1. Brahmaj±lasutta½

Paribb±jakakath±vaººan±

1. Ett±vat± ca paramasaºhasukhumagambh²raduddas±nekavidhanayasamalaªkata½ brahmaj±lassa s±dh±raºato b±hiranid±na½ dassetv± id±ni abbhantaranid±na½ sa½vaººento atth±dhigamassa sunikkhittapadam³lakatt±, sunikkhittapadabh±vassa ca “idamevan”ti sabh±vavibh±vanena padavibh±gena s±dhetabbatt± paµhama½ t±va padavibh±ga½ dassetu½ “tattha evan”ti-±dim±ha. Padavibh±gena hi “ida½ n±ma eta½ padan”ti vij±nanena ta½ta½pad±nur³pa½ liªgavibhatti vacana k±lapayog±dika½ samm±patiµµh±panato yath±vuttassa padassa sunikkhittat± hoti, t±ya ca atthassa samadhigamiyat±. Yath±ha “sunikkhittassa bhikkhave– padabyañjanassa atthopi sunayohot²”ti-±di. Apica sambandhato, padato, padavibh±gato, padatthato anuyogato, parih±rato c±ti chah±k±rehi atthavaººan± k±tabb±. Tattha sambandho n±ma desan±sambandho, ya½ lokiy± “ummuggh±to”tipi vadanti, so pana p±¼iy± nid±nap±¼ivasena, nid±nap±¼iy± ca saªg²tivasena veditabbo. Paµhamamah±saªg²ti½ dassentena hi nid±nap±¼iy± sambandho dassito, tasm± pad±divaseneva sa½vaººana½ karonto “evan”ti-±dim±ha. Ettha ca “evanti nip±tapadanti-±din± padato, padavibh±gato ca sa½vaººana½ karoti pad±na½ tabbises±nañca dassitatt±. Padavibh±goti hi pad±na½ visesoyeva adhippeto, na padaviggaho. Pad±ni ca padavibh±go ca padavibh±go. Atha v± padavibh±go ca padaviggaho ca padavibh±goti ekasesavasena padapadaviggah±pi padavibh±gasaddena vutt±ti daµµhabba½. Padaviggahato pana “bhikkh³na½ saªgho”ti-±din± upari sa½vaººana½ karissati, tath± padatth±nuyogaparih±rehipi. Evanti ettha luttaniddiµµha-iti-saddo ±di-attho antar±sadda ca sadd±d²nampi saªgahitatt±, nayaggahaºena v± te gahit±. Ten±ha “meti-±d²ni n±mapad±n²”ti. Itarath± hi antar±sadda½ ca sadd±d²nampi nip±tabh±vo vattabbo siy±. Meti-±d²n²ti ettha pana ±di-saddena y±va paµisaddo t±va tadavasiµµh±yeva sadd± saªgahit±. Paµ²ti upasaggapada½ patisaddassa k±riyabh±vato.
Id±ni atthuddh±rakkamena padatthato sa½vaººana½ karonto “atthato pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Imasmi½ pana µh±ne sot³na½ sa½vaººan±nayakosallattha½ sa½vaººan±ppak±r± vattabb±. Katha½?
Ekan±¼ik± kath± ca, caturass± tath±pi ca;
nisinnavattik± ceva, tidh± sa½vaººana½ vade.
Tattha p±¼i½ vatv± ekekapadassa atthakathana½ ek±ya n±¼iy± minitasadisatt±, ekeka½ v± pada½ n±¼a½ m³la½, ekameka½ pada½ v± n±¼ik± atthaniggamanamaggo etiss±ti katv± ekan±¼ik± n±ma. Paµipakkha½ dassetv±, paµipakkhassa ca upama½ dassetv±, sapakkha½ dassetv±, sapakkhassa ca upama½ dassetv±, kathana½ cat³hi bh±gehi vuttatt±, catt±ro v± rass± sallakkhaº³p±y± etiss±ti katv± caturass± n±ma, visabh±gadhammavaseneva pariyos±na½ gantv± puna sabh±gadhammavaseneva pariyos±nagamana½ nis²d±petv± patiµµh±petv± ±vattanayuttatt±, niyamato v± nisinnassa ±raddhassa vatto sa½vatto etiss±ti katv± nisinnavattik± n±ma, yath±raddhassa atthassa visu½ visu½ pariyos±n±pi niyutt±ti vutta½ hoti, sod±haraº± pana kath± aªguttaraµµhakath±ya taµµ²k±ya½ ek±dasanip±te gop±lakasuttavaººan±to gahetabb±.
Bhedakath± tatvakath±, pariy±yakath±pi ca;
iti atthakkame vidv±, tidh± sa½vaººana½ vade.
Tattha pakati-±divic±raº± bhedakath± yath± “bujjhat²ti buddho”ti-±di. Sar³pavic±raº± tatvakath± yath± “buddhoti yo so bhagav± sayambh³ an±cariyako”ti-±di (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. 97; paµi. ma. 1.161). Vevacanavic±raº± pariy±yakath± yath± “buddho bhagav± sabbaññ³ lokan±yako”ti-±di (netti. 38 vevacan±h±ravibhaªganissito p±¼i).
Payojanañca piº¹attho, anusandhi ca codan±;
parih±ro ca sabbattha, pañcadh± vaººana½ vade.
Tattha payojana½ n±ma desan±phala½, ta½ pana sutamayañ±º±di. Piº¹attho n±ma vippakiººassa atthassa suvij±nanattha½ sampiº¹etv± kathana½. Anusandhi n±ma pucch±nusandh±di. Codan± n±ma yath±vuttassa vacanassa virodhikathana½. Parih±ro n±ma tassa avirodhikathana½.
Ummuggh±to padañceva, padattho padaviggaho;
c±lan± paccupaµµh±na½, chadh± sa½vaººana½ vade. (Vajira. µ². paµhamamah±saªg²tivaººan±).
Tattha ajjhattik±dinid±na½ ummuggh±to. “Evamidan”ti n±n±vidhena padavisesat±kathana½ pada½, saddatth±dhipp±yatth±di padattho. Anekadh± nibbacana½ padaviggaho. C±lan± n±ma codan±. Paccupaµµh±na½ parih±ro.
Samuµµh±na½ padattho ca, bh±v±nuv±davidhayo;
virodho parih±ro ca, nigamananti aµµhadh±.
Tattha samuµµh±nanti ajjhattik±dinid±na½. Padatthoti adhippet±nadhippet±divasena anekadh± padassa attho. Bh±voti adhipp±yo. Anuv±davidhayoti paµhamavacana½ vidhi, tad±vikaraºavasena pacch± vacana½ anuv±do, visesanavisesy±na½ v± vidh±nuv±da samaññ±. Virodhoti atthanicchayanattha½ codan±. Parih±roti tass± sodhan±. Nigamananti anusandhiy± anur³pa½ appan±.
¾dito tassa nid±na½, vattabba½ tappayojana½;
piº¹attho ceva padattho, sambandho adhipp±yako;
codan± sodhan± ceti, aµµhadh± vaººana½ vade.
Tattha sambandho n±ma pubb±parasambandho, yo “anusandh²”ti vuccati. Ses± vuttatth±va, evam±din± tattha tatth±gate sa½vaººan±ppak±re ñatv± sabbattha yath±raha½ vicetabb±ti.
Evamanekatthappabhedat± payogatova ñ±tabb±ti tabbasena ta½ samatthetu½ “tath± hes±”ti-±di vutta½. Atha v± aya½ saddo imassatthassa v±cakoti saªketavavatthit±yeva sadd± ta½ tadatthassa v±cak± saªketo ca n±ma payogavasena siddhoti dassetumpi ida½ vuttanti daµµhabba½. Evam²disesu. Nanu ca–
“Yath±pi pupphar±simh±, kayir± m±l±guºe bah³;
eva½ j±tena maccena, kattabba½ kusala½ bahun”ti. (Dha. pa. 53).

Ettha eva½-saddena upam±k±rasseva vuttatt± ±k±ratthoyeva eva½-saddo siy±ti? Na, visesasabbh±vato. “Eva½ by± kho”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 234, 396) hi ±k±ramattav±cakoyeva ±k±ratthoti adhippeto, na pana ±k±ravisesav±cako. Ettha hi kiñc±pi pupphar±sisadisato manuss³papatti sappuris³panissaya saddhammasavana yonisomanasik±rabhogasampatti-±did±n±dipuññakiriy±hetusamud±yato sobh±sugandhat±diguºayogena m±l±guºasadisiyo bahuk± puññakiriy± maritabbasabh±vat±ya maccena sattena kattabb±ti atthassa jotitatt± pupphar±sim±l±guº±va upam± n±ma upam²yati et±y±ti katv±, tesa½ upam±k±ro ca yath±saddena aniyamato jotito, tasm± “eva½-saddo niyamato upam±k±ranigamanattho”ti vattu½ yutta½, tath±pi so upam±k±ro niyamiyam±no atthato upam±va hoti nissayabh³ta½ tamantarena nissitabh³tassa upam±k±rassa alabbham±natt±ti adhipp±yen±ha “upam±ya½ ±gato”ti. Atha v± upam²yana½ sadis²karaºanti katv± pupphar±sim±l±guºehi sadisabh±vasaªkh±to upam±k±royeva upam± n±ma. “Saddhammatta½ siyopam±”ti hi vutta½, tasm± ±k±ramattav±cakova ±k±rattho eva½-saddo. Upam±saªkh±ta-±k±ravisesav±cako pana upam±tthoyev±ti vutta½ “upam±ya½ ±gato”ti.

Tath± “eva½ imin± ±k±rena abhikkamitabban”ti-±din± upadisiyam±n±ya samaºas±rupp±ya ±kappasampattiy± upadisan±k±ropi atthato upadesoyev±ti ±ha “eva½…pe… upadese”ti. Evametanti ettha pana bhagavat± yath±vuttamattha½ avipar²tato j±nantehi kata½ tattha sa½vijjam±naguº±na½ pak±rehi ha½sana½ udaggat±karaºa½ sampaha½sana½. Tattha sampaha½san±k±ropi atthato sampaha½sanamev±ti vutta½ “sampaha½saneti. Evameva pan±yanti ettha ca dosavibh±vanena g±rayhavacana½ garahaºa½, tad±k±ropi atthato garahaºa½ n±ma, tasm± “garahaºe”ti vutta½. So cettha garahaº±k±ro “vasal²”ti-±dikhu½sanasaddasannidh±nato eva½-saddena pak±sitoti viññ±yati, yath± cettha eva½ upam±k±r±dayopi upam±divasena vutt±na½ pupphar±si-±disadd±na½ sannidh±natoti daµµhabba½. Jotakamatt± hi nip±t±ti. Evamev±ti ca adhun± bh±sit±k±reneva. Aya½ vasalaguºayogato vasal² k±¼akaºº² yasmi½ v± tasmi½ v± µh±ne bh±sat²ti sambandho. Eva½ bhanteti s±dhu bhante, suµµhu bhanteti vutta½ hoti. Ettha pana dhammassa s±dhuka½ savanamanasik±re sanniyojitehi bhikkh³hi tattha attano µhitabh±vassa paµij±nanameva vacanasampaµiggaho, tad±k±ropi atthato vacanasampaµiggahoyeva n±ma, ten±ha “vacanasampaµiggahe”ti.
Eva½ by± khoti eva½ viya kho. Eva½ khoti hi imesa½ pad±namantare viyasaddassa by±padesoti neruttik± “va-k±rassa, ba-k±ra½, ya-k±rasa½yogañca katv± d²ghavasena padasiddh²”tipi vadanti. ¾k±reti ±k±ramatte. App±b±dhanti visabh±gavedan±bh±va½. App±taªkantikicchaj²vitakararog±bh±va½. Lahuµµh±nanti niggelaññat±ya lahut±yutta½ uµµh±na½. Balanti k±yabala½. Ph±suvih±ranti cat³su iriy±pathesu sukhavih±ra½. Vitth±ro dasama subhasuttaµµhakath±ya meva (d². ni. aµµha. 1.445) ±vi bhavissati. Evañca vadeh²ti yath±ha½ vad±mi, evampi samaºa½ ±nanda½ vadehi. “S±dhu kira bhavan”ti-±dika½ id±ni vattabbavacana½, so ca vadan±k±ro idha eva½-saddena nidass²yat²ti vutta½ “nidassane”ti. K±l±m±ti k±l±magottasambandhe jane ±lapati. “Ime…pe… v±”ti ya½ may± vutta½, ta½ ki½ maññath±ti attho. Samatt±ti parip³rit±. Sam±dinn±ti sam±diyit±. Sa½vattanti v± no v± sa½vattanti ettha vacanadvaye katha½ vo tumh±ka½ mati hot²ti yojetabba½. Eva½ noti evameva amh±ka½ mati ettha hoti, amh±kamettha mati hoti yev±tipi attho. Ettha ca tesa½ yath±vuttadhamm±na½ ahitadukkh±vahabh±ve sanniµµh±najananattha½ anumatiggahaºavasena “sa½vattanti no v±, katha½ vo ettha hot²”ti pucch±ya kat±ya “eva½ no ettha hot²”ti vuttatt± tad±k±rasanniµµh±na½ eva½-saddena vibh±vita½, so ca tesa½ dhamm±na½ ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattan±k±ro niyamiyam±no atthato avadh±raºamev±ti vutta½ “avadh±raºe”ti. ¾k±ratthamaññatra sabbattha vuttanayena codan±, sodhan± ca veditabb±.
¾disaddena cettha idamatthapucch±parim±º±di-atth±na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. Tath± hi “eva½gat±ni, eva½vidho, evam±k±ro”ti ca ±d²su idamatthe, gatavidh±k±rasadd± pana pak±rapariy±y±. Gatavidhayutt±k±rasadde hi lokiy± pak±ratthe vadanti. “Eva½ su te sunh±t± suvilitt± kappitakesamass³ ±muttamaºikuº¹al±bharaº± od±tavatthavasan± pañcahi k±maguºehi samappit± samaªg²bh³t± paric±renti, seyyath±pi tva½ etarahi s±cariyakoti? No hida½ bho gotam±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 1.286) pucch±ya½. “Eva½ lahuparivatta½ (a. ni. 1.48), evam±yupariyanto”ti (p±r±. 12) ca ±d²su parim±ºe. Etth±pi “sunh±t± suvilitt±”ti-±divacana½ pucch±, lahuparivatta½, ±y³na½ pam±ºañca parim±ºa½, tad±k±ropi atthato pucch± ca parim±ºañca n±ma, tasm± etesu pucchattho, parim±ºattho ca eva½saddo veditabboti. Idha pana so katamesu bhavati, sabbattha v±, aniyamato padese v±ti codan±ya “sv±yamidh±”ti-±di vutta½.