2. S²han±davaggo

1. C³¼as²han±dasuttavaººan±

139. Eva½ me sutanti c³¼as²han±dasutta½. Yasm± panassa atthuppattiko nikkhepo, tasm± ta½ dassetv± cassa anupubbapadavaººana½ kariss±ma. Katar±ya panida½ atthuppattiy± nikkhittanti? L±bhasakk±rapaccay± titthiyaparidevite. Bhagavato kira dhammad±y±dasutte vuttanayena mah±l±bhasakk±ro uppajji. Catuppam±ºiko hi aya½ lokasanniv±so, r³pappam±ºo r³pappasanno, ghosappam±ºo ghosappasanno, l³khappam±ºo l³khappasanno, dhammappam±ºo dhammappasannoti imesa½ puggal±na½ vasena catudh± µhito.
Tesa½ ida½ n±n±karaºa½– katamo ca puggalo r³pappam±ºo r³pappasanno? Idhekacco puggalo ±roha½ v± passitv± pariº±ha½ v± passitv± saºµh±na½ v± passitv± p±rip³ri½ v± passitv± tattha pam±ºa½ gahetv± pas±da½ janeti, aya½ vuccati puggalo r³pappam±ºo r³pappasanno.
Katamo ca puggalo ghosappam±ºo ghosappasanno? Idhekacco puggalo paravaººan±ya parathoman±ya parapasa½san±ya paravaººah±rik±ya, tattha pam±ºa½ gahetv± pas±da½ janeti, aya½ vuccati puggalo ghosappam±ºo ghosappasanno.
Katamo ca puggalo l³khappam±ºo l³khappasanno? Idhekacco puggalo c²varal³kha½ v± passitv± pattal³kha½ v± passitv±, sen±sanal³kha½ v± passitv± vividha½ v± dukkarak±rika½ passitv± tattha pam±ºa½ gahetv± pas±da½ janeti, aya½ vuccati puggalo l³khappam±ºo l³khappasanno.
Katamo ca puggalo dhammappam±ºo dhammappasanno? Idhekacco puggalo s²la½ v± passitv± sam±dhi½ v± passitv± pañña½ v± passitv± tattha pam±ºa½ gahetv± pas±da½ janeti, aya½ vuccati puggalo dhammappam±ºo dhammappasannoti.
Imesu cat³su puggalesu r³pappam±ºopi bhagavato ±rohapariº±hasaºµh±nap±rip³rivaººapokkharata½, as²ti-anubyañjanappaµimaº¹itatt± n±n±ratanavicittamiva suvaººamah±paµa½, dvatti½samah±purisalakkhaºasam±kiººat±ya t±r±gaºasamujjala½ viya gaganatala½ sabbaph±liphulla½ viya ca yojanasatubbedha½ p±ricchattaka½ aµµh±rasaratanubbedha½ by±mappabh±parikkhepa½ sassirika½ anopamasar²ra½ disv± samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati.
Ghosappam±ºopi, bhagavat± kappasatasahass±dhik±ni catt±ri asaªkhyeyy±ni dasa p±ramiyo dasa upap±ramiyo dasa paramatthap±ramiyo p³rit± aªgaparicc±go puttad±raparicc±go, rajjaparicc±go attaparicc±go nayanaparicc±go ca katoti-±din± nayena pavatta½ ghosa½ sutv± samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati.
L³khappam±ºopi bhagavato c²varal³kha½ disv± “sace bhagav± ag±ra½ ajjh±vasissa, k±sikavatthameva adh±rayissa. Pabbajitv± pan±nena s±ºapa½suk³lac²varena santussam±nena bh±riya½ katan”ti samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati. Pattal³khampi disv±– “imin± ag±ra½ ajjh±vasantena rattavarasuvaººabh±janesu cakkavattibhojan±raha½ sugandhas±libhojana½ paribhutta½, pabbajitv± pana p±s±ºamaya½ patta½ ±d±ya uccan²cakuladv±resu sapad±na½ piº¹±ya caritv± laddhapiº¹iy±lopena santussam±no bh±riya½ karot²”ti samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati. Sen±sanal³kha½ disv±pi– “aya½ ag±ra½ ajjh±vasanto tiººa½ ut³na½ anucchavikesu t²su p±s±desu tividhan±µakapariv±ro dibbasampatti½ viya rajjasiri½ anubhavitv± id±ni pabbajj³pagato rukkham³lasen±san±d²su d±ruphalakasil±paµµap²µhamañcak±d²hi santussam±no bh±riya½ karot²”ti samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati. Dukkarak±rikamassa disv±pi– “chabbass±ni n±ma muggay³sakulatthay³sahareºuy³s±d²na½ pasaµamattena y±pessati, app±ºaka½ jh±na½ jh±yissati, sar²re ca j²vite ca anapekkho viharissati, aho dukkarak±rako bhagav±”ti samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati.
Dhammappam±ºopi bhagavato s²laguºa½ sam±dhiguºa½ paññ±guºa½ jh±navimokkhasam±dhisam±pattisampada½ abhiññ±p±rip³ri½ yamakap±µih±riya½ devorohaºa½ p±thikaputtadaman±d²ni ca anek±ni acchariy±ni disv± samm±sambuddheyeva pas²dati, te eva½ pasann± bhagavato mahanta½ l±bhasakk±ra½ abhiharanti. Titthiy±na½ pana b±veruj±take k±kassa viya l±bhasakk±ro parih±yittha. Yath±ha–
“Adassanena morassa, sikhino mañjubh±ºino;
k±ka½ tattha ap³jesu½, ma½sena ca phalena ca.
Yad± ca sarasampanno, moro b±verum±gam±;
atha l±bho ca sakk±ro, v±yasassa ah±yatha.
Y±va nuppajjati buddho, dhammar±j± pabhaªkaro;
t±va aññe ap³jesu½, puth³ samaºabr±hmaºe.
Yad± ca sarasampanno, buddho dhammamadesayi;
atha l±bho ca sakk±ro, titthiy±na½ ah±yath±”ti. (J±. 1.4.153-156).
Te eva½ pah²nal±bhasakk±r± ratti½ ekadvaªgulamatta½ obh±setv±pi s³riyuggamane khajjopanak± viya hatappabh± ahesu½.
Yath± hi khajjopanak±, k±¼apakkhamhi rattiy±;
nidassayanti obh±sa½, etesa½ visayo hi so.
Yad± ca rasmisampanno, abbhudeti pabhaªkaro;
atha khajjupasaªgh±na½, pabh± antaradh±yati.
Eva½ khajjupasadis±, titthiy±pi puth³ idha;
k±¼apakkh³pame loke, d²payanti saka½ guºa½.
Yad± ca buddho lokasmi½, udeti amitappabho;
nippabh± titthiy± honti, s³riye khajjupak± yath±ti.
Te eva½ nippabh± hutv± kacchupi¼ak±d²hi kiººasar²r± paramap±rijuññapatt± yena buddho yena dhammo yena saªgho yena ca mah±janassa sannip±to, tena tena gantv± antarav²thiyampi siªgh±µakepi catukkepi sabh±yampi µhatv± paridevanti–
“Ki½ bho samaºoyeva gotamo samaºo, maya½ assamaº±; samaºasseva gotamassa s±vak± samaº±, amh±ka½ s±vak± assamaº±? Samaºasseva gotamassa s±vak±nañcassa dinna½ mahapphala½, na amh±ka½, s±vak±nañca no dinna½ mahapphala½? Nanu samaºopi gotamo samaºo, mayampi samaº±. Samaºassapi gotamassa s±vak± samaº±, amh±kampi s±vak± samaº±. Samaºassapi gotamassa s±vak±nañcassa dinna½ mahapphala½, amh±kampi s±vak±nañca no dinna½ mahapphalañceva? Samaºassapi gotamassa s±vak±nañcassa detha karotha, amh±kampi s±vak±nañca no detha sakkarotha? Nanu samaºo gotamo purim±ni divas±ni uppanno, maya½ pana loke uppajjam±neyeva uppann±”ti.
Eva½ n±nappak±ra½ viravanti. Atha bhikkh³ bhikkhuniyo up±sak± up±sik±yoti catasso paris± tesa½ sadda½ sutv± bhagavato ±rocesu½ “titthiy± bhante idañcidañca kathent²”ti Ta½ sutv± bhagav±– “m± tumhe, bhikkhave, titthiy±na½ vacanena ‘aññatra samaºo atth²’ti saññino ahuvatth±”ti vatv± aññatitthiyesu samaºabh±va½ paµisedhento idheva ca anuj±nanto imiss± atthuppattiy± idheva, bhikkhave, samaºoti ida½ sutta½ abh±si.
Tattha idhev±ti imasmi½yeva s±sane. Aya½ pana niyamo sesapadesupi veditabbo. Dutiy±dayopi hi samaº± idheva, na aññattha. Samaºoti sot±panno. Tenev±ha– “katamo ca, bhikkhave, paµhamo samaºo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tiººa½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay± sot±panno hoti avinip±tadhammo niyato sambodhipar±yaºo, aya½, bhikkhave, paµhamo samaºo”ti (a. ni. 4.241).
Dutiyoti sakad±g±m². Tenev±ha– “katamo ca? Bhikkhave, dutiyo samaºo. Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tiººa½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay± r±gadosamoh±na½ tanutt± sakad±g±m² hoti, sakideva ima½ loka½ ±gantv± dukkhassanta½ karoti. Aya½, bhikkhave, dutiyo samaºo”ti.
Tatiyoti an±g±m². Tenev±ha– “katamo ca, bhikkhave, tatiyo samaºo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pañcanna½ orambh±giy±na½ sa½yojan±na½ parikkhay± opap±tiko hoti tattha parinibb±y² an±vattidhammo tasm± lok±. Aya½, bhikkhave, tatiyo samaºo”ti.
Catutthoti arah±. Tenev±ha– “katamo ca, bhikkhave, catuttho samaºo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ±sav±na½ khay± an±sava½ cetovimutti½ paññ±vimutti½ diµµheva dhamme saya½ abhiññ± sacchikatv± upasampajja viharati. Aya½, bhikkhave, catuttho samaºo”ti (a. ni. 4.241). Iti imasmi½ µh±ne catt±ro phalaµµhakasamaº±va adhippet±.
Suññ±ti ritt± tucch±. Parappav±d±ti catt±ro sassatav±d±, catt±ro ekaccasassatik±, catt±ro ant±nantik±, catt±ro amar±vikkhepik±, dve adhiccasamuppannik±, so¼asa saññ²v±d±, aµµha asaññ²v±d±, aµµha nevasaññ²n±saññ²v±d±, satta ucchedav±d±, pañca diµµhadhammanibb±nav±d±ti ime sabbepi brahmaj±le ±gat± dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo. Ito b±hir±na½ paresa½ v±d± parappav±d± n±ma. Te sabbepi imehi cat³hi phalaµµhakasamaºehi suññ±, na hi te ettha santi. Na kevalañca eteheva suññ±, cat³hi pana maggaµµhakasamaºehipi catunna½ magg±na½ atth±ya ±raddhavipassakehip²ti dv±dasahipi samaºehi suññ± eva. Imameva attha½ sandh±ya bhagavat± mah±parinibb±ne vutta½–
“Ek³nati½so vayas± subhadda,
ya½ pabbaji½ ki½ kusal±nu-es²;
vass±ni paññ±sa sam±dhik±ni,
yato aha½ pabbajito subhadda;
ñ±yassa dhammassa padesavatt²,
ito bahiddh± samaºopi natthi.
“Dutiyopi samaºo natthi, tatiyopi samaºo natthi, catutthopi samaºo natthi. Suññ± parappav±d± samaºebhi aññeh²”ti (d². ni. 2.214).
Ettha hi padesavatt²ti ±raddhavipassako adhippeto. Tasm± sot±pattimaggassa ±raddhavipassaka½ maggaµµha½ phalaµµhanti tayopi ekato katv± samaºopi natth²ti ±ha. Sakad±g±mimaggassa ±raddhavipassaka½ maggaµµha½ phalaµµhanti tayopi ekato katv± dutiyopi samaºo natth²ti ±ha. Itaresupi dv²su eseva nayo.
Kasm± panete aññattha natth²ti? Akhettat±ya. Yath± hi na ±ragge s±sapo tiµµhati, na udakapiµµhe aggi jalati, na piµµhip±s±ºe b²j±ni ruhanti, evameva b±hiresu titth±yatanesu na ime samaº± uppajjanti, imasmi½yeva pana s±sane uppajjanti. Kasm±? Khettat±ya. Tesa½ akhettat± ca khettat± ca ariyamaggassa abh±vato ca bh±vato ca veditabb±. Ten±ha bhagav±–
“Yasmi½ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo na upalabbhati, samaºopi tattha na upalabbhati, dutiyopi tattha samaºo na upalabbhati, tatiyopi tattha samaºo na upalabbhati, catutthopi tattha samaºo na upalabbhati. Yasmiñca kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo upalabbhati, samaºopi tattha upalabbhati, dutiyopi tattha…pe…. Catutthopi tattha samaºo upalabbhati. Imasmi½ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo upalabbhati, idheva, subhadda, samaºo, idha dutiyo samaºo, idha tatiyo samaºo, idha catuttho samaºo, suññ± parappav±d± samaºebhi aññeh²”ti (d². ni. 2.214).
Eva½ yasm± titth±yatana½ akhetta½, s±sana½ khetta½, tasm± yath± surattahatthap±do s³rakesarako s²ho migar±j± na sus±ne v± saªk±rak³µe v± paµivasati, tiyojanasahassavitthata½ pana himavanta½ ajjhog±hetv± maºiguh±ya½yeva paµivasati. Yath± ca chaddanto n±gar±j± na gocariyahatthikul±d²su navasu n±gakulesu uppajjati, chaddantakuleyeva uppajjati. Yath± ca val±hako assar±j± na gadrabhakule v± ghoµakakule v± uppajjati, sindhuy± t²re pana sindhavakuleyeva uppajjati. Yath± ca sabbak±madada½ manohara½ maºiratana½ na saªk±rak³µe v± pa½supabbat±d²su v± uppajjati, vepullapabbatabbhantareyeva uppajjati. Yath± ca timirapiªgalo macchar±j± na khuddakapokkharaº²su uppajjati, catur±s²tiyojanasahassagambh²re mah±samuddeyeva uppajjati. Yath± ca diya¹¹hayojanasatiko supaººar±j± na g±madv±re eraº¹avan±d²su paµivasati, mah±samudda½ pana ajjhog±hetv± simbalidahavaneyeva paµivasati. Yath± ca dhataraµµho suvaººaha½so na g±madv±re ±v±µak±d²su paµivasati, navutiha½sasahassapariv±ro hutv± cittak³µapabbateyeva paµivasati. Yath± ca catudd²pissaro cakkavattir±j± na n²cakule uppajjati, asambhinnaj±tikhattiyakuleyeva pana uppajjati. Evameva imesu samaºesu ekasamaºopi na aññatitth±yatane uppajjati, ariyamaggaparikkhitte pana buddhas±saneyeva uppajjati. Ten±ha bhagav± “idheva, bhikkhave, samaºo…pe… suññ± parappav±d± samaºehi samaºebhi aññeh²”ti.