Im±ya pana g±th±ya vijj±vimuttisampad±d²hi anekehi guºehi yath±raha½ saddhamma½ thometi. Katha½? Ettha hi “bh±vetv±”ti etena vijj±sampad±ya thometi, “sacchikatv±”ti etena vimuttisampad±ya. Tath± paµhamena jh±nasampad±ya, dutiyena vimokkhasampad±ya. Paµhamena v± sam±dhisampad±ya, dutiyena sam±pattisampad±ya. Atha v± paµhamena khayañ±ºabh±vena, dutiyena anupp±dañ±ºabh±vena. Paµhamena v± vijj³pamat±ya, dutiyena vajir³pamat±ya. Paµhamena v± vir±gasampattiy±, dutiyena nirodhasampattiy±. Tath± paµhamena niyy±nabh±vena, dutiyena nissaraºabh±vena. Paµhamena v± hetubh±vena, dutiyena asaªkhatabh±vena. Paµhamena v± dassanabh±vena, dutiyena vivekabh±vena. Paµhamena v± adhipatibh±vena, dutiyena amatabh±vena dhamma½ thometi. Atha v± “ya½ dhamma½ bh±vetv± buddhabh±va½ upagato”ti etena sv±kkh±tat±ya dhamma½ thometi, “sacchikatv±”ti etena sandiµµhikat±ya. Tath± paµhamena ak±likat±ya, dutiyena ehipassikat±ya. Paµhamena v± opaneyyikat±ya, dutiyena paccatta½veditabbat±ya. Paµhamena v± saha pubbabh±gas²l±d²hi sekkhehi s²lasam±dhipaññ±kkhandhehi dutiyena saha asaªkhatadh±tuy± asekkhehi dhamma½ thometi.
“V²tamalan”ti imin± pana sa½kiles±bh±vad²panena visuddhat±ya dhamma½ thometi, “anuttaran”ti etena aññassa visiµµhassa abh±vad²panena paripuººat±ya. Paµhamena v± pah±nasampad±ya, dutiyena sabh±vasampad±ya. Paµhamena v± bh±van±phalayogyat±ya. Bh±van±guºena hi so sa½kilesamalasamuggh±tako, tasm±nena bh±van±kiriy±ya phalam±ha. Dutiyena sacchikiriy±phalayogyat±ya. Taduttarikaraº²y±bh±vato hi anaññas±dh±raºat±ya anuttarabh±vo sacchikiriy±nibbattito, tasm±nena sacchikiriy±phalam±h±ti.
Eva½ saªkhepeneva sabbasaddhammaguºehi saddhammass±pi thoman±pubbaªgama½ paº±ma½ katv± id±ni ariyasaªghass±pi thoman±pubbaªgama½ paº±ma½ karonto “sugatassa oras±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha sugatass±ti sambandhaniddeso, “putt±nan”ti etena sambajjhitabbo. Urasi bhav±, j±t±, sa½vuddh± v± oras±, attajo khettajo antev±siko dinnakoti catubbidhesu puttesu attaj±, ta½sarikkhat±ya pana ariyapuggal± “oras±”ti vuccanti. Yath± hi manuss±na½ orasaputt± attaj±tat±ya pitusantakassa d±yajjassa visesabh±gino honti, evametepi saddhammasavanante ariy±ya j±tiy± j±tat±ya bhagavato santakassa vimuttisukhassa dhammaratanassa ca d±yajjassa visesabh±ginoti. Atha v± bhagavato dhammadesan±nubh±vena ariyabh³mi½ okkamam±n±, okkant± ca ariyas±vak± bhagavato ure v±y±majanit±bhij±tat±ya sadisakappanamantarena nippariy±yeneva “oras±”ti vattabbatamarahanti. Tath± hi te bhagavat± ±say±nusayacariy±dhimutti-±di-olokanena, vajj±nucintanena ca hadaye katv± vajjato niv±retv± anavajje patiµµh±pentena s²l±didhammasar²raposanena sa½va¹¹h±pit±. Yath±ha bhagav± itivuttake “ahamasmi bhikkhave br±hmaºo…pe… tassa me tumhe putt± oras± mukhato j±t±”ti-±di (itivu. 100). Nanu s±vakadesit±pi desan± ariyabh±v±vah±ti? Sacca½, s± pana tamm³likatt±, lakkhaº±divises±bh±vato ca “bhagavato dhammadesan±” icceva saªkhya½ gat±, tasm± bhagavato orasaputtabh±voyeva tesa½ vattabboti, etena catubbidhesu puttesu ariyasaªghassa attajaputtabh±va½ dasseti. Attano kula½ punenti sodhenti, m±t±pit³na½ v± hadaya½ p³rent²ti putt±, attaj±dayo. Ariy± pana dhammatantivisodhanena, dhamm±nudhammapaµipattiy± citt±r±dhanena ca tappaµibh±gat±ya bhagavato putt± n±ma, tesa½. Tassa “sam³han”ti padena sambandho.
Sa½kilesanimitta½ hutv± guºa½ m±reti vib±dhat²ti m±ro, devaputtam±ro. Sin±ti pare bandhati et±y±ti sen±, m±rassa sen± tath±, m±rañca m±rasenañca mathenti vilothent²ti m±rasenamathan± tesa½. “M±ram±rasenamathan±nan”ti hi vattabbepi ekadesasar³pekasesavasena eva½ vutta½. M±rasaddasannidh±nena v± sen±saddena m±rasen± gahetabb±, g±th±bandhavasena cettha rasso. “M±rasenamaddan±nan”tipi katthaci p±µho, so ayuttova ariy±j±tikatt± imiss± g±th±ya. Nanu ca ariyas±vak±na½ magg±dhigamasamaye bhagavato viya tadantar±yakaraºattha½ devaputtam±ro v± m±rasen± v± na apas±deti, atha kasm± eva½ vuttanti? Apas±detabbabh±vak±raºassa vimathitatt±. Tesañhi apas±detabbat±ya k±raºe sa½kilese vimathite tepi vimathit± n±ma hont²ti. Atha v± khandh±bhisaªkh±ram±r±na½ viya devaputtam±rass±pi guºam±raºe sah±yabh±v³pagamanato kilesabalak±yo idha “m±rasen±”ti vuccati yath±ha bhagav±–
“K±m± te paµham± sen±, dutiy± arati vuccati;
tatiy± khuppip±s± te, catutth² taºh± pavuccati.
Pañcama½ thinamiddha½ te, chaµµh± bh²r³ pavuccati;
sattam² vicikicch± te, makkho thambho te aµµhamo.
L±bho siloko sakk±ro,
micch±laddho ca yo yaso;
yo catt±na½ samukka½se,
pare ca avaj±nati.
Es± namuci te sen±, kaºhass±bhippah±rin²;
na na½ as³ro jin±ti, jetv± ca labhate sukhan”ti. (Su. ni. 438; mah±ni. 28; c³¼ani. 47).
S± ca tehi ariyas±vakehi diya¹¹hasahassabhed±, anantabhed± v± kilesav±hin² satidhammavicayav²riyasamath±diguºapaharaº²hi odhiso mathit±, viddha½sit±, vihat± ca, tasm± “m±rasenamathan±”ti vuccanti. Vilothanañcettha viddha½sana½, vihanana½ v±. Apica khandh±bhisaªkh±ramaccudevaputtam±r±na½ tesa½ sah±yabh±v³pagamanat±ya sen±saªkh±tassa kilesam±rassa ca mathanato “m±rasenamathan±”tipi attho gahetabbo. Evañca sati pañcam±ranimmathanabh±vena attho paripuººo hoti. Ariyas±vak±pi hi samudayappah±napariññ±vasena khandham±ra½, sah±yavekallakaraºena sabbath±, appavattikaraºena ca abhisaªkh±ram±ra½, balavidhamanavisay±tikkamanavasena maccum±ra½, devaputtam±rañca samucchedappah±navasena sabbaso appavattikaraºena kilesam±ra½ mathent²ti, imin± pana tesa½ orasaputtabh±ve k±raºa½, t²su puttesu ca anuj±tata½ dasseti. M±rasenamathanat±ya hi te bhagavato orasaputt±, anuj±t± c±ti.
Aµµhannanti gaºanaparicchedo, tenasatipi tesa½ ta½ta½bhedena anekasatasahassasaªkhy±bhede ariyabh±vakaramaggaphaladhammabhedena ima½ gaºanapariccheda½ n±tivattanti maggaµµhaphalaµµhabh±v±nativattanatoti dasseti. Pi-saddo, api-saddo v± padal²¼±din± k±raºena aµµh±ne payutto, so “ariyasaªghan”ti ettha yojetabbo, tena na kevala½ buddhadhammeyeva, atha kho ariyasaªghamp²ti sampiº¹eti. Yadipi avayavavinimutto samud±yo n±ma koci natthi avayava½ up±d±ya samud±yassa vattabbatt±, aviññ±yam±nasamud±ya½ pana viññ±yam±nasamud±yena visesitumarahat²ti ±ha “aµµhannampi sam³han”ti, etena “ariyasaªghan”ti ettha na yena kenaci saºµh±n±din±, k±yas±maggiy± v± samud±yabh±vo, api tu maggaµµhaphalaµµhabh±venev±ti viseseti. Avayavameva sampiº¹etv± ³hitabbo vitakketabbo, sa½³hanitabbo v± saªghaµitabboti sam³ho, soyeva samoho vacanasiliµµhat±din±. Dvidh±pi hi p±µho yujjati. ¾rakatt± kilesehi, anaye na iriyanato, aye ca iriyanato ariy± niruttinayena Atha v± sadevakena lokena saraºanti araº²yato upagantabbato, upagat±nañca tadatthasiddhito ariy±, diµµhis²las±maññena sa½hato, samagga½ v± kamma½ samud±yavasena samupagatoti saªgho, ariy±na½ saªgho, ariyo ca so saªgho ca yath±vuttanayen±ti v± ariyasaªgho, ta½ ariyasaªgha½. Bhagavato aparabh±ge buddhadhammaratan±nampi samadhigamo saªgharatan±dh²noti ariyasaªghassa bah³pak±rata½ dassetu½ idheva “siras± vande”ti vutta½. Avassañc±yamattho sampaµicchitabbo vinayaµµhakath±d²supi (p±r±. aµµha. ganth±rambhakath±) tath± vuttatt±. Keci pana purimag±th±supi ta½ padam±netv± yojenti, tadayuttameva ratanattayassa as±dh±raºaguºappak±sanaµµh±natt±, yath±vuttak±raºassa ca sabbesampi sa½vaººan±k±r±namadhippetatt±ti.
Im±ya pana g±th±ya ariyasaªghassa pabhavasampad± pah±nasampad±dayo aneke guº± dassit± honti. Katha½? “Sugatassa oras±na½ putt±nan”ti hi etena ariyasaªghassa pabhavasampada½ dasseti samm±sambuddhapabhavat±d²panato. “M±rasenamathan±nan”ti etena pah±nasampada½ sakalasa½kilesappah±nad²panato. “Aµµhannampi sam³han”ti etena ñ±ºasampada½ maggaµµhaphalaµµhabh±vad²panato “Ariyasaªghan”ti etena sabh±vasampada½ sabbasaªgh±na½ aggabh±vad²panato. Atha v± “sugatassa oras±na½ putt±nan”ti ariyasaªghassa visuddhanissayabh±vad²pana½. “M±rasenamathan±nan”ti samm±-ujuñ±yas±m²cipaµipannabh±vad²pana½. “Aµµhannampi sam³han”ti ±huneyy±dibh±vad²pana½. “Ariyasaªghan”ti anuttarapuññakkhettabh±vad²pana½. Tath± “sugatassa oras±na½ putt±nan”ti etena ariyasaªghassa lokuttarasaraºagamanasabbh±va½ dasseti. Lokuttarasaraºagamanena hi te bhagavato orasaputt± j±t±. “M±rasenamathan±nan’ti etena abhin²h±rasampad±siddha½ pubbabh±gasamm±paµipatti½ dasseti. Kat±bhin²h±r± hi samm±paµipann± m±ra½, m±rasena½ v± abhivijinanti. “Aµµhannampi sam³han”ti etena viddhastavipakkhe sekkh±sekkhadhamme dasseti puggal±dhiµµh±nena maggaphaladhamm±na½ dassitatt±. “Ariyasaªghan”ti etena aggadakkhiºeyyabh±va½ dasseti anuttarapuññakkhettabh±vassa dassitatt±. Saraºagamanañca s±vak±na½ sabbaguºassa ±di, sapubbabh±gapaµipad± sekkh± s²lakkhandh±dayo majjhe, asekkh± s²lakkhandh±dayo pariyos±nanti-±dimajjhapariyos±nakaly±º± saªkhepato sabbepi ariyasaªghaguº± dassit± hont²ti.
Eva½ g±th±ttayena saªkhepato sakalaguºasa½kittanamukhena ratanattayassa paº±ma½ katv± id±ni ta½ nipaccak±ra½ yath±dhippetapayojane pariº±mento “iti me”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha iti-saddo nidassane. Tena g±th±ttayena yath±vuttanaya½ nidasseti. Meti att±na½ karaºavacanena kattubh±vena niddisati. Tassa “ya½ puñña½ may± laddhan”ti p±µhasesena sambandho, sampad±naniddeso v± eso, “atth²”ti p±µhaseso, s±miniddeso v± “ya½ mama puñña½ vandan±mayan”ti. Pas²d²yate pasann±, t±dis± mati paññ±, citta½ v± yass±ti pasannamati, aññapadaliªgappadh±natt± imassa sam±sapadassa “pasannamatino”ti vutta½. Rati½ nayati, janeti, vahat²ti v± ratana½, sattavidha½, dasavidha½ v± ratana½, tamiva im±n²ti neruttik±. Sadisakappanamaññatra pana yath±vuttavacanattheneva buddh±d²na½ ratanabh±vo yujjati. Tesañhi “itipi so bhagav±”ti-±din± (d². ni. 1.157, 255) yath±bh³taguºe ±vajjantassa amat±dhigamahetubh³ta½ anappaka½ p²tip±mojja½ uppajjati. Yath±ha–
“Yasmi½ mah±n±ma samaye ariyas±vako tath±gata½ anussarati, nevassa tasmi½ samaye r±gapariyuµµhita½ citta½ hoti, na dosa…pe… na moha…pe… ujugatamevassa tasmi½ samaye citta½ hoti tath±gata½ ±rabbha. Ujugatacitto kho pana mah±n±ma ariyas±vako labhati atthaveda½, labhati dhammaveda½, labhati dhamm³pasa½hita½ p±mojja½, pamuditassa p²ti j±yat²”ti-±di (a. ni. 6.10; 11.11).