Yehi guŗavisesehi nimittabh³tehi bhagavati “tath±gato”ti aya½ samańń± pavatt±, ta½ dassanattha½ “aµµhahi k±raŗehi bhagav± tath±gato”ti-±di vutta½. Ekopi hi saddo anekapavattinimittamadhikicca anekadh± atthappak±sako, bhagavato ca sabbepi n±masadd± anekaguŗanemittik±yeva. Yath±ha–
“AsaŖkhyeyy±ni n±m±ni, saguŗena mahesino;
guŗena n±mamuddheyya½, api n±masahassato”ti. (Dha. sa. 1313; ud±. aµµha. 57; paµi. ma. aµµha. 1.76; d². ni. µ². 1.413).
K±ni pana t±n²ti anuyoge sati paµhama½ tassar³pa½ saŖkhepato uddisitv± “kathan”ti-±din± niddisati. Tath± ±gatoti ettha ±k±raniyamanavasena opammasampaµip±danattho tath±-saddo. S±mańńajotan±ya vises±vaµµh±nato, visesatthin± ca s±mańńasaddass±pi visesattheyeva anupayujjitabbato paµipad±gamanattho ±gata saddo daµµhabbo, na ń±ŗagamanattho tathalakkhaŗa½ ±gato”ti-±d²su (d². ni. aµµha. 1.7; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.12; sa½. ni. aµµha. 2.3.78; a. ni. aµµha. 1.170; therag±. aµµha. 1.43; itivu. aµµha. 38; paµi. ma. aµµha. 1.37; bu. va½. aµµha. 2; mah±ni. aµµha. 14) viya n±pi k±yagaman±di attho “±gato kho mah±samaŗo, m±gadh±na½ giribbajan”ti-±d²su (mah±va. 53) viya. Tattha yassa ±k±rassa niyamanavasena opammasampaµip±danattho tath±-saddo, tad±k±ra½ karuŗ±padh±natt± tassa mah±karuŗ±mukhena purimabuddh±na½ ±gamanapaµipad±ya ud±haraŗavasena s±mańńato dassento “yath± sabbaloke”ti-±dim±ha. Ya½ta½-sadd±na½ ekantasambandhabh±vato cettha tath±-saddassatthadassane yath±-saddena attho vibh±vito. Tadeva vitth±reti “yath± vipass² bhagav±”ti-±din±, vipass²-±d²nańcettha channa½ samm±sambuddh±na½ mah±pad±nasutt±d²su (d². ni. 2.4) sampahulaniddesena (d². ni. aµµha. 2.sambahulaparicchedavaŗŗan±) sup±kaµatt±, ±sannatt± ca tesa½ vasena ta½ paµipada½ dasset²ti daµµhabba½. ¾gato yath±, tath± ±gatoti sabbatra sambandho. “Ki½ vutta½ hot²”ti-±din±pi tadeva paµiniddisati. Tattha yena abhin²h±ren±ti manussattaliŖgasampattihetusatth±radassanapabbajj±guŗasampatti-adhik±rachand±na½ vasena aµµhaŖgasamann±gatena mah±paŗidh±nena Sabbesańhi buddh±na½ paµhamapaŗidh±na½ imin±va n²h±rena samijjhati. Abhin²h±roti cettha m³lapaŗidh±nasseta½ adhivacananti daµµhabba½.
Eva½ mah±bhin²h±ravasena “tath±gato”ti padassa attha½ dassetv± id±ni p±ram²p³raŗavasenapi dassetu½ “atha v±”ti-±dim±ha. “Ettha ca suttantik±na½ mah±bodhiy±napaµipad±ya kosallajananattha½ p±ram²su aya½ vitth±rakath±”ti-±din± ±cariyadhammap±lattherena (d². ni. µ². 1.7) y± p±ram²su vinicchayakath± vutt±, kińc±pi s± amhehi idha vuccam±n± ganthavitth±rakar± viya bhavissati, yasm± pan±ya½ sa½vaŗŗan± etissa½ pacch± pam±dalekhavisodhanavasena, tadavasesatthapariy±d±navasena ca pavatt±, tasm± s±pi p±ram²kath± idha vattabb±yev±ti tato ceva cariy±piµakaµµhakath±to ca ±haritv± yath±raha½ g±th±bandhehi samalaŖkaritv± atthamadhipp±yańca visodhayam±n± bhavissati. Katha½?
K± panet± p±ramiyo, kenaµµhena kat²vidh±;
ko ca t±sa½ kamo k±ni, lakkhaŗ±d²ni sabbath±.
Ko paccayo, sa½kileso, vod±na½ paµipakkhako;
paµipattivibh±go ca, saŖgaho sampad± tath±.
Kittakena samp±dana½, ±nisa½so ca ki½ phala½;
pańhameta½ vissajjitv±, bhavissati vinicchayo.

Tatrida½ vissajjana½–

K± panet± p±ramiyoti–
Taŗh±m±n±dimańńatra, up±yakusalena y±;
ń±ŗena pariggahit±, p±ram² s± vibh±vit±.

Taŗh±m±n±din± hi anupahat± karuŗ³p±yakosallapariggahit± d±n±dayo guŗasaŖkh±t± et± kiriy± “p±ram²”ti vibh±vit±.

Kenaµµhena p±ramiyoti–
Paramo uttamaµµhena, tass±ya½ p±ram² tath±;
kamma½ bh±voti d±n±di, taddhitato tidh± mat±.
P³reti mavati pare, para½ majjati mayati;
mun±ti minoti tath±, min±t²ti v± paramo.
P±re majjati sodheti, mavati mayat²ti v±;
m±yeti ta½ v± mun±ti, minoti min±ti tath±.
P±ram²ti mah±satto, vutt±nus±rato pana;
taddhitatthattayeneva, p±ram²ti aya½ mat±.
D±nas²l±diguŗavisesayogena hi sattuttamat±ya mah±bodhisatto paramo, tassa aya½, bh±vo, kammanti v± p±ram², d±n±dikiriy±. Atha v± parati p³ret²ti paramo niruttinayena, d±n±diguŗ±na½ p³rako, p±lako ca bodhisatto, paramassa aya½, bh±vo, kamma½ v± p±ram². Apica pare satte mavati attani bandhati guŗavisesayogena, para½ v± atireka½ majjati sa½kilesamalato, para½ v± seµµha½ nibb±na½ visesena mayati gacchati, para½ v± loka½ pam±ŗabh³tena ń±ŗavisesena idhalokamiva mun±ti paricchindati, para½ v± ativiya s²l±diguŗagaŗa½ attano sant±ne minoti pakkhipati, para½ v± attabh³tato dhammak±yato ańńa½, paµipakkha½ v± tadanatthakara½ kilesacoragaŗa½ min±ti hi½sat²ti paramo, mah±satto, “paramassa ayan”ti-±din± vuttanayena p±ram². P±re v± nibb±ne majjati sujjhati, satte ca sodheti, tattha v± satte mavati bandhati yojeti, ta½ v± mayati gacchati, satte ca m±yeti gameti, ta½ v± y±th±vato mun±ti paricchindati, tattha v± satte minoti pakkhipati, tattha v± satt±na½ kiles±ri½ min±ti hi½sat²ti p±ram², mah±satto, “tassa ayan”ti-±din± d±n±dikiriy±va p±ram²ti. Imin± nayena p±ram²na½ vacanattho veditabbo.
Katividh±ti saŖkhepato dasavidh±, t± pana buddhava½sap±¼iya½ (bu. va½. 1.76) sar³pato ±gat±yeva. Yath±ha “vicinanto tad±dakkhi½, paµhama½ d±nap±ramin”ti-±di (bu. va½. 2.116). Yath± c±ha–
“Kati nu kho bhante buddhak±rak± dhamm±ti? Dasa kho s±riputta buddhak±rak± dhamm±, katame dasa? D±na½ kho s±riputta buddhak±rako dhammo, s²la½ nekkhamma½ pańń± v²riya½ khanti sacca½ adhiµµh±na½ mett± upekkh± buddhak±rako dhammo, ime kho s±riputta dasa buddhak±rak± dhamm±ti. Idamavoca bhagav±, ida½ vatv±na sugato ath±para½ etadavoca satth±–
‘D±na½ s²lańca nekkhamma½, pańń±v²riyena pańcama½;
khantisaccamadhiµµh±na½, mettupekkh±ti te das±’ti”. (Bu. va½. 1.76).
Keci pana “chabbidh±”ti vadanti, ta½ et±sa½ saŖgahavasena vutta½. So pana saŖgaho parato ±vi bhavissati.
Ko ca t±sa½ kamoti ettha kamo n±ma desan±kkamo, so ca paµhamasam±d±nahetuko, sam±d±na½ pavicayahetuka½, iti yath± ±dimhi paµham±bhin²h±rak±le pavicit±, sam±dinn± ca, tath± desit±. Yath±ha “vicinanto tad±dakkhi½, paµhama½ d±nap±ramin”ti-±di (bu. va½. 2.116) teneta½ vuccati–
“Paµhama½ sam±d±nat±-vasen±ya½ kamo ruto;
atha v± ańńamańńassa, bah³pak±ratopi c±”ti.
Tattha hi d±na½ s²lassa bah³pak±ra½, sukarańc±ti ta½ ±dimhi vutta½. D±na½ pana s²lapariggahita½ mahapphala½ hoti mah±nisa½santi d±n±nantara½ s²la½ vutta½. S²la½ nekkhammapariggahita½…pe… nekkhamma½ pańń±pariggahita½…pe… pańń± v²riyapariggahit±…pe… v²riya½ khantipariggahita½…pe… khanti saccapariggahit±…pe… sacca½ adhiµµh±napariggahita½…pe… adhiµµh±na½ mett±pariggahita½…pe… mett± upekkh±pariggahit± mahapphal± hoti mah±nisa½s±ti mett±nantara½ upekkh± vutt±. Upekkh± pana karuŗ±pariggahit±, karuŗ± ca upekkh±pariggahit±ti veditabb±. Katha½ pana mah±k±ruŗik± bodhisatt± sattesu upekkhak± hont²ti? Upekkhitabbayuttakesu kańci k±la½ upekkhak± honti, na pana sabbattha, sabbad± c±ti keci. Apare pana na ca sattesu upekkhak±, sattakatesu pana vippak±resu upekkhak± hont²ti, idamevettha yutta½.
Aparo nayo–
Sabbas±dh±raŗat±di-k±raŗehipi ²rita½;
d±na½ ±dimhi ses± tu, purimepi apekkhak±.
Pacurajanesupi hi pavattiy± sabbasattas±dh±raŗatt±, appaphalatt±, sukaratt± ca d±na½ ±dimhi vutta½. S²lena d±yakapaµigg±hakasuddhito par±nuggaha½ vatv± parap²¼±nivattivacanato, kiriyadhamma½ vatv± akiriyadhammavacanato, bhogasampattihetu½ vatv± bhavasampattihetuvacanato ca d±nass±nantara½ s²la½ vutta½. Nekkhammena s²lasampattisiddhito, k±yavac²sucarita½ vatv± manosucaritavacanato, visuddhas²lassa sukheneva jh±nasamijjhanato, kamm±par±dhappah±nena payogasuddhi½ vatv± kiles±par±dhappah±nena ±sayasuddhivacanato, v²tikkamappah±ne µhitassa pariyuµµh±nappah±navacanato ca s²lass±nantara½ nekkhamma½ vutta½. Pańń±ya nekkhammassa siddhiparisuddhito, jh±n±bh±ve pańń±bh±vavacanato. Sam±dhipadaµµh±n± hi pańń±, pańń±paccupaµµh±no ca sam±dhi. Samathanimitta½ vatv± upekkh±nimittavacanato, parahitajjh±nena parahitakaraŗ³p±yakosallavacanato ca nekkhammass±nantara½ pańń± vutt±. V²riy±rambhena pańń±kiccasiddhito, sattasuńńat±dhammanijjh±nakkhanti½ vatv± sattahit±ya ±rambhassa acchariyat±vacanato, upekkh±nimitta½ vatv± paggahanimittavacanato, nisammak±rita½ vatv± uµµh±navacanato ca. Nisammak±rino hi uµµh±na½ phalavisesam±vahat²ti pańń±y±nantara½ v²riya½ vutta½.
V²riyena titikkh±siddhito. V²riyav± hi ±raddhav²riyatt± sattasaŖkh±rehi upan²ta½ dukkha½ abhibhuyya viharati. V²riyassa titikkh±laŖk±rabh±vato. V²riyavato hi titikkh± sobhati. Paggahanimitta½ vatv± samathanimittavacanato, acc±rambhena uddhaccadosappah±navacanato. Dhammanijjh±nakkhantiy± hi uddhaccadoso pah²yati. V²riyavato s±taccakaraŗavacanato. Khantibahulo hi anuddhato s±taccak±r² hoti. Appam±davato parahitakiriy±rambhe paccupak±rataŗh±bh±vavacanato. Y±th±vato dhammanijjh±ne hi sati taŗh± na hoti. Parahit±rambhe paramepi parakatadukkhasahanat±vacanato ca v²riyass±nantara½ khanti vutt±. Saccena khantiy± cir±dhiµµh±nato, apak±rino apak±rakhanti½ vatv± tadupak±rakaraŗe avisa½v±davacanato, khantiy± apav±dav±c±vikampanena bh³tav±dit±ya avijahanavacanato, sattasuńńat±dhamma-nijjh±nakkhanti½ vatv± tadupabr³hitań±ŗasaccassa vacanato ca khantiy±nantara½ sacca½ vutta½. Adhiµµh±nena saccasiddhito. Acal±dhiµµh±nassa hi virati sijjhati. Avisa½v±dita½ vatv± tattha acalabh±vavacanato. Saccasandho hi d±n±d²su paµińń±nur³pa½ niccalo pavattati. ѱŗasacca½ vatv± sambh±resu pavattiniµµh±panavacanato. Yath±bh³tań±ŗav± hi bodhisambh±resu adhiµµh±ti, te ca niµµh±peti. Paµipakkhehi akampiyabh±vato ca saccass±nantara½ adhiµµh±na½ vutta½. Mett±ya parahitakaraŗasam±d±n±dhiµµh±nasiddhito, adhiµµh±na½ vatv± hit³pasa½h±ravacanato. Bodhisambh±re hi adhitiµµham±no mett±vih±r² hoti. Acal±dhiµµh±nassa sam±d±n±vikopanena sam±d±nasambhavato ca adhiµµh±nass±nantara½ mett± vutt±. Upekkh±ya mett±visuddhito, sattesu hit³pasa½h±ra½ vatv± tadapar±dhesu ud±s²nat±vacanato, mett±bh±vana½ vatv± tannissandabh±van±vacanato, “hitak±masattepi upekkhako”ti acchariyaguŗat±vacanato ca mett±y±nantara½ upekkh± vutt±ti evamet±sa½ kamo veditabbo.