Eva½ saddato ñ±tabbamattha½ viññ±petv± id±ni tehi dassetabbamattha½ nidassento “evametes³”ti-±dim±ha. Sutasaddasannidh±ne payuttena eva½-saddena savanakiriy±jotakeneva bhavitabba½ vijjam±natthassa jotakamattatt± nip±t±nanti vutta½ “evanti sotaviññ±º±diviññ±ºakiccanidassanan”ti. Savan±ya eva hi ±k±ro, nidassana½, avadh±raºampi, tasm± yath±vutto eva½-saddassa tividhopi attho savanakiriy±jotakabh±vena idh±dhippetoti. ¾di-saddena cettha sampaµicchan±d²na½ sotadv±rikaviññ±º±na½, tadabhinip±t±nañca manodv±rika viññ±º±na½ gahaºa½ veditabba½, yato sotadv±r±nus±raviññ±tatthe idha sutasaddoti vutto. Avadh±raºaphalatt± saddapayogassa sabbampi v±kya½ antogadh±vadh±raºa½, tasm± “sutan”ti etassa sutamev±ti ayamattho labbhat²ti ±ha “assavanabh±vapaµikkhepato”ti. Etena hi vacanena avadh±raºena nir±kata½ dasseti. Yath± pana ya½ suta½ sutamev±ti niyametabba½, tath± ca ta½ suta½ samm± suta½ hot²ti avadh±raºaphala½ dassetu½ vutta½ “an³n±dhik±vipar²taggahaºanidassanan”ti. Atha v± saddantaratth±pohanavasena saddo attha½ vadati, tasm± “sutan”ti etassa asuta½ na hot²ti ayamattho labbhat²ti sandh±ya “assavanabh±vapaµikkhepato”ti vutta½, imin± diµµh±dinivattana½ karoti diµµh±d²na½ “asutan”ti saddantaratthabh±vena nivattetabbatt±. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– na ida½ may± attano ñ±ºena diµµha½, na ca sayambhuñ±ºena sacchikata½, atha kho suta½, tañca kho suta½ sammadev±ti. Tadeva samm± sutabh±va½ sandh±y±ha “an³n±…pe… dassanan”ti. Hoti cettha–
“Ev±disattiy± ceva, aññatth±pohanena ca;
dvidh± saddo atthantara½, nivatteti yath±rahan”ti.
Apica avadh±raºatthe eva½-sadde ayamatthayojan± kar²yat²ti tadapekkhassa sutasaddassa s±vadh±raºattho vutto “assavanabh±vapaµikkhepato”ti, tadavadh±raºaphala½ dasseti “an³…pe… dassanan”ti imin±. Savana-saddo cettha bh±vasaddena yogato kammas±dhano veditabbo “suyyat²”ti. An³n±dhikat±ya bhagavato sammukh± sut±k±rato avipar²ta½ avipar²tassa v± suttassa gahaºa½, tassa nidassana½ tath±, iti savanahetu suºantapuggalasavanavisesavasena aya½ yojan± kat±.
Eva½ padattayassa ekena pak±rena atthayojana½ dassetv± id±ni pak±rantaren±pi ta½ dassetu½ “tath±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tass±ti y± bhagavato sammukh± dhammassavan±k±rena pavatt± manodv±rikaviññ±ºav²thi, tass±. S± hi n±n±ppak±rena ±rammaºe pavattitu½ samatth±, na sotadv±rika viññ±ºav²thi ek±rammaºeyeva pavattanato, tath± ceva vutta½ “sotadv±r±nus±ren±”ti. Tena hi sotadv±rikaviññ±ºav²thi nivattati. N±nappak±ren±ti vakkham±nena anekavihitena byañjanatthaggahaº±k±rasaªkh±tena n±n±vidhena ±k±rena, etena imiss± yojan±ya ±k±rattho eva½-saddo gahitoti dasseti. Pavattibh±vappak±sananti pavattiy± atthibh±vappak±sana½. Yasmi½ pak±re vuttappak±r± viññ±ºav²thi n±nappak±rena pavatt±, tadeva ±rammaºa½ sandh±ya “dhammappak±sanan”ti vutta½, na pana sutasaddassa dhammattha½, tena vutta½ “aya½ dhammo suto”ti. Tass± hi viññ±ºav²thiy± ±rammaºameva “aya½ dhammo suto”ti vuccati. Tañca niyamiyam±na½ yath±vutt±ya viññ±ºav²thiy± ±rammaºabh³ta½ suttameva. Ayañhetth±ti-±di vuttassevatthassa p±kaµ²karaºa½. Tapp±kaµ²karaºattho hettha hi-saddo. Viññ±ºav²thiy± karaºabh³t±ya may± na añña½ kata½, ida½ pana ±rammaºa½ kata½. Ki½ pana tanti ce? Aya½ dhammo sutoti. Aya½ panetth±dhipp±yo– ±k±ratthe eva½-sadde “eken±k±ren±”ti yo ±k±ro vutto, so atthato sotadv±r±nus±raviññ±ºav²thiy± n±nappak±rena ±rammaºe pavattibh±voyeva, tena ca tad±rammaºabh³tassa dhammasseva savana½ kata½, na aññanti. Eva½ savanakiriy±ya karaºakattukammaviseso imiss± yojan±ya dassito.
Aññampi yojanam±ha “tath±”ti-±din±. Nidassanattha½ eva½-sadda½ gahetv± nidassanena ca nidassitabbass±vin±bh±vato “evanti nidassitabbappak±sanan”ti vutta½. Imin± hi tadavin±bh±vato eva½saddena sakalampi sutta½ pacc±maµµhanti dasseti, sutasaddassa kiriy±paratt±, savanakiriy±ya ca s±dh±raºaviññ±ºappabandhapaµibaddhatt± tasmiñca viññ±ºappabandhe puggalavoh±roti vutta½ “puggalakiccappak±sanan”ti. S±dh±raºaviññ±ºappabandho hi paººattiy± idha puggalo n±ma, savanakiriy± pana tassa kicca½ n±ma. Na hi puggalavoh±rarahite dhammappabandhe savanakiriy± labbhati voh±ravisayatt± tass± kiriy±y±ti daµµhabba½. “Idan”ti-±di piº¹atthadassana½ may±ti yath±vuttaviññ±ºappabandhasaªkh±tapuggalabh³tena may±. Sutanti savanakiriy±saªkh±tena puggalakiccena yojita½, imiss± pana yojan±ya puggalaby±p±ravisayassa puggalassa, puggalaby±p±rassa ca nidassana½ katanti daµµhabba½.
¾k±ratthameva eva½-sadda½ gahetv± purimayojan±ya aññath±pi atthayojana½ dassetu½ “tath±”ti-±di vutta½. Cittasant±nass±ti yath±vuttaviññ±ºappabandhassa. N±n±k±rappavattiy±ti n±nappak±rena ±rammaºe pavattiy±. N±nappak±ra½ atthabyañjanassa gahaºa½, n±nappak±rassa v± atthabyañjanassa gahaºa½ tath±, tatoyeva s± “±k±rapaññatt²”ti vutt±ti tadevattha½ samattheti “evanti h²”ti-±din±. ¾k±rapaññatt²ti ca up±d±paññattiyeva, dhamm±na½ pana pavatti-±k±ramup±d±ya paññattatt± tadaññ±ya up±d±paññattiy± visesanattha½ “±k±rapaññatt²”ti vutt± visayaniddesoti uppattiµµh±naniddeso. Sotabbabh³to hi dhammo savanakiriy±kattubh³tassa puggalassa savanakiriy±vasena pavattiµµh±na½ kiriy±ya kattukammaµµhatt± tabbasena ca tad±dh±rass±pi dabbassa ±dh±rabh±vassa icchitatt±, idha pana kiriy±ya kattupavattiµµh±nabh±vo icchitoti kammameva ±dh±ravasena vutta½, ten±ha “kattu visayaggahaºasanniµµh±nan”ti, ±rammaºameva v± visayo. ¾rammaºañhi tad±rammaºikassa pavattiµµh±na½. Evampi hi attho suviññeyyataro hoti. Yath±vuttavacane piº¹attha½ dassetu½ “ett±vat±”ti-±di vutta½. Ett±vat± ettakena yath±vuttatthena padattayena, kata½ hot²ti sambandho. N±n±k±rappavatten±ti n±nappak±rena ±rammaºe pavattena. Cittasant±nen±ti yath±vuttaviññ±ºav²thisaªkh±tena cittappabandhena. Gahaºasadde ceta½ karaºa½. Cittasant±navinimuttassa kassaci kattu paramatthato abh±vepi saddavoh±rena buddhiparikappitabhedavacanicch±ya cittasant±nato aññamiva ta½samaªgi½ katv± abhedepi bhedavoh±rena “cittasant±nena ta½samaªgino”ti vutta½. Voh±ravisayo hi saddo nekantaparamatthikoti (k±rakar³pasiddhiya½ yo k±reti sahetusutta½ passitabba½) savanakiriy±visayopi sotabbadhammo savanakiriy±vasena pavattacittasant±nassa idha paramatthato kattubh±vato tassa visayoyev±ti vutta½ “kattu visayaggahaºasanniµµh±nan”ti.
Apica savanavasena cittappavattiy± eva savanakiriy±bh±vato ta½vasena tadaññan±mar³padhammasamud±yabh³tassa ta½kiriy±kattu ca visayo hot²ti katv± tath± vutta½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– purimanaye savanakiriy±, takkatt± ca paramatthato tath±pavattacittasant±nameva, tasm± kiriy±visayopi “kattu visayo”ti vutto. Pacchimanaye pana tath±pavattacittasant±na½ kiriy±, tadaññadhammasamud±yo pana katt±, tasm± k±ma½ ekantato kiriy±visayoyevesa dhammo, tath±pi kiriy±vasena “tabbantakattu visayo”ti vuttoti. Ta½samaªginoti tena cittasant±nena samaªgino. Katt³ti katt±rassa. Visayoti ±rammaºavasena pavattiµµh±na½, ±rammaºameva v±. Sut±k±rassa ca therassa samm± nicchitabh±vato “gahaºasanniµµh±nan”ti vutta½.
Aparo nayo– yassa…pe… ±k±rapaññatt²ti ±k±ratthena eva½-saddena yojana½ katv± tadeva avadh±raºatthampi gahetv± imasmi½yeva naye yojetu½ “gahaºa½ kata½” icceva avatv± “gahaºasanniµµh±na½ katan”ti vuttanti daµµhabba½. Avadh±raºena hi sanniµµh±namidh±dhippeta½, tasm± “ett±vat±”ti-±din± avadh±raºatthampi eva½-sadda½ gahetv± ayameva yojan± kat±ti dasset²ti veditabba½, imiss± pana yojan±ya gahaº±k±rag±hakatabbisayavisesanidassana½ katanti daµµhabba½.
Aññampi yojanam±ha “atha v±”ti-±din±. Pubbe attan± sut±na½ n±n±vihit±na½ suttasaªkh±t±na½ atthabyañjan±na½ upadh±ritar³passa ±k±rassa nidassanassa, avadh±raºassa v± pak±sanasabh±vo eva½-saddoti tad±k±r±dibh³tassa upadh±raºassa puggalapaññattiy± up±d±nabh³tadhammappabandhaby±p±rat±ya “puggalakiccaniddeso”ti vutta½ attan± sut±nañhi atthabyañjan±na½ puna upadh±raºa½ ±k±r±dittaya½, tañca eva½-saddassa attho. So pana ya½ dhammappabandha½ up±d±ya puggalapaññatti pavatt±, tassa by±p±rabh³ta½ kiccameva tasm± eva½-saddena puggalakicca½ niddis²yat²ti. K±ma½ savanakiriy± puggalaby±p±ropi avisesena, tath±pi visesato viññ±ºaby±p±rov±ti vutta½ “viññ±ºakiccaniddeso”ti. Tath± hi puggalav±d²nampi savanakiriy± viññ±ºanirapekkh± natthi savan±d²na½ visesato viññ±ºaby±p±rabh±vena icchitatt±. Meti saddappavattiy± ekanteneva sattavisayatt±, viññ±ºakiccassa ca sattaviññ±º±namabhedakaraºavasena tattheva samodahitabbato “ubhayakiccayuttapuggalaniddeso”ti vutta½. “Ayan”ti-±di tapp±kaµ²karaºa½. Ettha hi savanakiccaviññ±ºasamaªgin±ti eva½-saddena niddiµµha½ puggalakicca½ sandh±ya vutta½, ta½ pana puggalassa savanakiccaviññ±ºasamaªg²bh±vena puggalakicca½ n±m±ti dassetu½ “puggalakiccasamaªgin±”ti avatv± “savanakiccaviññ±ºasamaªgin±”ti ±ha, tasm± “puggalakiccan”ti niddiµµhasavanakiccavat± viññ±ºena samaªgin±ti attho. Viññ±ºavasena, laddhasavanakiccavoh±ren±ti ca sutasaddena niddiµµha½ viññ±ºakicca½ sandh±ya vutta½. Savanameva kicca½ yass±ti tath±. Savanakiccanti voh±ro savanakiccavoh±ro, laddho so yen±ti tath±. Laddhasavanakiccavoh±rena viññ±ºasaªkh±tena vasena s±matthiyen±ti attho. Aya½ pana sambandho– savanakiccaviññ±ºasamaªgin± puggalena may± laddhasavanakiccavoh±rena viññ±ºavasena karaºabh³tena sutanti.
Apica “evan”ti saddassattho avijjam±napaññatti, “sutan”ti saddassattho vijjam±napaññatti, tasm± te tath±r³papaññatti up±d±nabh³tapuggalaby±p±rabh±veneva dassento ±ha “evanti puggalakiccaniddeso. Sutanti viññ±ºakiccaniddeso”ti. Na hi paramatthatoyeva niyamiyam±ne sati puggalakiccaviññ±ºakiccavasena aya½ vibh±go labbhat²ti. Imiss± pana yojan±ya kattuby±p±rakaraºaby±p±rakattuniddeso katoti veditabbo.
Sabbass±pi sadd±dhigaman²yassa atthassa paññattimukheneva paµipajjitabbatt±, sabb±sañca paññatt²na½ vijjam±n±divasena chasu paññattibhedesu antogadhatt± t±su “evan”ti-±d²na½ paññatt²na½ sar³pa½ niddh±retv± dassento “evanti c±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha “evan”ti ca “me”ti ca vuccam±nassa atthassa ±k±r±dibh³tassa dhamm±na½ asallakkhaºabh±vato avijjam±napaññattibh±voti ±ha “saccikaµµhaparamatthavasena avijjam±napaññatt²”ti. Saccikaµµhaparamatthavasen±ti ca bh³tattha-uttamatthavasen±ti attho. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yo m±y±mar²ci-±dayo viya abh³tattho, anussav±d²hi gahetabbo viya anuttamattho ca na hoti, so r³pasadd±disabh±vo, ruppan±nubhavan±disabh±vo v± attho “saccikaµµho, paramattho”ti ca vuccati, “eva½ me”ti pad±na½ pana attho abh³tatt±, anuttamatt± ca na tath± vuccati, tasm± bh³tattha-uttamatthasaªkh±tena saccikaµµhaparamatthavasena visesanabh³tena avijjam±napaññattiyev±ti. Etena ca visesanena b±lajanehi “atth²”ti parikappita½ paññattimatta½ nivatteti. Tadevattha½ p±kaµa½ karoti, hetun± v± s±dheti “kiñhettha tan”ti-±din±. Ya½ dhammaj±ta½, atthaj±ta½ v± “evan”ti v± “me”ti v± niddesa½ labhetha, ta½ ettha r³paphass±didhammasamud±ye, “eva½ me”ti pad±na½ v± atthe. Paramatthato na atth²ti yojan±. R³paphass±dibh±vena niddiµµho paramatthato ettha attheva, “eva½ me”ti pana niddiµµho natth²ti adhipp±yo. Sutanti pana sadd±yatana½ sandh±y±ha “vijjam±napaññatt²”ti. “Saccikaµµhaparamatthavasen±”ti cettha adhik±ro. “Yañh²”ti-±di tapp±kaµ²karaºa½, hetudassana½ v±. Ya½ ta½ sadd±yatana½ sotena sotadv±rena, tannissitaviññ±ºena v± upaladdha½ adhigamitabbanti attho. Tena hi sadd±yatanamidha gahita½ kammas±dhanen±ti dasseti.