Eva½ attasanniyy±tan±d²ni ekena pak±rena dassetv± id±ni aparehipi pak±rehi dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di ±raddha½, etena attasanniyy±tanatappar±yaºat±d²na½ catunna½ pariy±yantarehipi attasanniyy±tanatappar±yaºat±di katameva hoti atthassa abhinnatt± yath± ta½ “sikkh±paccakkh±na-abh³t±rocan±n²”ti dasseti. J²vitapariyantikanti bh±vanapu½sakavacana½, y±vaj²va½ gacch±m²ti attho. Mah±kassapo kira sayameva pabbajitavesa½ gahetv± mah±titthabr±hmaºag±mato nikkhamitv± gacchanto tig±vutamagga½ paccuggamana½ katv± antar± ca r±jagaha½, antar± ca n±¼anda½ bahuputtakanigrodharukkham³le ekakameva nisinna½ bhagavanta½ passitv± “aya½ bhagav± araha½ samm±sambuddho”ti aj±nantoyeva “satth±rañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyyan”ti-±din± (sa½. ni. 2.154) saraºagamanamak±si. Tena vutta½ “mah±kassapassa saraºagamana½ viy±”ti. Vitth±ro kassapasa½yuttaµµhakath±ya½ (sa½. ni. aµµha. 2.2.154) gahetabbo. Tattha satth±rañcavat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyyanti sace aha½ satth±ra½ passeyya½, ima½ bhagavanta½yeva passeyya½. Na hi me ito aññena satth±r± bhavitu½ sakk±. Sugatañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyyanti sace aha½ samm±paµipattiy± suµµhu gatatt± sugata½ n±ma passeyya½, ima½ bhagavanta½yeva passeyya½. Na hi me ito aññena sugatena bhavitu½ sakk±. Samm±sambuddhañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyyanti sace aha½ samm± s±mañca sacc±ni buddhatt± samm±sambuddha½ n±ma passeyya½, ima½ bhagavanta½yeva passeyya½, na hi me ito aññena samm±sambuddhena bhavitu½ sakk±ti ayamettha aµµhakath±. Sabbattha ca-saddo, vata-saddo ca padap³raºamatta½, ce-saddena v± bhavitabba½ “sace”ti aµµhakath±ya½ (sa½. ni. aµµha. 2.2.154) vuttatt±. Vata-saddo ca passituk±mat±ya eka½sattha½ d²pet²tipi yujjati.
“So ahan”ti-±di suttanip±te ±¼avakasutte. Tattha kiñc±pi maggeneva tassa saraºagamanam±gata½, sot±pannabh±vadassanattha½, pana pas±d±nur³padassanatthañca eva½ v±ca½ bhindat²ti tadaµµhakath±ya½ (su. ni. aµµha. 1.181) vutta½. G±m± g±manti aññasm± devag±m± añña½ devag±ma½, devat±na½ v± khuddaka½, mahantañca g±mantipi attho. Pur± puranti etth±pi eseva nayo. Dhammassa ca sudhammatanti buddhassa subuddhata½, dhammassa sudhammata½, saªghassa suppaµipannatañca abhitthavitv±ti saha samuccayena, p±µhasesena ca attho, sambuddha½ namassam±no dhammaghosako hutv± vicariss±m²ti vutta½ hoti.
¾¼avak±d²nanti ±di-saddena s±t±girahemavat±d²nampi saªgaho. Nanu ca ete ±¼avak±dayo adhigatamaggatt± maggeneva ±gatasaraºagaman±, kasm± tesa½ tappar±yaºat±saraºagamana½ vuttanti? Maggen±gatasaraºagamanehipi tehi tappar±yaºat±k±rassa paveditatt±. “So aha½ vicariss±mi…pe… sudhammata½, (sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 194) te maya½ vicariss±ma, g±m± g±ma½ nag± naga½…pe… sudhammatan”ti (su. ni. 182) ca hi etehi tappar±yaºat±k±ro pavedito. Tasm± saraºagamanavisesamanapekkhitv± pavedan±k±ramatta½ upadisantena eva½ vuttanti daµµhabba½. Ath±ti “katha½ kho br±hmaºo hot²”ti-±din± puµµhassa aµµhavidhapañhassa “pubbeniv±sa½ yo ved²”ti-±din± by±karaºapariyos±nak±le. Idañhi majjhimapaºº±sake brahm±yusutte (ma. ni. 2.394) paricumbat²ti pariphusati Parisamb±hat²ti parimajjati. Evampi paºip±to daµµhabboti evampi paramanipaccak±rena paºip±to daµµhabbo.
So panes±ti paºip±to. ѱti…pe… vasen±ti ettha ñ±tivasena, bhayavasena, ±cariyavasena, dakkhiºeyyavasen±ti pacceka½ yojetabba½ dvandaparato suyyam±natt±. Tattha ñ±tivasen±ti ñ±tibh±vavasena. Bh±vappadh±naniddeso hi aya½, bh±valopaniddeso v± tabbh±vasseva adhippetatt±. Eva½ sesesupi paºip±tapadena cetesa½ sambandho tabbasena paºip±tassa catubbidhatt±. Ten±ha “dakkhiºeyyapaºip±ten±”ti, dakkhiºeyyat±hetukena paºip±tenev±ti attho. Itareh²ti ñ±tibh±v±dihetukehi paºip±tehi. “Seµµhavasenev±”ti-±di tassevatthassa samatthana½ Id±ni “na itareh²”ti-±din± vuttameva atthattaya½ yath±kkama½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “tasm±”ti-±di vutta½. “S±kiyo v±”ti pitupakkhato ñ±tikuladassana½, “koliyo v±”ti pana m±tupakkhato. Vandat²ti paºip±tassa upalakkhaºavacana½. R±jap³jitoti r±j³hi, r±j³na½ v± p³jito yath± “g±map³jito”ti. P³j±vacanapayoge hi kattari s±mivacanamicchanti saddavid³. Bhagavatoti bodhisattabh³tassa, buddhabh³tassa v± bhagavato. Uggahitanti sikkhitasippa½.
“Catudh±”ti-±di siªg±lov±dasutte (d². ni. 3.265) gharam±vasanti ghare vasanto, kammappavacan²yayogato cettha bhummatthe upayogavacana½. Kamma½ payojayeti kasiv±ºijj±dikamma½ payojeyya. Kul±nañhi na sabbak±la½ ekasadisa½ vattati, kad±ci r±j±divasena ±pad±pi uppajjati, tasm± “±pad±su uppann±su bhavissat²”ti eva½ manasi katv± nidh±peyy±ti ±ha “±pad±su bhavissat²”ti. Imesu pana cat³su koµµh±sesu “ekena bhoge bhuñjeyy±”ti vuttakoµµh±satoyeva gahetv± bhikkh³nampi kapaºaddhik±d²nampi d±na½ d±tabba½, pesak±ranh±pitak±d²nampi vetana½ d±tabbanti aya½ bhogapariggahaº±nus±san², evar³pa½ anus±sani½ uggahetv±ti attho. Idañhi diµµhadhammika½yeva sandh±ya vadati, sampar±yika½, pana niyy±nika½ v± anus±sani½ pacc±sisantopi dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tameva karoti n±m±ti daµµhabba½. “Yo pan±”ti-±di “seµµhavaseneva…pe… gaºh±t²”ti vuttassatthassa vitth±ravacana½.
“Evan”ti-±di pana “seµµhavasena ca bhijjat²”ti vuttassa byatirekadassana½. Atthavas± liªgavibhattivipariº±moti katv± gahitasaraº±ya up±sik±ya v±tipi yojetabba½. Evam²disesu. Pabbajitamp²ti pi-saddo sambh±vanatthoti vutta½ “pageva apabbajitan”ti. Saraºagamana½ na bhijjati seµµhavasena avanditatt±. Tath±ti anuka¹¹hanatthe nip±to “saraºagamana½ na bhijjat²”ti. Raµµhap³jitatt±ti raµµhe, raµµhav±s²na½ v± p³jitatt±. Tayida½ bhayavasena vanditabbabh±vasseva samatthana½, na tu abhedassa k±raºadassana½, tassa pana k±raºa½ seµµhavasena avanditatt±ti veditabba½. Vuttañhi “seµµhavasena ca bhijjat²”ti. Seµµhavasen±ti loke aggadakkhiºeyyat±ya seµµhabh±vavasen±ti attho. Ten±ha “aya½ loke aggadakkhiºeyyoti vandat²”ti. Titthiyampi vandato na bhijjati, pageva itara½. Saraºagamanappabhedoti saraºagamanavibh±go, tabbibh±gasambandhato cettha sakk± abhedopi sukhena dassetunti abhedadassana½ kata½.
Ariyamaggo eva lokuttarasaraºagamananti catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni vip±kaphalabh±vena vutt±ni. Sabbadukkhakkhayoti sakalassa vaµµadukkhassa anupp±danirodho nibb±na½. Ettha ca kammasadisa½ vip±kaphala½, tabbipar²ta½ ±nisa½saphalanti daµµhabba½. Yath± hi s±lib²j±d²na½ phal±ni ta½sadis±ni vipakk±ni n±ma honti, vip±kaniruttiñca labhanti, na m³laªkurapattakkhandhan±¼±ni, eva½ kusal±kusal±na½ phal±ni ar³padhammabh±vena, s±rammaºabh±vena ca sadis±ni vipakk±ni n±ma honti, vip±kaniruttiñca labhanti, na tadaññ±ni kammanibbatt±nipi kamma-asadis±ni, t±ni pana ±nisa½s±ni n±ma honti, ±nisa½saniruttimattañca labhant²ti. “Vuttañhetan”ti-±din± dhammapade aggidattabr±hmaºavatthup±¼im±haritv± dasseti.
Yo c±ti ettha ca-saddo byatireke, yo pan±ti attho. Tatr±yamadhipp±yo– byatirekatthad²pane yadi “bahu½ ve saraºa½ yanti, pabbat±ni van±ni c±”ti-±din± (dha. pa. 188) vutta½ khema½ saraºa½ na hoti, na uttama½ saraºa½, etañca saraºam±gamma sabbadukkh± na pamuccati, eva½ sati ki½ n±ma vatthu khema½ saraºa½ hoti, uttama½ saraºa½, ki½ n±ma vatthu½ saraºam±gamma sabbadukkh± pamuccat²ti ce?
Yo ca buddhañca dhammañca, saªghañca saraºa½ gato…pe…
eta½ kho saraºa½ khema½, eta½ saraºamuttama½;
eta½ saraºam±gamma, sabbadukkh± pamuccat²ti. (Dha. pa. 190-92).

Evam²disesu. Lokiyassa saraºagamanassa aññatitthiy±vandan±din± kuppanato, calanato ca akuppa½ acala½ lokuttarameva saraºagamana½ pak±setu½ “catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, sammappaññ±ya passat²”ti vutta½. V±c±siliµµhatthañcettha samm±saddassa rassatta½. “Dukkhan”ti-±di “catt±ri ariyasacc±n²”ti vuttassa sar³padassana½. Dukkhassa ca atikkamanti dukkhanirodha½. Dukkh³pasamag±minanti dukkhanirodhag±mi½. “Etan”ti “catt±ri…pe… passat²”ti (dha. pa. 190) eva½ vutta½ lokuttarasaraºagamanasaªkh±ta½ ariyasaccadassana½. Kho-saddo avadh±raºattho padattayepi yojetabbo.

Niccato anupagaman±divasen±ti “niccan”ti aggahaº±divasena, itin± niddisitabbehi to-saddamicchanti saddavid³. “Vuttañhetan”ti-±din± ñ±ºavibhaªg±d²su (ma. ni. 3.126; a. ni. 1.268) ±gata½ p±¼i½ s±dhakabh±vena ±harati. Aµµh±nanti janakahetupaµikkhepo. Anavak±soti paccayahetupaµikkhepo. Ubhayen±pi k±raºameva paµikkhipati. Yanti yena k±raºena. Diµµhisampannoti maggadiµµhiy± sampanno sot±panno. Kañci saªkh±ranti catubh³makesu saªkhatasaªkh±resu ekampi saªkh±ra½. Niccato upagaccheyy±ti “nicco”ti gaºheyya. Sukhato upagaccheyy±ti “ekantasukh² att± hoti arogo para½ maraº±”ti (d². ni. 1.76) eva½ attadiµµhivasena “sukho”ti gaºheyya, diµµhivippayuttacittena pana ariyas±vako pari¼±hav³pasamattha½ mattahatthiparitt±sito cokkhabr±hmaºo viya ukk±rabh³mi½ kañci saªkh±ra½ sukhato upagacchati. Attav±re kasiº±dipaººattisaªgahaºattha½ “saªkh±ran”ti avatv± “dhamman”ti vutta½. Yath±ha pariv±re–
“Anicc± sabbe saªkh±r±, dukkh±natt± ca saªkhat±;
nibb±nañceva paññatti, anatt± iti nicchay±”ti. (Pari. 257).
Imesu pana t²supi v±resu ariyas±vakassa catubh³makavaseneva paricchedo veditabbo, tebh³makavaseneva v±. Ya½ yañhi puthujjano “nicca½ sukha½ att±”ti g±ha½ gaºh±ti, ta½ ta½ ariyas±vako “anicca½ dukkha½ anatt±”ti gaºhanto g±ha½ viniveµheti.
“M±taran”ti-±d²su janik± m±t±, janako pit±, manussabh³to kh²º±savo arah±ti adhippeto. Ki½ pana ariyas±vako tehi aññampi p±ºa½ j²vit± voropeyy±ti? Etampi aµµh±nameva. Cakkavattirajjasakaj²vitahetupi hi so ta½ j²vit± na voropeyya, tath±pi puthujjanabh±vassa mah±s±vajjat±dassanattha½ ariyabh±vassa ca balavat±pak±sanattha½ eva½ vuttanti daµµhabba½. Paduµµhacittoti vadhakacittena pad³sanacitto, pad³sitacitto v±. Lohita½ upp±deyy±ti j²vam±nakasar²re khuddakamakkhik±ya pivanamattampi lohita½ upp±deyya. Saªgha½ bhindeyy±ti sam±nasa½v±saka½ sam±nas²m±ya½ µhita½ saªgha½ pañcahi k±raºehi bhindeyya, vuttañheta½ “pañcahup±li ±k±rehi saªgho bhijjati kammena, uddesena, voharanto, anuss±vanena, sal±kagg±hen±”ti (pari. 458) añña½ satth±ranti ito añña½ titthakara½ “aya½ me satth±”ti eva½ gaºheyya, neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²ti attho. Bhavasampad±ti sugatibhavena sampad±, ida½ vip±kaphala½. Bhogasampad±ti manussabhogadevabhogehi sampad±, ida½ pana ±nisa½saphala½. “Vuttañhetan”ti-±din± devat±sa½yutt±dip±¼i½ (sa½. ni. 1.37) s±dhakabh±vena dasseti.