaye dukkh± adukkhamasukh± v± vedan±, na tasmi½ samaye itar± vedan±”ti vedan±bh±vas±maññe aµµhatv± ta½ ta½ vedana½ vinibbhujitv± dassanena ghanavinibbhogo dhuvabh±vaviveko dassito hoti. Tena t±sa½ khaºamatt±vaµµh±nadassanena aniccat±ya tato eva dukkhat±ya anattat±ya ca dassana½ vibh±vita½ hoti. Ghanavinibbhog±d²ti ±di-saddena ayampi attho veditabbo. Ayañhi vedan±ya½ vedan±nupass²yeva, na aññadhamm±nupass². Ki½ vutta½ hoti– yath± n±ma b±lo amaºisabh±vepi udakabubbu¼ake maºi-±k±r±nupass² hoti, na evamaya½ µhitiramaº²yepi vedayite, pageva itarasmi½ manuññ±k±r±nupass², atha kho khaºabhaªgurat±ya avasavattit±ya kiles±sucipaggharaºat±ya ca anicca-anatta-asubh±k±r±nupass², vipariº±madukkhat±ya saªkh±radukkhat±ya ca visesato dukkh±nupass²yev±ti vutta½ hoti. Eva½ cittadhammesupi yath±raha½ puna vacane payojana½ vattabba½. “Kevala½ panidh±”ti-±din± idha ‘ettaka½ veditabban”ti veditabbapariccheda½ dasseti. Esa nayoti imin± yath± citta½ dhamm± ca anupassitabb±, tath± t±ni anupassanto “citte citt±nupass², dhammesu dhamm±nupass²”ti veditabboti imamattha½ atidisati.
Yo sukha½ dukkhato add±ti yo bhikkhu sukhavedana½ vipariº±madukkhat±ya “dukkhan”ti paññ±cakkhun± addakkhi. Dukkhamaddakkhi sallatoti dukkhavedana½ p²¼±jananato antotudanato dunn²haraºato ca sallanti addakkhi passi. Adukkhamasukhanti upekkh±vedana½. Santanti sukhadukkh±ni viya ano¼±rikat±ya paccayavasena v³pasantasabh±vat±ya ca santa½. Aniccatoti hutv± abh±vato udayabbayavantato t±vak±likatoniccapaµikkhepato ca “aniccan”ti yo addakkhi. Sa ve sammaddaso bhikkhu eka½sena paribyatta½ v± vedan±ya samm± passanakoti attho.
Dukkh±tip²ti saªkh±radukkhat±ya dukkh± itipi. Sabba½ ta½ dukkhasminti sabba½ ta½ vedayita½ dukkhasmi½ antogadha½ pariy±panna½ vad±mi saªkh±radukkhat±nativattanato. Sukhadukkhatopi c±ti sukh±d²na½ µhitivipariº±maññ±ºasukhat±ya vipariº±maµhiti-aññ±ºadukkhat±ya ca vuttatt± tissopi sukhato, tissopi ca dukkhato anupassitabb±ti attho. R³p±di-±rammaºachand±di-adhipati-ñ±º±di-sahaj±ta- k±m±vacar±di-bh³min±nattabhed±na½ kusal±kusala-ta½vip±kakiriy±-n±natt±dibhed±nañca, ±di-saddena saªkh±rik±saªkh±rikasa-vatthuk±vatthuk±di-n±nattabhed±nañca vasen±ti yojetabba½. Suññatadhammass±ti “dhamm± hont²”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 121) suññatav±re ±gatasuññatasabh±vassa vasena. “K±mañcetth±”ti-±din± pubbe pah²natt± puna pah±na½ na vattabbanti codana½ dasseti, maggacittakkhaºe v± ekattha pah²na½ sabbattha pah²nameva hot²ti visu½ visu½ na vattabbanti. Tattha purim±ya codan±ya n±n±puggalaparih±ro, pacchim±ya n±n±cittakkhaºikaparih±ro. Lokiyabh±van±ya hi k±ye pah²na½ na vedan±d²su pah²na½ hoti yadipi na pavatteyya, na paµipakkhabh±van±ya tattha s± abhijjh±domanassassa appavatti hot²ti puna tappah±na½ vattabbamev±ti. Ekattha pah²na½ sesesupi pah²na½ hot²ti maggasatipaµµh±nabh±vana½, lokiyabh±van±ya v± sabbattha appavattimatta½ sandh±ya vutta½. “Pañcapi khandh± loko”ti hi vibhaªge (vibha. 362, 364, 366, 373) cat³supi µh±nesu vuttanti.

Uddesav±ravaººan±ya l²natthappak±san± samatt±.