“Dassana½ d²panañc±pi, pak±sana½ vibh±vana½;
anubh±vanamiccattho, kiriy±yogena pañcadh±.
Dassito parampar±ya, siddho nekatthavuttiy±;
eva½ me sutamiccettha, padattaye nayaññun±”ti.
Eka-saddo pana aññaseµµh±sah±yasaªkhy±d²su dissati. Tath± hesa “sassato att± ca loko ca, idameva sacca½ moghamaññanti ittheke abhivadant²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 3.27) aññatthe dissati, “cetaso ekodibh±van”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.228; p±r±. 11) seµµhe, “ekov³pakaµµho”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.405; d². ni. 2.215; ma. ni. 1.80; sa½. ni. 3.63; vibha. 4.445) asah±ye, “ekova kho bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.29) saªkhy±ya½, idh±pi saªkhy±yamev±ti dassento ±ha “ekanti gaºanaparicchedaniddeso”ti (itivu. aµµha. 1; d². ni. µ². 1.paribb±jakakath±vaººan±) ekoyevesa samayo, na dve v± tayo v±ti ³n±dhik±bh±vena gaºanassa paricchedaniddeso ekanti aya½ saddoti attho, tena kassa paricchindananti anuyoge sati “samayan”ti vuttanti dassento ±ha “samayanti paricchinnaniddeso”ti. Eva½ paricchedaparicchinnavasena vuttepi “aya½ n±ma samayo”ti sar³pato aniyamitatt± aniyamitavacanamev±ti dasseti “eka½…pe…. d²panan”ti imin±.
Id±ni samayasaddassa anekatthavuttita½ atthuddh±ravasena dassetv± idh±dhippetamattha½ niyamento “tatth±”ti-±dim±ha. Tatth±ti tasmi½ “eka½ samayan”ti padadvaye, samabhiniviµµho samaya saddoti sambandho. Na pana dissat²ti tesvekasmi½yeva atthe idha pavattanato. Samav±yeti paccayas±maggiya½, k±raºasamav±yeti attho. Khaºeti ok±se. Hetudiµµh²s³ti hetumhi ceva laddhiyañca. Ass±ti samayasaddassa. K±lañca samayañca up±d±y±ti ettha k±lo n±ma upasaªkamanassa yuttak±lo. Samayo n±ma tasseva paccayas±magg², atthato pana tadanur³pasar²rabalañceva tappaccayaparissay±bh±vo ca. Up±d±na½ n±ma ñ±ºena tesa½ gahaºa½, tasm± yath±vutta½ k±lañca samayañca paññ±ya gahetv± upadh±retv±ti attho. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– sace amh±ka½ sve gamanassa yuttak±lo bhavissati, k±ye balamatt± ca pharissati, gamanapaccay± ca añño aph±suvih±ro na bhavissati, atheta½ k±lañca gamanak±raºasamav±yasaªkh±ta½ samayañca upadh±retv± appeva n±ma svepi ±gaccheyy±m±ti. Khaºoti ok±so. Tath±gatupp±d±diko hi maggabrahmacariyassa ok±so tappaccayapaµil±bhahetutt±. Khaºo eva ca samayo. Yo “khaºo”ti ca “samayo”ti ca vuccati, so ekov±ti adhipp±yo. Diya¹¹ho m±so seso gimh±na½ uºhasamayo. Vass±nassa paµhamo m±so pari¼±hasamayo. Mah±samayoti mah±sam³ho. Sam±so v± esa, by±so v±. Pavuµµha½ vana½ pavana½, tasmi½, kapilavatthus±mante mah±vanasaªkh±te vanasaº¹eti attho. Samayopi khoti ettha samayoti sikkh±padap³raºassa hetu. Bhadd±l²ti tassa bhikkhussa n±ma½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– tay± bhadd±li paµivijjhitabbayuttaka½ eka½ k±raºa½ atthi, tampi te na paµividdha½ na sallakkhitanti. Ki½ ta½ k±raºanti ±ha “bhagav±pi kho”ti-±di.
“Uggaham±no”ti-±d²su m±noti tassa paribb±jakassa pakatin±ma½, kiñci kiñci pana sippa½ uggahetu½ samatthat±ya “uggaham±no”ti na½ sañj±nanti, tasm± “uggaham±no”ti vuccati. Samaºamuº¹ikassa putto samaºamuº¹ik±putto. So kira devadattassa upaµµh±ko. Samaya½ diµµhi½ pak±rena vadanti etth±ti samayappav±dako, tasmi½, diµµhippav±daketi attho. Tasmi½ kira µh±ne caªk²t±rukkhapokkharas±tippabh³tayo br±hmaº±, nigaºµh±celakaparibb±jak±dayo ca pabbajit± sannipatitv± attano attano samaya½ pak±rena vadanti kathenti d²penti, tasm± so ±r±mo “samayappav±dako”ti vuccati. Sveva tinduk±c²rasaªkh±t±ya timbar³sakarukkhapantiy± parikkhittatt± “tinduk±c²ro”ti vuccati. Ek± s±l± etth±ti ekas±lako. Yasm± panettha paµhama½ ek± s±l± ahosi, pacch± pana mah±puñña½ poµµhap±daparibb±jaka½ niss±ya bah³ s±l± kat±, tasm± tameva paµhama½ kata½ eka½ s±la½ up±d±ya laddhapubban±mavasena “ekas±lako”ti vuccati. Mallik±ya n±ma pasenadirañño deviy± uyy±nabh³to so pupphaphalasacchanno ±r±mo, tena vutta½ “mallik±ya ±r±me”ti. Paµivasat²ti tasmi½ ph±sut±ya vasati.
Diµµhe dhammeti paccakkhe attabh±ve. Atthoti vu¹¹hi. Kammakilesavasena samparetabbato samm± p±puºitabbato sampar±yo, paraloko, tattha niyutto sampar±yiko, paralokattho. Atth±bhisamay±ti yath±vutta-ubhayatthasaªkh±tahitapaµil±bh±. Sampar±yikopi hi attho k±raºassa nipphannatt± paµiladdho n±ma hot²ti ta½ atthadvayamekato katv± “atth±bhisamay±”ti vutta½. Dhiy± paññ±ya ta½tadatthe r±ti gaºh±ti, dh² v± paññ± etassatth²ti dh²ro. Paº¹± vuccati paññ±. S± hi sukhumesupi atthesu pa¹ati gacchati, dukkh±d²na½ v± p²¼an±di-±k±ra½ j±n±t²ti paº¹±. T±ya ito gatoti paº¹ito. Atha v± it± sañj±t± paº¹± etassa, pa¹ati v± ñ±ºagatiy± gacchat²ti paº¹ito. Samm± m±n±bhisamay±ti m±nassa samm± pah±nena. Samm±ti cettha aggamaggañ±ºena samucchedappah±na½ vutta½. Antanti avas±na½. P²¼ana½ ta½samaªgino hi½sana½ avipph±rit±karaºa½. Tadeva attho tath± ttha-k±rassa µµha-k±ra½ katv±. Samecca paccayehi katabh±vo saªkhataµµho. Dukkhadukkhat±divasena sant±pana½ paridahana½ sant±paµµho. Jar±ya, maraºena c±ti dvidh± vipariº±metabbo vipariº±maµµho Abhisametabbo paµivijjhitabbo abhisamayaµµho, p²¼an±d²niyeva. T±ni hi abhisametabbabh±vena ek²bh±vamupanetv± “abhisamayaµµho”ti vutt±ni. Abhisamayassa v± paµivedhassa attho gocaro abhisamayaµµhoti t±niyeva tabbisaya-bh±v³pagamana-s±maññato ekattena vutt±ni. Ettha ca upasagg±na½ jotakamattatt± tassa tassa atthassa v±cako samayasaddo ev±ti samayasaddassa atthuddh±repi sa-upasaggo abhisamayo vutto.
Tesu pana atthesu aya½ vacanattho– sahak±r²k±raºavasena sannijjha½ sameti samavet²ti samayo, samav±yo. Sameti sam±gacchati maggabrahmacariyamettha tad±dh±rapuggalavasen±ti samayo, khaºo. Samenti ettha, etena v± sa½gacchanti dhamm±, satt± v± sahaj±t±d²hi, upp±d±d²hi c±ti samayo, k±lo. Dhammappavattimattat±ya hi atthato abh³topi k±lo dhammappavattiy± adhikaraºa½, karaºa½ viya ca parikappan±mattasiddhena r³pena vohar²yati. Sama½, samm± v± avayav±na½ ayana½ pavatti avaµµh±nanti samayo, sam³ho yath± “samud±yo”ti. Avayav±na½ sah±vaµµh±nameva hi sam³ho, na pana avayavavinimutto sam³ho n±ma koci paramatthato atthi. Paccayantarasam±game eti phala½ uppajjati, pavattati v± etasm±ti samayo, hetu yath± “samudayo”ti. So hi paccayantarasam±gamaneneva attano phala½ upp±daµµhitisamaªg²bh±va½ karoti. Sameti sa½yojanabh±vato sambandho hutv± eti attano visaye pavattati, da¼haggaºabh±vato v± ta½saññutt± satt± ayanti etena yath±bhinivesa½ pavattant²ti samayo, diµµhi. Diµµhisa½yojanena hi satt± ativiya bajjhanti. Samiti saªgati samodh±na½ samayo, paµil±bho. Samassa nirodhassa y±na½ p±puºana½, samm± v± y±na½ apagamo appavatti samayo, pah±na½. Abhimukha½ ñ±ºena samm± etabbo abhigantabboti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ avipar²to sabh±vo. Abhimukhabh±vena ta½ ta½ sabh±va½ samm± eti gacchati bujjhat²ti abhisamayo, dhamm±na½ yath±bh³tasabh±v±vabodho.
Nanu ca atthamatta½ yath±dhippeta½ pati sadd± abhinivisant²ti na ekena saddena aneke atth± abhidh²yanti, atha kasm± idha samayasaddassa anekadh± attho vuttoti? Saccameta½ saddavisese apekkhite saddavisese hi apekkhite na ekena saddena anekatth±bhidh±na½ sambhavati. Na hi yo k±l±di-attho samaya-saddo, soyeva sam³h±di-attha½ vadati. Ettha pana tesa½ tesamatth±na½ samayasaddavacan²yat±s±maññamup±d±ya anekatthat± samaya-saddassa vutt±ti. Eva½ sabbattha atthuddh±re. Hoti cettha–
“S±maññavacan²yata½, up±d±ya anekadh±;
attha½ vade na hi saddo, eko nekatthako siy±”ti.
Samav±y±di-atth±na½ idha asambhavato, k±lasseva ca apadisitabbatt± “idha panassa k±lo attho”ti vutta½. Desadesak±d²na½ viya hi k±lassa nid±nabh±vena adhippetatt± sopi idha apadis²yati. ‘Imin± k²disa½ k±la½ d²pet²ti ±ha “ten±”ti-±di. Ten±ti k±latthena samaya-saddena. A¹¹ham±so pakkhavasena vutto, pubbaºh±diko divasabh±gavasena, paµhamay±m±diko pah±ravasena. ¾di-saddena khaºalay±dayo saªgahit±, aniyamitavasena eka½ k±la½ d²pet²ti attho.
Kasm± panettha aniyamitavasena k±lo niddiµµho, na utusa½vacchar±din± niyamitavasen±ti ±ha “tattha kiñc±p²”ti-±di. Kiñc±pi paññ±ya vidita½ suvavatth±pita½, tath±p²ti sambandho. Vacas± dh±retu½ v± saya½ uddisitu½ v± parena uddis±petu½ v± na sakk± n±nappak±rabh±vato bahu ca vattabba½ hoti y±va k±lappabhedo, t±va vattabbatt±. “Eka½ samayan”ti vutte pana na so k±lappabhedo atthi, yo etth±nantogadho siy±ti dasseti “ekeneva padena tamattha½ samodh±netv±”ti imin±. Eva½ lokiyasammatak±lavasena samayattha½ dassetv± id±ni s±sane p±kaµak±lavasena samayattha½ dassetu½ “ye v± ime”ti-±di vutta½. Apica utusa½vacchar±divasena niyama½ akatv± samayasaddassa vacane ayampi guºo laddhoyev±ti dassento “ye v± ime”ti-±dim±ha. S±maññajotan± hi visese avatiµµhati tass± visesaparih±ravisayatt±. Tattha ye ime samay±ti sambandho. Bhagavato m±tukucchi-okkamanak±lo cettha gabbhokkantisamayo. Catt±ri nimitt±ni passitv± sa½vejanak±lo sa½vegasamayo. Chabbass±ni sambodhisamadhigam±ya cariyak±lo dukkarak±rikasamayo. Devasika½ jh±naphalasam±patt²hi v²tin±manak±lo diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo, visesato pana sattasatt±h±ni jh±nasam±pattiva¼añjanak±lo. Pañcacatt±l²savass±ni ta½ta½dhammadesan±k±lo desan±samayo. ¾di-saddena yamakap±µih±riyasamay±dayo saªgaºh±ti. Pak±s±ti dasasahassilokadh±tupakampana-obh±sap±tubh±v±d²hi p±kaµ±. “Eka½ samayan”ti vutte tadaññepi samay± sant²ti atth±pattito tesu samayesu idha desan±samayasaªkh±to samayaviseso “eka½ samayan”ti vuttoti d²pet²ti adhipp±yo.
Yath±vuttappabhedesuyeva samayesu ekadesa½ pak±rantarehi saªgahetv± dassetu½ “yo c±yan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha hi ñ±ºakiccasamayo, attahitapaµipattisamayo ca abhisambodhisamayoyeva. Ariyatuºh²bh±vasamayo diµµhadhammasukhavih±rasamayo. Karuº±kiccaparahitapaµipattidhammikath±samayo desan±samayo, tasm± tesu vuttappabhedesu samayesu ekadesova pak±rantarena dassitoti daµµhabba½. “Sannipatit±na½ vo bhikkhave dvaya½ karaº²ya½ dhamm² kath± v± ariyo v± tuºh²bh±vo”ti (ud±. 12) vuttasamaye sandh±ya “sannipatit±na½ karaº²yadvayasamayes³”ti vutta½. Tesupi samayes³ti karuº±kiccaparahitapaµipattidhammikath±desan±samayesupi. Aññatara½ samaya½ sandh±ya “eka½ samayan”ti vutta½ atthato abhedatt±.