Bh±riyaµµhena garu. Tadevattha½ saªketato samattheti “garu½ h²”ti-±din± saªketavisayo hi saddo ta½vavatthitoyeva cesa atthabodhakoti. Garunti garuk±tabba½ jana½. “Loke”ti imin± na kevala½ s±saneyeva, lokepi garuk±tabbaµµhena bhagav±ti saªketasiddh²ti dasseti. Yadi garuk±tabbaµµhena bhagav±, atha ayameva s±tisaya½ bhagav± n±m±ti dassento “ayañc±”ti-±dim±ha. Tath± hi lokan±tho aparimitanirupamappabh±vas²l±diguºavisesasamaªgit±ya, sabb±natthaparih±rapubbaªgam±ya niravasesahitasukhavidh±natappar±ya niratisay±ya payogasampattiy± sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya accantupak±rit±ya ca aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ uttama½ g±ravaµµh±nanti. Na kevala½ lokeyeva, atha kho s±sanep²ti dasseti “por±ºeh²”ti-±din±, por±ºeh²ti ca aµµhakath±cariyeh²ti attho. Seµµhav±cakavacanampi seµµhaguºasahacaraºato seµµhamev±ti vutta½ “bhagav±ti vacana½ seµµhan”ti. Vuccati attho, eten±ti hi vacana½, saddo. Atha v± vuccat²ti vacana½, attho, tasm± yo “bhagav±”ti vacanena vacan²yo attho, so seµµhoti attho. Bhagav±ti vacanamuttamanti etth±pi eseva nayo. G±ravayuttoti garubh±vayutto garuguºayogatt±, s±tisaya½ v± garukaraº±rahat±ya g±ravayutto, g±rav±rahoti attho. Yena k±raºattayena so tath±gato garu bh±riyaµµhena, tena “bhagav±”ti vuccat²ti sambandho. Garut±k±raºadassanañheta½ padattaya½. “Sipp±disikkh±pak±pi gar³yeva n±ma honti, na ca g±ravayutt±, aya½ pana t±diso na hoti, tasm± gar³ti katv± ‘g±ravayutto’ti vuttan”ti keci. Eva½ sati tadeta½ visesanapadamatta½, purimapadadvayameva k±raºadassana½ siy±.
Apic±ti atthantaravikappatthe nip±to, aparo nayoti attho. Tattha–
“Vaººagamo vaººavipariy±yo,
dve c±pare vaººavik±ran±s±;
dh±t³namatth±tisayena yogo,
taduccate pañcavidh± nirutt²”ti.–

Vutta½ niruttilakkhaºa½ gahetv±, “pisodar±d²ni yathopadiµµhan”ti vuttasaddanayena v± pisodar±di-±katigaºapakkhepalakkhaºa½ gahetv± lokiya lokuttarasukh±bhinibbattaka½ s²l±dip±rappatta½ bh±gyamassa atth²ti “bh±gyav±”ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuttanti ±ha “bh±gyav±”ti. Tath± anekabhedabhinnakilesasatasahass±ni, saªkhepato v± pañcam±re abhañj²ti “bhaggav±”ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuttanti dasseti “bhaggav±”ti imin±. Loke ca bhaga-saddo issariyadhammayasasir²k±mapayattesu chasu dhammesu pavattati, te ca bhagasaªkh±t± dhamm± assa sant²ti bhagav±ti attha½ dassetu½ “yutto bhagehi c±”ti vutta½. Kusal±d²hi anekabhedehi sabbadhamme vibhaji vibhajitv± vivaritv± deses²ti “vibhattav±”ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuttanti ±ha “vibhattav±”ti. Dibbabrahma-ariyavih±re, k±yacitta-upadhiviveke, suññat±nimitt±ppaºihitavimokkhe, aññe ca lokiyalokuttare uttarimanussadhamme bhaji sevi bahulamak±s²ti “bhattav±”ti vattabbe “bhagav±”ti vuttanti dasseti “bhattav±”ti imin±. T²su bhavesu taºh±saªkh±ta½ gamanamanena vanta½ vamitanti “bhavesu vantagamano”ti vattabbe bhavasaddato bha-k±ra½ gamanasaddato ga-k±ra½ vantasaddato va-k±ra½ ±d±ya, tassa ca d²gha½ katv± vaººavipariy±yena “bhagav±”ti vuttanti dassetu½ “vantagamano bhaves³”ti vutta½. “Yato bh±gyav±, tato bhagav±”ti-±din± pacceka½ yojetabba½. Assa padass±ti “bhagav±”ti padassa. Vitth±ratthoti vitth±rabh³to attho. “So c±”ti-±din± ganthamahatta½ pariharati. Vuttoyeva, na pana idha pana vattabbo visuddhimaggassa imiss± aµµhakath±ya ekadesabh±vatoti adhipp±yo.

Apica bhage vani, vam²ti v± bhagav±. So hi bhage s²l±diguºe vani bhaji sevi, te v± bhagasaªkh±te s²l±diguºe vineyyasant±nesu “katha½ nu kho uppajjeyyun”ti vani y±ci patthayi, eva½ bhage van²ti bhagav±, bhage v± siri½, issariya½, yasañca vami khe¼apiº¹a½ viya cha¹¹ayi. Tath± hi bhagav± hatthagata½ cakkavattisiri½, catud²pissariya½, cakkavattisampattisannissayañca sattaratanasamujjala½ yasa½ anapekkho cha¹¹ayi. Atha v± bh±ni n±ma nakkhatt±ni, tehi sama½ gacchanti pavattant²ti bhag± ±k±rassa rassa½ katv±, sineruyugandhar±digat± bh±janalokasobh±. T± bhag± vami tappaµibaddhachandar±gappah±nena pajahi, eva½ bhage vam²ti bhagav±ti evam±d²hi tattha tatth±gatanayehi cassa attho vattabbo, amhehi pana so ganthabh²rujan±nuggahaºattha½, ganthagarut±pariharaºatthañca ajjhupekkhitoti.
Evametesa½ avayavattha½ dassetv± id±ni samud±yattha½ dassento purimapadattayassa samud±yatthena vutt±vasesena tesamatth±na½ paµiyogit±ya ten±pi saha dassetu½ “ett±vat±”ti-±dim±ha. Ett±vat±ti etassa “eva½ me sutan”ti vacanena “eka½ samaya½ bhagav±” tivacanen±ti imehi sambandho. Etth±ti etasmi½ nid±navacane. Yath±suta½ dhamma½ desentoti ettha anta-saddo hetu-attho. Tath±desitatt± hi paccakkha½ karoti n±ma. Esa nayo aparatth±pi. “Yo kho ±nanda, may± dhammo ca…pe… satth±”ti vacanato dhammassa satthubh±vapariy±yo vijjatev±ti katv± “dhammasar²ra½ paccakkha½ karot²”ti vutta½. Dhammak±yanti hi bhagavato sambandh²bh³ta½ dhammasaªkh±ta½ k±yanti attho. Tath± ca vutta½ “dhammak±yoti bhikkhave, tath±gatasseta½ adhivacanan”ti. Ta½ pana kimatthiyanti ±ha “ten±”ti-±di. Ten±ti ca t±disena paccakkhakaraºen±ti attho. Ida½ adhun± vakkham±nasutta½ p±vacana½ pakaµµha½ uttama½ buddhassa bhagavato vacana½ n±ma. Tasm± tumh±ka½ atikkantasatthuka½ at²tasatthukabh±vo na hot²ti attho. Bh±vappadh±no hi aya½ niddeso, bh±valopo v±, itarath± p±vacanameva anatikkantasatthuka½, satthu-adassanena pana ukkaºµhitassa janassa atikkantasatthukabh±voti attho ±pajjeyya, evañca sati “aya½ vo satth±ti satthu-adassanena ukkaºµhita½ jana½ samass±set²” tivacanena saha virodho bhaveyy±ti vadanti. Ida½ p±vacana½ satthukiccanipph±danena na at²tasatthukanti pana attho. Satth³ti kammatthe chaµµh², sam±sapada½ v± eta½ satthu-adassanen±ti. Ukkaºµhana½ ukkaºµho, kicchaj²vit±. “Kaµha kicchaj²vane”ti hi vadanti. Tamito pattoti ukkaºµhito, anabhiratiy± v± p²¼ito vikkhittacitto hutv± s²sa½ ukkhipitv± uddha½ kaºµha½ katv± ito cito ca olokento ±hiº¹ati, viharati c±ti ukkaºµhito niruttinayena, ta½ ukkaºµhita½. Saddas±matthiy±dhigatamatto cesa, voh±rato pana anabhiratiy± p²¼itanti attho. Esa nayo sabbattha. Samass±set²ti ass±sa½ janeti.
Tasmi½ samayeti imassa suttassa saªg²tisamaye. K±ma½ vijjam±nepi bhagavati eva½ vattumarahati, idha pana avijjam±neyeva tasmi½ eva½ vadati, tasm± sandh±yabh±sitavasena tadattha½ dasset²ti ±ha “avijjam±nabh±va½ dassento”ti. Parinibb±nanti anup±disesanibb±nadh±tuvasena khandhaparinibb±na½. Ten±ti tath±s±dhanena. Eva½vidhass±ti eva½pak±rassa, eva½sabh±vass±tipi attho. N±ma-saddo garah±ya½ nip±to “atthi n±ma ±nanda thera½ bhikkhu½ vihesiyam±na½ ajjhupekkhissath±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 5.166) viya, tena ediso api bhagav± parinibbuto, k± n±ma kath± aññesanti garahattha½ joteti. Ariyadhammass±ti ariy±na½ dhammassa, ariyabh³tassa v± dhammassa. Dasavidhassa k±yabalassa, ñ±ºabalassa ca vasena dasabaladharo. Vajirassa n±ma maºivisesassa saªgh±to sam³ho ekagghano, tena sam±no k±yo yass±ti tath±. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yath± vajirasaªgh±to n±ma na aññena maºin± v± p±s±ºena v± bhejjo, api tu soyeva añña½ maºi½ v± p±s±ºa½ v± bhindati. Teneva vutta½ “vajirassa natthi koci abhejjo maºi v± p±s±ºo v±”ti, eva½ bhagav±pi kenaci abhejjasar²ro. Na hi bhagavato r³pak±ye kenaci antar±yo k±tu½ sakk±ti. N±masaddassa garah±jotakatt± pi-saddo sampiº¹anajotako “na kevala½ bhagav±yeva, atha kho aññep²”ti. Ettha ca eva½guºasamann±gatatt± aparinibbutasabh±vena bhavitu½ yuttopi esa parinibbuto ev±ti pakaraº±nur³pamattha½ dassetu½ “evan”ti-±di vuttanti daµµhabba½. ¾s± patthan± kena janetabb±, na janetabb± ev±ti attho. “Aha½ cira½ j²vi½, cira½ j²v±mi, cira½ j²viss±mi, sukha½ j²vi½, sukha½ j²v±mi, sukha½ j²viss±m²”ti majjanavasena uppanno m±no j²vitamado n±ma, tena matto pamatto tath±. Sa½vejet²ti sa½vega½ janeti, tatoyeva assa janassa saddhamme uss±ha½ janeti. Sa½vejanañhi uss±hahetu “sa½viggo yoniso padahat²”ti vacanato.
Desan±sampatti½ niddisati vakkham±nassa sakalasuttassa “evan”ti nidassanato. S±vakasampattinti suºantapuggalasampatti½ niddisati paµisambhid±ppattena pañcasu µh±nesu bhagavat± etadagge µhapitena, pañcasu ca kosallesu ±yasmat± dhammasen±patin± pasa½sitena may± mah±s±vakena suta½, tañca kho sayameva suta½ na anussuta½, na ca parampar±bhatanti atthassa d²panato. K±lasampatti½ niddisati bhagav±tisadasannidh±ne payuttassa samayasaddassa buddhupp±da-paµimaº¹ita-samaya-bh±va-d²panato. Buddhupp±daparam± hi k±lasampad±. Teneta½ vuccati–
“Kappakas±yakaliyuge buddhupp±do aho mahacchariya½;
hutavahamajjhe j±ta½, samuditamakarandamaravindan”ti. (D². ni. µ². 1.1; sa½. ni. µ². 1.1).
Tass±yamattho– kappasaªkh±tak±lasañcayassa lekhanavasena pavatte kaliyugasaªkh±te sakar±jasammate vass±disam³he j±to buddhupp±dakhaºasaªkh±to dinasam³ho andhassa pabbat±rohanamiva kad±ci pavattanaµµhena, acchara½ paharitu½ yuttaµµhena ca mahacchariya½ hoti. Kimiva j±tanti ce? Hutavahasaªkh±tassa p±vakassa majjhe samm± uditamadhumanta½ aravindasaªkh±ta½ v±rijamiva j±tanti. Desakasampatti½ niddisati guºavisiµµhasattuttamag±rav±dhivacanato.
Eva½ padachakkassa pad±nukkamena n±nappak±rato atthavaººana½ katv± id±ni “antar± ca r±jagahan”ti-±d²na½ pad±namatthavaººana½ karonto “antar± c±”ti-±dim±ha. Antar± ca r±jagaha½ antar± ca n±¼andanti ettha samabhiniviµµho antar±-saddo dissati s±maññavacan²yatthamapekkhitv± pakaraº±dis±matthiy±digatatthamantaren±ti attho. Eva½ panassa n±natthabh±vo payogato avagam²yat²ti dasseti “tadantaran”ti-±din±. Tattha tadantaranti ta½ k±raºa½. Mañca tañca mantenti, kimantara½ ki½ k±raºanti attho. Vijjantarik±y±ti vijjuniccharaºakkhaºe. Dhovant² itth² addas±ti sambandho. Antaratoti hadaye. Kop±ti cittak±lussiyakaraºato cittapakop± r±g±dayo. Antar± vos±nanti ±rambhanipphatt²na½ vemajjhe pariyos±na½ ±p±di. Apic±ti tath±pi, eva½ pabhavasampannep²ti attho. Dvinna½ mah±niray±nanti lohakumbh²niraye sandh±y±ha. Antarik±y±ti antarena. R±jagahanagara½ kira ±vijjhitv± mah±petaloko. Tattha dvinna½ mah±lohakumbh²niray±na½ antarena aya½ tapod± nad² ±gacchati, tasm± s± kuthit± sandat²ti. Sv±yamidha vivare pavattati tadaññesamasambhavato. Ettha ca “tadantara½ ko j±neyya, (a. ni. 6.44; 10.75) etesa½ antar± kapp±, gaºan±to asaªkhiy±, (bu. va½. 28.9) antarantar± katha½ op±tet²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.426; pah±. va. 66; c³¼ava. 376) viya k±raºavemajjhesu vattam±n± antar±sadd±yeva ud±haritabb± siyu½, na pana cittakhaºavivaresu vattam±n± antarika-antarasadd± Antar±saddassa hi ayamatthuddh±roti. Aya½ panetth±dhipp±yo siy±– yesu atthesu antarikasaddo, antarasaddo ca pavattati, tesu antar±saddop²ti sam±natthatt± antar±saddatthe vattam±no antarikasaddo, antarasaddo, ca ud±haµoti. Atha v± antar±saddoyeva “yassantarato”ti (ud±. 20) ettha g±th±bandhasukhattha½ rassa½ katv± vutto–