Diµµhadhammanibb±nav±davaººan±

93. ѱºena daµµhabboti diµµho, diµµho ca so sabh±vaµµhena dhammo c±ti diµµhadhammo, dassanabh³tena ñ±ºena upaladdhasabh±voti attho. So pana akkh±namindriy±na½ abhimukh²bh³to visayoyev±ti vutta½ “paccakkhadhammo vuccat²”ti. Tattha yo anindriyavisayo, sopi sup±kaµabh±vena indriyavisayo viya hot²ti katv± tath± vuttanti daµµhabba½, tenev±ha “tattha tattha paµiladdhattabh±vasseta½ adhivacanan”ti, tasmi½ tasmi½ bhave yath±kamma½ paµilabhitabbattabh±vassa v±caka½ pada½, n±manti v± attho. Nibb±nañcettha dukkhav³pasamanameva, na aggaphala½, na ca asaªkhatadh±tu tesamavisayatt±ti ±ha “dukkhav³pasamanan”ti. Diµµhadhammanibb±ne pavatto v±do etesanti diµµhadhammanibb±nav±d±tipi yujjati.
94. K±man²yatt± k±m± ca te anek±vayav±na½ sam³habh±vato satt±nañca bandhanato guº± c±ti k±maguº±ti attha½ sandh±y±ha “man±piyar³p±d²h²”ti-±di. Y±va phoµµhabb±rammaºañcettha ±di-saddena saªgaºh±ti. Suµµhu appitoti samm± µhapito. Ýhapan± cettha all²yan±ti ±ha “all²no”ti. Parito tattha tattha k±maguºesu yath±saka½ indriy±ni c±reti gocara½ gaºh±pet²ti attha½ dassetu½ “tes³”ti-±di vutta½, ten±ha “ito cito ca upanet²”ti. Pari-saddavisiµµho v± idha cara-saddo k²¼±yanti vutta½ “pala¼at²”ti-±di [la¼ati (aµµhakath±ya½)]. Pala¼at²ti hi pak±rena la¼ati, vil±sa½ karot²ti attho. “Ettha c±”ti-±din± uttamak±maguºik±nameva diµµhadhammanibb±na½ paññapent²ti dasseti. Mandh±tumah±r±javasavatt²devar±jak±maguº± hi uttamat±ya nidassit±, kasm±ti ±ha “evar³pe”ti-±di.
95. Aññath±bh±v±ti k±raºe nissakkavacana½. Vuttanayen±ti suttapadesu desitanayena, etena sok±d²namuppajjan±k±ra½ dasseti. ѱtibhogarogas²ladiµµhibyasanehi phuµµhassa cetaso abbhantara½ nijjh±yana½ socana½ antonijjh±yana½, tadeva lakkhaºametass±ti antonijjh±yanalakkhaºo. Tasmi½ soke samuµµh±nahetubh³te nissita½ tannissita½. Bhusa½ vilapana½ l±lappana½, tannissitameva l±lappana½, tadeva lakkhaºamass±ti tannissital±lappanalakkhaºo. Pas±dasaªkh±te k±ye nissitassa dukkhasahagatak±yaviññ±ºassa paµip²¼ana½ k±yapaµip²¼ana½, sasambh±rakathana½ v± eta½ yath± “dhanun± vijjhat²”ti tadupanissayassa v± aniµµhar³passa pacch± pavattanato “r³pak±yassa paµip²¼anan”tipi vaµµati. Paµighasampayuttassa manaso vihesana½ manovigh±ta½. Tadeva lakkhaºamass±ti sabbattha yojetabba½. ѱtibyasan±din± phuµµhassa paridevan±yapi asakkuºantassa antogatasokasamuµµhito bhuso ±y±so up±y±so. So pana cetaso appasann±k±ro ev±ti ±ha “vis±dalakkhaºo”ti. S±dana½ pas±dana½ s±do, pasannat±. Anupasaggopi hi saddo sa-upasaggo viya yath±vuttassa atthassa bodhako yath± “gotrabh³”ti. Eva½ sabbattha. Tato vigamana½ vis±do, appasannabh±vo.
96. Vitakkana½ vitakkita½, ta½ panatthato vitakkova, tath± vic±ritanti etth±pi, tena vutta½ “abhiniropanavasena pavatto vitakko”ti-±di. Eten±ti vitakkavic±re par±masitv± karaºaniddeso, hetuniddeso v±. Tenetamattha½ d²peti “khobhakarasabh±vatt± vitakkavic±r±na½ ta½sahitampi jh±na½ tehi sa-upp²¼ana½ viya hot²”ti, ten±ha “sakaºµaka½ [bhakaº¹aka½ (aµµhakath±ya½)] viya kh±yat²”ti. O¼±rikabh±vo hi vitakkavic±rasaªkh±tena kaºµakena saha pavattakath±. Kaºµakasahitabh±vo ca sa-upp²¼anat± eva, loke hi sakaºµaka½ pharusaka½ o¼±rikanti vadanti.
97. P²tigata½ p²tiyeva “diµµhigatan”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 381; mah±ni. 12) viya gata-saddassa tabbh±vavuttito. Ayañhi sa½vaººak±na½ pakati, yadida½ anatthakapada½, tuly±dhikaraºapadañca µhapetv± atthavaººan±. Tath± hi tattha tattha dissati. “Yopan±ti yo y±diso, (p±r±. 45) nibb±nadh±t³ti nibb±yanamattan”ti ca ±di. Y±ya nimittabh³t±ya ubbil±vanap²tiy± uppann±ya citta½ ubbil±vita½ n±ma, s±yeva ubbil±vitatta½ bh±vav±cakassa nimitte pavattanato. Iti p²tiy± uppann±ya eva cittassa ubbil±vanato tassa ubbil±vitabh±vo p²tiy± kato n±m±ti ±ha “ubbilabh±vakaraºan”ti.
98. ¾bhujana½ manasikaraºa½ ±bhogo. Samm± anukkamena, punappuna½ v± ±rammaºassa ±h±ro samann±h±ro. Aya½ pana µ²k±ya½ (d². ni. µ². 1.98) vuttanayo– cittassa ±bhuggabh±vo ±rammaºe abhinatabh±vo ±bhogo. Sukhena hi citta½ ±rammaºe abhinata½ hoti, na dukkhena viya apanata½, n±pi adukkhamasukhena viya anabhinata½, anapanatañc±ti. Ettha ca “manuññabhojan±d²su khuppip±s±di-abhibh³tassa viya k±mehi viveciyam±nassa up±d±rammaºapatthan±visesato abhiva¹¹hati, manuññabhojana½ bhutt±vino viya pana u¼±rak±marasassa y±vadattha½ nicitassa sahitassa bhuttak±mat±ya k±mesu p±tabyat± na hoti, visay±nabhigiddhanato visayehi dummociyehi jal³k± viya sayameva muccat²”ti ca ayoniso ummujjitv± k±maguºasantappitat±ya sa½s±radukkhav³pasama½ by±k±si paµhamav±d². K±m±d²na½ ±d²navadassit±ya, paµham±dijh±nasukhassa santabh±vadassit±ya ca paµham±dijh±nasukhatittiy± sa½s±radukkhupaccheda½ by±ka½su dutiy±div±dino. Idh±pi ucchedav±deva vuttappak±ro vic±ro yath±sambhava½ ±netv± vattabbo. Aya½ panettha viseso– ekasmimpi attabh±ve pañca v±d± labbhanti. Paµhamav±de yadi k±maguºasamappito att±, eva½ so diµµhadhammanibb±nappatto. Dutiy±div±desu yadi paµhamav±dasaªgahito soyeva att± paµhamajjh±n±disamaªg² eva½ sati diµµhadhammanibb±nappattoti. Teneva hi ucchedav±de viya idha p±¼iya½ “añño att±”ti aññaggahaºa½ na kata½. Katha½ pana accantanibb±napaññ±pakassa attano diµµhadhammanibb±nav±dassa sassatadiµµhiy± saªgaho, na ucchedadiµµhiy±ti? Ta½ta½sukhavisesasamaªgit±paµiladdhena bandhavimokkhena suddhassa attano sakar³peneva avaµµh±nad²panato. Tesañhi tath±paµiladdhena kammabandhavimokkhena suddho hutv± diµµhadhammanibb±nappatto att± sakar³peneva avaµµh±s²ti laddhi. Tath± hi p±¼iya½ “ett±vat± kho bho aya½ att± paramadiµµhadhammanibb±na½ patto hot²”ti sassatabh±vañ±pakacch±y±ya eva tesa½ v±dadassana½ katanti.
“Ett±vat±”ti-±din± p±¼iyatthasampiº¹ana½. Tattha y±santi yath±vutt±na½ diµµh²na½ aniyamaniddesavacana½. Tassa im± dv±saµµhi diµµhiyo kathit±ti niyamana½, niyat±napekkhavacana½ v± eta½ “ya½ sandh±ya vuttan”ti ±gataµµh±ne viya. Ses±ti pañcapaññ±sa diµµhiyo. T±su ant±nantikav±d±d²na½ sassatadiµµhisaªgahabh±vo tattha tattha pak±sitoyeva. Ki½ panettha k±raºa½, pubbant±parant± eva diµµh±bhinivesassa visayabh±vena dassit±, na pana tadubhayamekajjhanti? Asambhavo evettha k±raºa½. Na hi pubbant±parantesu viya tadubhayavinimutte majjhante diµµhikappan± sambhavati tadubhayantaramattena ittarak±latt±. Atha pana paccuppannattabh±vo tadubhayavemajjha½, eva½ sati diµµhikappan±kkhamo tassa ubhayasabh±vo pubbant±parantesuyeva antogadhoti katha½ tadubhayamekajjha½ adassita½ siy±. Atha v± pubbant±parantavantat±ya “pubbant±paranto”ti majjhanto vuccati, sopi “pubbantakappik± ca aparantakappik± ca pubbant±parantakappik± c±”ti upari vadantena bhagavat± pubbant±parantehi visu½ katv± vuttoyev±ti daµµhabbo. Aµµhakath±yampi “sabbepi te pubbant±parantakappike”ti etena s±maññaniddesena, ekasesena v± saªgahitoti veditabba½. Aññath± hi saªka¹¹hitv± vuttavacanassa niravasesasaªka¹¹han±bh±vato anatthakat± ±pajjeyy±ti. Ke pana te pubbant±parantakappik±ti? Ye ant±nantik± hutv± diµµhadhammanibb±nav±d±ti evam±din± ubhayasambandh±bhinivesino veditabb±.
100-104. “Id±n²”ti-±din± appan±vacanadvayassa visesa½ dasseti. Tattha ekajjhanti r±sikaraºatthe nip±to. Ekadh± karot²ti ekajjhantipi neruttik±, bh±vanapu½sakañceta½. Iti-saddo idamattho, imin± pak±rena pucchitv± vissajjes²ti attho. Ajjh±sayanti sassatucchedavasena diµµhijjh±saya½. Tadubhayavasena hi satt±na½ sa½kilesapakkhe duvidho ajjh±sayo. Tath± hi vutta½–
“Sassatucchedadiµµhi ca, khanti cev±nulomik±;
yath±bh³tañca ya½ ñ±ºa½, eta½ ±sayasadditan”ti. (Visuddhi. µ². 1.136; d². ni. µ². 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±; s±rattha. µ². 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±, verajjakaº¹avaººan±; vi. vi. µ². 1.verañjakaº¹avaººan±pi passitabba½).
Tañca bhagav± aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ aparim±ºe eva ñeyyavisese uppajjanavasena anekabhedabhinnampi “catt±ro jan± sassatav±d±”ti-±din± dv±saµµhiy± pabhedehi saªgaºhanavasena sabbaññutaññ±ºena paricchinditv± dassento pam±ºabh³t±ya tul±ya dh±rayam±no viya hot²ti ±ha “tul±ya tulayanto viy±”ti. Tath± hi vakkhati “antoj±l²kat±”ti-±di (d². ni. aµµha. 1.146) “sinerup±dato v±luka½ uddharanto viy±”ti pana etena sabbaññutaññ±ºato aññassa ñ±ºassa imiss± desan±ya asakkuºeyyata½ dasseti paramagambh²rat±vacanato.
Ettha ca “sabbe te imeheva dv±saµµhiy± vatth³hi, etesa½ v± aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddh±”ti vacanato, pubbantakappik±dittayavinimuttassa ca kassaci diµµhigatikassa abh±vato y±ni t±ni s±maññaphal±disuttantaresu vuttappak±r±ni akiriy±hetukanatthikav±d±d²ni, y±ni ca issarapakatipaj±patipurisak±lasabh±vaniyatiyadicch±v±d±dippabhed±ni diµµhigat±ni (visuddhi. 1.160-162; vibha. anuµ². 2.194-195 v±kyakhandhesu passitabba½) bahiddh±pi dissam±n±ni, tesa½ ettheva saªgahato antogadhat± veditabb±. Katha½? Akiriyav±do t±va “vañjho k³µaµµho”ti-±din± kiriy±bh±vad²panato sassatav±de antogadho, tath± “sattime k±y±”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.174) nayappavatto pakudhav±do, “natthi hetu natthi paccayo satt±na½ sa½kiles±y±”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.168) nayappavatto ahetukav±do ca adhiccasamuppannav±de. “Natthi paro loko”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.171) nayappavatto natthikav±do ucchedav±de. Tath± hi tattha “k±yassa bhed± ucchijjat²”ti-±di (d². ni. 1.85) vutta½. Paµhamena ±di-saddena nigaºµhav±d±dayo saªgahit±.
Yadipi p±¼iya½ (d². ni. 1.177) n±µaputtav±dabh±vena c±tuy±masa½varo ±gato, tath±pi sattavat±tikkamena vikkhepav±dit±ya n±µaputtav±dopi sañcayav±do viya amar±vikkhepav±desu antogadho. “Ta½ j²va½ ta½ sar²ra½, añña½ j²va½ añña½ sar²ran”ti (d². ni. 1.377; ma. ni. 2.122; sa½. ni. 2.35) eva½pak±r± v±d± pana “r³p² att± hoti arogo para½ maraº±”ti-±div±desu saªgaha½ gacchanti. “Hoti tath±gato para½ maraº±, atthi satt± opap±tik±”ti eva½pak±r± sassatav±de. “Na hoti tath±gato para½ maraº±, natthi satt± opap±tik±”ti eva½pak±r± ucchedav±de. “Hoti ca na hoti ca tath±gato para½ maraº±, atthi ca natthi ca satt± opap±tik±”ti eva½pak±r± ekaccasassatav±de. “Neva hoti na na hoti tath±gato para½ maraº±, nevatthi na natthi satt± opap±tik±”ti eva½pak±r± amar±vikkhepav±de. Issarapakatipaj±patipurisak±lav±d± ekaccasassatav±de. Kaº±dav±do, sabh±vaniyatiyadicch±v±d± ca adhiccasamuppannav±de saªgaha½ gacchanti. Imin± nayena suttantaresu, bahiddh± ca aññatitthiyasamaye dissam±n±na½ diµµhigat±na½ im±suyeva dv±saµµhiy± diµµh²su antogadhat± veditabb±. Te pana tattha tatth±gatanayena vuccam±n± ganthavitth±rakar±, atitthe ca pakkhandanamiva hot²ti na vitth±rayimha. Idha p±¼iya½ atthavic±raº±ya aµµhakath±ya½ anutt±natthapak±sanameva hi amh±ka½ bh±roti.
“Evamaya½ yath±nusandhivasena desan± ±gat±”ti vacanappasaªgena suttass±nusandhayo vibhajitu½ “tayo h²”ti-±dim±ha. Atthantaranisedhanatthañhi visesaniddh±raºa½. Tattha anusandhana½ anusandhi, sambandhamatta½, ya½ desan±ya k±raºaµµhena “samuµµh±nan”tipi vuccati. Pucch±dayo hi desan±ya b±hirak±raºa½ tadanur³pena desan±pavattanato. Ta½sambandhopi tannissitatt± k±raºameva. Abbhantarak±raºa½ pana mah±karuº±desan±ñ±º±dayo. Ayamattho upari ±vi bhavissati. Pucch±ya kato anusandhi pucch±nusandhi, puccha½ anusandhi½ katv± desitatt± suttassa sambandho pucch±ya kato n±ma hoti. Pucch±saªkh±to anusandhi pucch±nusandh²tipi yujjati. Pucch±nissitena hi anusandhin± tannissayabh³t± pucch±pi gahit±ti. Atha v± anusandhahat²ti anusandhi, pucch±saªkh±to anusandhi etass±ti pucch±nusandhi, ta½ta½suttapadeso. Pucch±ya v± anusandh²yat²ti pucch±nusandhi, puccha½ vacanasambandha½ katv± desito ta½samuµµh±niko ta½ta½suttapadesova. Ajjh±say±nusandhimhipi eseva nayo. Anusandh²yat²ti anusandhi, yo yo anusandhi, anusandhino anur³pa½ v± yath±nusandhi.
Pucch±ya, ajjh±sayena ca ananusandhiko ±dimhi desitadhammassa anur³padhammavasena v± tappaµipakkhadhammavasena v± pavatto uparisuttapadeso. Tath± hi so “yena pana dhammena…pe… kakac³pam± ±gat±”ti-±din± (d². ni. aµµha. 1.100-104) aµµhakath±ya½ vutto, yath±p±¼imaya½ vibh±goti dasseti “tatth±”ti-±din±. Tattha “eva½ vutte nando gop±lako bhagavanta½ etadavoc±”ti paµhanti, ta½ na sundara½ sutte tath± abh±vato. “Eva½ vutte nandagop±lakasutte bhagavanta½ etadavoc±”ti pana paµhitabba½ tasmi½ sutte “aññataro bhikkhu bhagavanta½ etadavoc±”ti atthassa upapattito. Idañhi sa½yutt±gamavare sa¼±yatanavagge saªg²tasutta½. Gaªg±ya vuyham±na½ d±rukkhandha½ upama½ katv± saddh±pabbajite kulaputte desite nando gop±lako “ahamima½ paµipatti½ p³ress±m²”ti bhagavato santike pabbajja½, upasampadañca gahetv± tath±paµipajjam±no nacirasseva arahatta½ patto. Tasm± “nandagop±lakasuttan”ti paññ±yittha. “Ki½ nu kho bhante”ti-±d²ni pana aññataroyeva bhikkhu avoca. Vuttañhi tattha “eva½ vutte aññataro bhikkhu bhagavanta½ etadavoca ‘ki½ nu kho bhante, orima½ t²ran’ti-±di”.
Tatr±yamattho– eva½ vutteti “sace kho bhikkhave, d±rukkhandho na orima½ t²ra½ upagacchat²”ti-±din± gaªg±ya vuyham±na½ d±rukkhandha½ upama½ katv± saddh±pabbajite kulaputte desite. Bhagavanta½ etadavoc±ti anusandhikusalat±ya “ki½ nu kho bhante”ti-±divacanamavoca. Tath±gato hi “imissa½ parisati nisinno anusandhi kusalo atthi, so ma½ pañha½ pucchissat²”ti ettakeneva desana½ niµµh±pesi. Orima½ t²ranti orimabh³ta½ t²ra½. Tath± p±rima½ t²ranti. Majjhe sa½s²doti vemajjhe sa½s²dana½ nimmujjana½. Thale uss±doti jalamajjhe uµµhite thalasmi½ uss±rito ±ru¼ho. Manussagg±hoti manuss±na½ sambandh²bh³t±na½, manussehi v± gahaºa½. Tath± amanussagg±hoti ±vaµµagg±hoti udak±vaµµena gahaºa½. Antop³t²ti vakkahaday±d²su ap³tikass±pi guº±na½ p³tibh±vena abbhantara½p³t²ti.
“Atha kho aññatarassa bhikkhuno”ti-±di majjhim±gamavare uparipaºº±sake mah±puººamasutta½ (ma. ni. 3.88-90) tatr±yamattho– iti kir±ti ettha kira-saddo aruciya½, tena bhagavato yath±desit±ya attasuññat±ya attano aruciyabh±va½ d²peti. Bhoti dhamm±lapana½, ambho sabh±vadhamm±ti attho. Yadi r³pa½ anatt±…pe… viññ±ºa½ anatt±. Eva½ sat²ti sap±µhasesayojan±. Anattakat±n²ti attan± na kat±ni, anattabh³tehi v± khandhehi kat±ni. Kamatt±na½ phusissant²ti k²disamattabh±va½ phusissanti. Asati attani khandh±nañca khaºikatt± t±ni kamm±ni ka½ n±ma att±na½ attano phalena phusissanti, ko kammaphala½ paµisa½vedissat²ti vutta½ hoti. Tassa bhikkhuno cetoparivitakka½ attano cetas± ceto– pariyañ±ºasampayuttena sabbaññutaññ±ºasampayuttena v± aññ±ya j±nitv±ti sambandho.
Avidv±ti sut±divirahena ariyadhammassa akovidat±ya apaº¹ito. Vidv±ti hi paº¹it±dhivacana½ vidati j±n±t²ti katv±. Avijj±gatoti avijj±ya upagato, ariyadhamme avin²tat±ya appah²n±vijjoti attho. Taºh±dhipateyyena cetas±ti “yadi aha½ n±ma koci natthi, eva½ sati may± katassa kammassa phala½ ko paµisa½vedeti, sati pana tasmi½ siy± kammaphal³pabhogo”ti taºh±dhipatito ±gatena attav±dup±d±nasahagatena cetas±. Atidh±vitabbanti atikkamitv± dh±vitabba½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– khaºikattepi saªkh±r±na½ yasmi½ sant±ne kamma½ kata½, tattheva phal³papattito dhammapuñjamattasseva siddhe kammaphalasambandhe ekattanaya½ micch± gahetv± ekena k±rakavedakabh³tena bhavitabba½, aññath± kammakammaphal±namasambandho siy±ti attattaniyasuññat±pak±sana½ satthus±sana½ atikkamitabba½ maññeyy±ti. Id±ni anatidh±vitabbata½ vibh±vetu½ “ta½ ki½ maññath±”ti-±dim±ha.
Upari desan±ti desan±samuµµh±nadhammad²pik±ya heµµhimadesan±ya upari pavattit± desan±. Desan±samuµµh±nadhammassa anur³papaµipakkhadhammappak±sanavasena duvidhesu yath±nusandh²su anur³padhammappak±sanavasena yath±nusandhidassanameta½ “upari cha abhiññ± ±gat±”ti. Tadavasesa½ pana sabbampi paµipakkhadhammappak±sanavasena. Majjhim±gamavare m³lapaºº±sakeyeva cet±ni sutt±ni. Kilesen±ti “lobho cittassa upakkileso”ti-±din± kilesavasena. Bhaº¹anen±ti viv±dena. Akkhantiy±ti kopena. Kakac³pam±ti kharapanti-upam±. Imasmimp²ti pi-saddo apekkh±ya½ “ayampi p±r±jiko”ti-±d²su (vi. 1.72-73, 167, 171, 195, 197) viya, sampiº¹ane v±, tena yath± vatthasutt±d²su paµipakkhadhammappak±sanavasena yath±nusandhi eva½ imasmimpi brahmaj±leti apekkhana½, sampiº¹ana½ v± karoti. Tath± hi niccas±r±dipaññ±pak±na½ diµµhigat±na½ vasena uµµhit±ya½ desan± niccas±r±disuññat±pak±sanena niµµh±pit±ti. “Ten±”ti-±din± yath±vuttasa½vaººan±ya guºa½ dasseti.