Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±

Id±ni “paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le”ti vacanappasaªgena ta½ paµhamamah±saªg²ti½ dassento, yassa½ v± paµhamamah±saªg²tiya½ nikkhitt±nukkamena sa½vaººana½ kattuk±matt± ta½ vibh±vento tass± tantiy± ±ru¼h±yapi idha vacane k±raºa½ dassetu½ “paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma ces±”ti-±dim±ha. Ettha hi kiñc±pi…pe… m±ru¼h±ti etena nanu s± saªg²tikkhandhake tantim±ru¼h±, kasm± idha puna vutt±, yadi ca vutt± assa niratthakat±, ganthagarut± ca siy±ti codan±lesa½ dasseti. “Nid±na…pe… veditabb±”ti pana etena nid±nakosallatthabh±vato yath±vuttadosat± na siy±ti visesak±raºadassanena pariharati. “Paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma ces±”ti ettha ca-saddo ²disesu µh±nesu vattabbasampiº¹anattho. Tena hi paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le vutta½ nid±nañca ±di, es± ca paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma eva½ veditabb±ti imamattha½ sampiº¹eti. Upaññ±sattho v± ca-saddo, upaññ±soti ca v±ky±rambho vuccati. Es± hi ganthak±r±na½ pakati, yadida½ kiñci vatv± puna apara½ vattum±rabhant±na½ ca-saddapayogo. Ya½ pana vajirabuddhittherena vutta½ “ettha ca-saddo atirekattho, tena aññ±pi atth²ti d²pet²”ti (vajira µ². b±hiranid±nakath±vaººan±), tadayuttameva. Na hettha ca-saddena tadattho viññ±yati. Yadi cettha tadatthadassanatthameva ca-k±ro adhippeto siy±, eva½ sati so na kattabboyeva paµhamasaddeneva aññ±sa½ dutiy±disaªg²t²nampi atthibh±vassa dassitatt±. Dutiy±dimup±d±ya hi paµhamasaddapayogo d²gh±dimup±d±ya rass±disaddapayogo viya. Yath±paccaya½ tattha tattha desitatt±, paññattatt± ca vippakiºº±na½ dhammavinay±na½ saªgahetv± g±yana½ kathana½ saªg²ti, etena ta½ ta½ sikkh±pad±na½, ta½ta½sutt±nañca ±dipariyos±nesu, antarantar± ca sambandhavasena µhapita½ saªg²tik±rakavacana½ saªgahita½ hoti. Mah±visayatt±, p³jitatt± ca mahat² saªg²ti mah±saªg²ti, paµham± mah±saªg²ti paµhamamah±saªg²ti. Kiñc±p²ti anuggahattho, tena p±¼iyampi s± saªg²tim±ru¼h±v±ti anuggaha½ karoti, evampi tatth±ru¼hamattena idha sot³na½ nid±nakosalla½ na hot²ti pana-saddena aruciyattha½ dasseti. Nidad±ti desana½ desak±l±divasena avidita½ vidita½ katv± nidasset²ti nid±na½, tasmi½ kosalla½, tadatth±y±ti attho.
Id±ni ta½ vitth±retv± dassetu½ “dhammacakkapavattanañh²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha satt±na½ dassan±nuttariyasaraº±dipaµil±bhahetubh³t±su vijjam±n±supi aññ±su bhagavato kiriy±su “buddho bodheyyan”ti (bu. va½. aµµha. abbhantaranid±na 1; cariy±. aµµha. pakiººakakath±; ud±na aµµha. 18) paµiññ±ya anulomanato vineyy±na½ maggaphaluppattihetubh³t± kiriy±va nippariy±yena buddhakicca½ n±m±ti ta½ sar³pato dassetu½ “dhammacakkappavattanañhi…pe… vinayan±”ti vutta½. Dhammacakkappavattanato pana pubbabh±ge bhagavat± bh±sita½ suºant±nampi v±san±bh±giyameva j±ta½, na sekkhabh±giya½, na nibbedhabh±giya½ tapussabhallik±na½ saraºad±na½ viya. Es± hi dhammat±, tasm± tameva mariy±dabh±vena vuttanti veditabba½. Saddhindriy±di dhammoyeva pavattanaµµhena cakkanti dhammacakka½. Atha v± cakkanti ±º±, dhammato anapetatt± dhammañca ta½ cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½. Dhammena ñ±yena cakkantipi dhammacakka½. Vuttañhi paµisambhid±ya½–
“Dhammañca pavatteti cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½. Cakkañca pavatteti dhammañc±ti dhammacakka½, dhammena pavattet²ti dhammacakka½, dhammacariy±ya pavattet²ti dhammacakkan”ti-±di (paµi. ma. 2.40, 41).
Tassa pavattana½ tath±. Pavattananti ca pavattayam±na½, pavattitanti paccuppann±t²tavasena dvidh± attho. Ya½ sandh±ya aµµhakath±su vutta½ “dhammacakkapavattanasuttanta½ desento dhammacakka½ pavatteti n±ma, aññ±sikoº¹aññattherassa maggaphal±dhigatato paµµh±ya pavattita½ n±m±”ti (sa½. ni. aµµha. 3.5.1081-1088; paµi. ma. aµµha. 2.2.40). Idha pana paccuppannavaseneva attho yutto. Y±v±ti paricchedatthe nip±to, subhaddassa n±ma paribb±jakassa vinayana½ antopariccheda½ katv±ti abhividhivasena attho veditabbo. Tañhi bhagav± parinibb±namañce nipannoyeva vines²ti. Kata½ pariniµµh±pita½ buddhakicca½ yen±ti tath±, tasmi½. Katabuddhakicce bhagavati lokan±the parinibbuteti sambandho, etena buddhakattabbassa kiccassa kassacipi asesitabh±va½ d²peti. Tatoyeva hi bhagav± parinibbutoti. Nanu ca s±vakehi vin²t±pi vineyy± bhagavat±yeva vin²t± n±ma. Tath± hi s±vakabh±sita½ sutta½ “buddhabh±sitan”ti vuccati. S±vakavineyy± ca na t±va vin²t±, tasm± “katabuddhakicce”ti na vattabbanti? N±ya½ doso tesa½ vinayanup±yassa s±vakesu µhapitatt±. Tenev±ha–
“Na t±v±ha½ p±pima parinibb±yiss±mi, y±va me bhikkh³ na s±vak± bhavissanti viyatt± vin²t± vis±rad± bahussut± dhammadhar±…pe… uppanna½ parappav±da½ saha dhammena suniggahita½ niggahetv± sap±µih±riya½ dhamma½ desessant²”ti-±di (d². ni. 2.168; ud±. 51).
“Kusin±r±yan”ti-±din± bhagavato parinibbutadesak±lavisesavacana½ “aparinibbuto bhagav±”ti g±hassa micch±bh±vadassanattha½, loke j±tasa½vaddh±dibh±vadassanatthañca. Tath± hi manussabh±vassa sup±kaµakaraºattha½ mah±bodhisatt± carimabhave d±rapariggah±d²nipi karont²ti. Kusin±r±yanti eva½ n±make nagare. Tañhi nagara½ kusahattha½ purisa½ dassanaµµh±ne m±pitatt± “kusin±ran”ti vuccati, sam²patthe ceta½ bhumma½. Upavattane mall±na½ s±lavaneti tassa nagarassa upavattanabh³te mallar±j³na½ s±lavane. Tañhi s±lavana½ nagara½ pavisituk±m± uyy±nato upacca vattanti gacchanti eten±ti upavattana½. Yath± hi anur±dhapurassa dakkhiºapacchimadis±ya½ th³p±r±mo, eva½ ta½ uyy±na½ kusin±r±ya dakkhiºapacchimadis±ya½ hoti. Yath± ca th³p±r±mato dakkhiºadv±rena nagara½ pavisanamaggo p±c²namukho gantv± uttarena nivattati, eva½ uyy±nato s±lapanti p±c²namukh± gantv± uttarena nivatt±, tasm± ta½ “upavattanan”ti vuccati. Apare pana “ta½ s±lavanamupagantv± mittasuhajje apaloketv± nivattanato upavattananti p±kaµa½ j±ta½ kir±”ti vadanti. Yamakas±l±namantareti yamakas±l±na½ vemajjhe. Tattha kira bhagavato paññattassa parinibb±namañcassa s²sabh±ge ek± s±lapanti hoti, p±dabh±ge ek±. Tatr±pi eko taruºas±lo s²sabh±gassa ±sanno hoti, eko p±dabh±gassa. Tasm± “yamakas±l±namantare”ti vutta½. Apica “yamakas±l± n±ma m³lakkhandhaviµapapattehi aññamañña½ sa½sibbetv± µhitas±l±”tipi mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ vutta½. M± iti cando vuccati tassa gatiy± divasassa minitabbato, tad± sabbakal±p±rip³riy± puººo eva m±ti puººam±. Saddavid³ pana “mo sivo candim± cev±”ti vutta½ sakkatabh±s±naya½ gahetv± ok±rantampi candimav±caka ma-saddamicchanti. Vis±kh±ya yutto puººam± yatth±ti vis±kh±puººamo, soyeva divaso tath±, tasmi½. Pacc³sati timira½ vin±set²ti pacc³so, pati-pubbo usa-saddo ruj±yanti hi neruttik±, soyeva samayoti rattiy± pacchimay±mapariy±panno k±laviseso vuccati, tasmi½. Vis±kh±puººamadivase ²dise rattiy± pacchimasamayeti vutta½ hoti.
Up±d²yate kammakileseh²ti up±di, vip±kakkhandh±, kaµatt± ca r³pa½. So pana up±di kiles±bhisaªkh±ram±ranimmathane anossaµµho, idha khandhamaccum±ranimmathane ossaµµhona sesito, tasm± natthi etiss± up±disaªkh±to seso, up±dissa v± sesoti katv± “anup±dises±”ti vuccati. Nibb±nadh±t³ti cettha nibbutimatta½ adhippeta½, nibb±nañca ta½ sabh±vadh±raºato dh±tu c±ti katv±. Nibbutiy± hi k±raºapariy±yena asaªkhatadh±tu tath± vuccati. Itthambh³talakkhaºe c±ya½ karaºaniddeso. Anup±disesat±saªkh±ta½ ima½ pak±ra½ bh³tassa pattassa parinibbutassa bhagavato lakkhaºe nibb±nadh±tusaªkh±te atthe tatiy±ti vutta½ hoti. Nanu ca “anup±dises±y±”ti nibb±nadh±tuy±va visesana½ hoti, na parinibbutassa bhagavato, atha kasm± ta½ bhagav± pattoti vuttoti? Nibb±nadh±tuy± sahacaraºato. Ta½sahacaraºena hi bhagav±pi anup±disesabh±va½ pattoti vuccati. Atha v± anup±disesabh±vasaªkh±ta½ ima½ pak±ra½ patt±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± lakkhaºe sañj±nanakiriy±ya tatiy±tipi vattu½ yujjati. Anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy±ti ca anup±disesanibb±nadh±tu hutv±ti attho. “Ðnapañcabandhanena patten±”ti (p±r±. 612). Ettha hi ³napañcabandhanapatto hutv±ti attha½ vadanti. Apica nibb±nadh±tuy± anup±dises±ya anup±dises± hutv± bh³t±y±tipi yujjati. Vuttañhi ud±naµµhakath±ya nandasuttavaººan±ya½ “upa¹¹hullikhitehi keseh²ti itthambh³talakkhaºe karaºavacana½ vippakatullikhitehi kesehi upalakkhit±ti attho”ti (ud±. aµµha. 22) esanayo ²disesu. Dh±tubh±janadivaseti jeµµham±sassa sukkapakkhapañcam²divasa½ sandh±ya vutta½, tañca na “sannipatit±nan”ti etassa visesana½, “uss±ha½ janes²”ti etassa pana visesana½ “dh±tubh±janadivase bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janes²”ti uss±hajananassa k±lavasena bhinn±dhikaraºavisesanabh±vato. Dh±tubh±janadivasato hi purimataradivasesupi bhikkh³ sannipatit±ti. Atha v± “sannipatit±nan”ti ida½ k±yas±maggivasena sannipatanameva sandh±ya vutta½, na sam±gamanamattena. Tasm± “dh±tubh±janadivase”ti ida½ “sannipatit±nan”ti etassa visesana½ sambhavati, idañca bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janes²ti ettha “bhikkh³nan”ti etenapi sambajjhan²ya½ Saªghassa thero saªghatthero. So pana saªgho ki½ parim±ºoti ±ha “sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±nan”ti. Saªghasaddena hi aviññ±yam±nassa parim±ºassa viññ±panatthameveta½ puna vutta½. Saddavid³ pana vadanti–
“Sam±so ca taddhito ca, v±kyatthesu visesak±;
pasiddhiyantu s±mañña½, tela½ sugatac²vara½.

Tasm± n±mamattabh³tassa saªghattherassa visesanatthameveta½ puna vuttanti, niccas±pekkhat±ya ca edisesu sam±so yath± “devadattassa garukulan”ti. Niccas±pekkhat± cettha saªghasaddassa bhikkhusatasahassasadda½ s±pekkhattepi aññapadantar±bh±vena v±kye viya apekkhitabbatthassa gamakatt±. “Sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±nan”ti hi etassa saªghasadde avayav²bh±vena sambandho, tass±pi s±mibh±vena therasaddeti. “Sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±nan”ti ca gaºap±mokkhabhikkh³yeva sandh±ya vutta½. Tad± hi sannipatit± bhikkh³ ettak±ti gaºanapathamatikkant±. Tath± hi ve¼uvag±me vedan±vikkhambhanato paµµh±ya “nacireneva bhagav± parinibb±yissat²”ti sutv± tato tato ±gatesu bhikkh³su ekabhikkhupi pakkanto n±ma natthi. Yath±hu–

“Sattasatasahass±ni tesu p±mokkhabhikkhavo;
thero mah±kassapova, saªghatthero tad± ah³”ti.
¾yasm± mah±kassapo anussaranto maññam±no cintayanto hutv± uss±ha½ janesi, anussaranto maññam±no cintayanto ±yasm± mah±kassapo uss±ha½ janes²ti v± sambandho. Mahantehi s²lakkhandh±d²hi samann±gatatt± mahanto kassapoti mah±kassapo. Apica “mah±kassapo”ti uruvelakassapo nad²kassapo gay±kassapo kum±rakassapoti ime khudd±nukhuddake there up±d±ya vuccati. Kasm± pan±yasm± mah±kassapo uss±ha½ janes²ti anuyoge sati ta½ k±raºa½ vibh±vento ±ha “satt±haparinibbute”ti-±di. Satta ah±ni sam±haµ±ni satt±ha½. Satt±ha½ parinibbutassa ass±ti tath± yath± “acirapakkanto, m±saj±to”ti, antattha-aññapadasam±soya½, tasmi½. Bhagavato parinibb±nadivasato paµµh±ya satt±he v²tivatteti vutta½ hoti, etassa “vuttavacanan”ti padena sambandho, tath± “subhaddena vu¹¹hapabbajiten±”ti etassapi. Tattha subhaddoti tassa n±mamatta½, vu¹¹hak±le pana pabbajitatt± “vu¹¹hapabbajiten±”ti vutta½, etena subhaddaparibb±jak±d²hi ta½ visesa½ karoti. “Ala½ ±vuso”ti-±din± tena vuttavacana½ nidasseti. So hi satt±haparinibbute bhagavati ±yasmat± mah±kassapattherena saddhi½ p±v±ya kusin±ra½ addh±namaggapaµipannesu pañcamattesu bhikkhusatesu av²tar±ge bhikkh³ antar±magge diµµha-±j²vakassa santik± bhagavato parinibb±na½ sutv± pattac²var±ni cha¹¹etv± b±h± paggayha½ n±nappak±ra½ paridevante disv± evam±ha.