Sayameva paµivijjhati, etena v± paµivijjhant²ti paµivedho, ñ±ºa½. Tadeva abhisameti, etena v± abhisament²ti abhisamayotipi vuccati. Id±ni ta½ paµivedha½ abhisamayappabhedato, abhisamay±k±rato, ±rammaºato, sabh±vato ca p±kaµa½ k±tu½ “so c±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha hi lokiyalokuttaroti pabhedato, visayato, asammohatoti ±k±rato, dhammesu, atthesu, paññatt²s³ti ±rammaºato, atth±nur³pa½, dhamm±nur³pa½, paññattipath±nur³panti sabh±vato ca p±kaµa½ karoti. Tattha visayato atth±di-anur³pa½ dhamm±d²su avabodho n±ma avijj±didhamm±rammaºo, saªkh±r±di-atth±rammaºo, tadubhayapaññ±pan±rammaºo ca lokiyo abhisamayo. Asammohato atth±di-anur³pa½ dhamm±d²su avabodho n±ma nibb±n±rammaºo maggasampayutto yath±vuttadhammatthapaññatt²su sammohaviddha½sano lokuttaro abhisamayo. Tath± hi “aya½ hetu, idamassa phala½, aya½ tadubhay±nur³po voh±ro”ti eva½ ±rammaºakaraºavasena lokiyañ±ºa½ visayato paµivijjhati, lokuttarañ±ºa½ pana tesu hetuhetuphal±d²su sammohassañ±ºena samucchinnatt± asammohato paµivijjhati. Lokuttaro pana paµivedho visayato nibb±nassa, asammohato ca itarass±tipi vadanti eke.
Atth±nur³pa½ dhammes³ti “avijj± hetu, saªkh±r± hetusamuppann±, saªkh±re upp±deti avijj±”ti eva½ k±riy±nur³pa½ k±raºes³ti attho. Atha v± “puññ±bhisaªkh±ra-apuññ±bhisaªkh±ra-±neñj±bhisaªkh±resu t²su apuññ±bhisaªkh±rassa avijj± sampayuttapaccayo, itaresa½ yath±nur³pan”ti-±din± k±riy±nur³pa½ k±raºesu paµivedhotipi attho. Dhamm±nur³pa½ atthes³ti “avijj±paccay± saªkh±r±”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 3.126; sa½. ni. 2.1; ud±. 1; vibha. 225) k±raº±nur³pa½ k±riyesu. Chabbidh±ya paññattiy± patho paññattipatho, tassa anur³pa½ tath±, paññattiy± vuccam±nadhamm±nur³pa½ paññatt²su avabodhoti attho. Abhisamayato aññampi paµivedhattha½ dassetu½ “tesan”ti-±dim±ha. Paµivijjh²yat²ti paµivedhoti hi ta½ta½r³p±didhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±vo vuccati. Tattha tatth±ti tasmi½ tasmi½ piµake, p±¼ipadese v±. Salakkhaºasaªkh±toti ruppananamanaphusan±disakasakalakkhaºasaªkh±to.
Yath±vuttehi dhamm±d²hi piµak±na½ gambh²rabh±va½ dassetu½ “id±n²”ti-±dim±ha. Dhammaj±tanti k±raºappabhedo, k±raºameva v±. Atthaj±tanti k±riyappabhedo, k±riyameva v±. Y± c±ya½ desan±ti sambandho. Tadatthavij±nanavasena abhimukho hoti. Yo cetth±ti yo et±su ta½ ta½ piµak±gat±su dhammatthadesan±su paµivedho, yo ca etesu piµakesu tesa½ tesa½ dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±voti attho. Sambharitabbato kusalameva sambh±ro, so samm± anupacito yehi te anupacitakusalasambh±r±, tatova duppaññehi, nippaññeh²ti attho. Na hi paññavato, paññ±ya v± duµµhubh±vo d³sitabh±vo ca sambhavat²ti nippaññatt±yeva duppaññ± yath± “duss²lo”ti (a. ni. 5.213; 10.75; p±r±. 295; dha. pa. 308). Ettha ca avijj±saªkh±r±d²na½ dhammatth±na½ duppaµivijjhat±ya dukkhog±hat±, tesa½ paññ±panassa dukkarabh±vato ta½desan±ya, abhisamayasaªkh±tassa paµivedhassa upp±danavisay²karaº±na½ asakkuºeyyatt±, avipar²tasabh±vasaªkh±tassa paµivedhassa dubbiññeyyat±ya dukkhog±hat± veditabb±. Evamp²ti pi-saddo pubbe vutta½ pak±rantara½ sampiº¹eti. Eva½ paµhamag±th±ya an³na½ paripuººa½ parid²pitatthabh±va½ dassento “ett±vat±”ti-±dim±ha. “Siddhe hi saty±rambho atthantaraviññ±pan±ya v± hoti, niyam±ya v±”ti imin± pun±rambhavacanena an³na½ paripuººa½ parid²pitatthabh±va½ dasseti. Ett±vat±ti paricchedatthe nip±to, ettakena vacanakkamen±ti attho. Eta½ v± parim±ºa½ yass±ti ett±va½, tena, etaparim±ºavat± saddatthakkamen±ti attho. “Sadde hi vutte tadatthopi vuttoyeva n±m±”ti vadanti. Vutto sa½vaººito attho yass±ti vuttatth±.
Etth±ti etiss± g±th±ya. Eva½ attho, vinicchayoti v± seso. T²su piµakes³ti ettha “ekekasmin”ti adhik±rato, pakaraºato v± veditabba½. “Ekamekasmiñcetth±”ti (d². ni. aµµha. 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±) hi heµµh± vutta½. Atha v± vatticch±nupubbikatt± saddapaµipattiy± niddh±raºamidha avattuk±mena ±dh±royeva vutto. Na cettha codetabba½ “t²suyeva piµakesu tividho pariyattibhedo daµµhabbo siy±”ti samud±yavasena vuttass±pi v±kyassa avayav±dhipp±yasambhavato. Dissati hi avayavav±kyanipphatti “br±hmaº±dayo bhuñjant³”ti-±d²su, tasm± alamatipapañcena. Yath± attho na virujjhati, tath±yeva gahetabboti. Eva½ sabbattha. Pariyattibhedoti pariy±puºana½ pariyatti. Pariy±puºanav±cako hettha pariyattisaddo, na pana p±¼ipariy±yo, tasm± pariy±puºanappak±roti attho. Atha v± t²hi pak±rehi pariy±puºitabb± p±¼iyo eva “pariyatt²”ti vuccanti. Tath± ceva abhidhammaµµhakath±ya s²ha¼agaºµhipade vuttanti vadanti. Evampi hi alagadd³pam±pariy±puºanayogato “alagadd³pam± pariyatt²”ti p±¼ipi sakk± vattu½. Evañca katv± “duggahit± up±rambh±dihetu pariy±puµ± alagadd³pam±”ti parato niddesavacanampi upapanna½ hoti. Tattha hi p±¼iyeva “duggahit±, pariy±puµ±”ti ca vattu½ yutt±.
Alagaddo alagaddaggahaºa½ upam± etiss±ti alagadd³pam±. Alagaddassa gahaºañhettha alagaddasaddena vuttanti daµµhabba½. ¾p³pikoti ettha ±p³pa-saddena ±p³pakh±dana½ viya, veºikoti ettha v²º±saddena v²º±v±danaggahaºa½ viya ca. Alagaddaggahaºena hi pariyatti upam²yati na alagaddena. “Alagaddaggahaº³pam±”ti v± vattabbe majjhepadalopa½ katv± “alagadd³pam±”ti vutta½ “oµµhamukho”ti-±d²su viya. Alagaddoti ca ±s²viso vuccati. Gadoti hi visassa n±ma½, tañca tassa ala½ paripuººa½ atthi, tasm± ala½ pariyatto paripuººo gado ass±ti alagaddo anun±sikalopa½, da-k±r±gamañca katv±, ala½ v± j²vitaharaºe samattho gado yass±ti alagaddo vuttanayena. Vaµµadukkhato nissaraºa½ attho payojanametiss±ti nissaraºatth±. Bhaº¹±g±re niyutto bhaº¹±g±riko, r±jaratan±nup±lako, so viy±ti tath±, dhammaratan±nup±lako kh²º±savo. Aññamatthamanapekkhitv± bhaº¹±g±rikasseva sato pariyatti bhaº¹±g±rikapariyatti.
Duggahit±ti duµµhu gahit±. Tadeva sar³pato niyametu½ “up±rambh±dihetu pariy±puµ±”ti ±ha, up±rambha-itiv±dappamokkh±dihetu uggahit±ti attho. L±bhasakk±r±dihetu pariy±puºanampi ettheva saªgahitanti daµµhabba½. Vuttañheta½ alagaddasuttaµµhakath±ya½–
“Yo buddhavacana½ uggahetv± ‘eva½ c²var±d²ni v± labhiss±mi, catuparisamajjhe v± ma½ j±nissant²’ti l±bhasakk±rahetu pariy±puº±ti, tassa s± pariyatti alagaddapariyatti n±ma. Eva½ pariy±puºanato hi buddhavacana½ apariy±puºitv± niddokkamana½ varataran”ti (ma. ni. aµµha. 2.239).
Nanu ca alagaddaggahaº³pam± pariyatti “alagadd³pam±”ti vuccati, evañca sati suggahit±pi pariyatti “alagadd³pam±”ti vattu½ vaµµati tatth±pi alagaddaggahaºassa upam±bh±vena p±¼iya½ vuttatt±. Vuttañheta½–
“Seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, puriso alagaddatthiko alagaddagaves² alagaddapariyesana½ caram±no, so passeyya mahanta½ alagadda½, tamena½ ajapadena daº¹ena suniggahita½ niggaºheyya ajapadena daº¹ena suniggahita½ niggahitv± g²v±ya suggahita½ gaºheyya. Kiñc±pi so bhikkhave, alagaddo tassa purisassa hattha½ v± b±ha½ v± aññatara½ v± aªgapaccaªga½ bhogehi paliveµheyya Atha kho so neva tatonid±na½ maraºa½ v± nigaccheyya maraºamatta½ v± dukkha½. Ta½ kissa hetu, suggahitatt± bhikkhave, alagaddassa. Evameva kho bhikkhave, idhekacce kulaputt± dhamma½ pariy±puºanti sutta½ geyyan”ti-±di (ma. ni. 1.239).
Tasm± idha duggahit± eva pariyatti alagadd³pam±ti aya½ viseso kuto viññ±yati, yena duggahit± up±rambh±dihetu pariy±puµ± “alagadd³pam±”ti vuccat²ti? Saccameta½, ida½ pana p±risesañ±yena vuttanti daµµhabba½. Tath± hi nissaraºatthabhaº¹±g±rikapariyatt²na½ visu½ gahitatt± p±risesato alagaddassa duggahaº³pam±yeva pariyatti “alagadd³pam±”ti viññ±yati. Alagaddassa suggahaº³pam± hi pariyatti nissaraºatth± v± hoti, bhaº¹±g±rikapariyatti v±. Tasm± suvuttameta½ “duggahit±…pe… pariyatt²”ti. Id±ni tamattha½ p±¼iy± s±dhento “ya½ sandh±y±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha yanti ya½ pariyattiduggahaºa½. Majjhimanik±ye m³lapaºº±sake alagaddasutte (ma. ni. 1.239) bhagavat± vutta½.
Alagaddatthikoti ±s²visena, ±s²visa½ v± atthiko, alagadda½ gavesati pariyesati s²len±ti alagaddagaves². Alagaddapariyesana½ caram±noti ±s²visapariyesanattha½ caram±no. Tadatthe heta½ paccattavacana½, upayogavacana½ v±, alagaddapariyesanaµµh±na½ v± caram±no. Alagadda½ pariyesanti etth±ti hi alagaddapariyesana½. Tamenanti ta½ alagadda½. Bhogeti sar²re. “Bhogo tu phaºino tan³”ti hi vutta½. Bhuj²yati kuµila½ kar²yat²ti bhogo. Tass±ti purisassa. Hatthe v± b±h±ya v±ti sambandho. Maºibandhato paµµh±ya y±va agganakh± hattho. Saddhi½ aggab±h±ya avases± b±h±, katthaci pana kapparato paµµh±ya y±va agganakh± “hattho”ti vutta½ b±h±ya visu½ an±gatatt±. Vuttalakkhaºa½ hatthañca b±hañca µhapetv± avasesa½ sar²ra½ aªgapaccaªga½. Tatonid±nanti tannid±na½, ta½k±raº±ti attho. Ta½ hatth±d²su ¹a½sana½ nid±na½ k±raºa½ etass±ti “tannid±nan”ti hi vattabbe “tatonid±nan”ti purimapade paccattatthe nissakkavacana½ katv±, tassa ca lopamakatv± niddeso, hetvatthe ca paccattavacana½. K±raºatthe nip±tapadametantipi vadanti. Apica “tatonid±nan”ti eta½ “maraºa½ v± maraºamatta½ v± dukkhan”ti ettha vuttanayena visesana½. Ta½ kissa het³ti ya½ vutta½ hatth±d²su ¹a½sana½, tannid±nañca maraº±di-upagamana½ ta½ kissa hetu kena k±raºen±ti ce? Tassa purisassa alagaddassa duggahitatt±.
Idh±ti imasmi½ s±sane. Moghapuris±ti guºas±rarahitat±ya tucchapuris±. Dhammanti p±¼idhamma½. Pariy±puºant²ti uggaºhanti, sajjh±yanti ceva v±cuggata½ karont± dh±renti c±ti vutta½ hoti. “Dhamman”ti s±maññato vuttameva sar³pena dasseti “suttan”ti-±din±. Na hi sutt±dinavaªgato añño dhammo n±ma atthi. Tath± hi vutta½ “tesa½ dhamm±nan”ti. Atthanti cettha sambandh²niddeso eso, atthanti ca yath±bh³ta½ bh±sitattha½, payojanatthañca s±maññaniddesena, ekasesanayena v± vutta½. Yañhi pada½ sutis±maññena anekadh± attha½ d²peti, ta½ s±maññaniddesena, ekasesanayena v±ti sabbattha veditabba½. Na upaparikkhant²ti na pariggaºhanti na vic±renti. Ikkhasaddassa hi dassanaªkesu idha dassanameva attho, tassa ca pariggaºhanacakkhulocanesu pariggaºhanameva, tañca vic±raº± pariy±d±navasena dubbidhesu vic±raº±yeva, s± ca v²ma½s±yeva, na vic±ro, v²ma½s± ca n±mes± bh±sitatthav²ma½s±, payojanatthav²ma½s± c±ti idha dubbidh±va adhippet±, t±su “imasmi½ µh±ne s²la½ kathita½, imasmi½ sam±dhi, imasmi½ paññ±, mayañca ta½ p³ress±m±”ti eva½ bh±sitatthav²ma½sañceva “s²la½ sam±dhissa k±raºa½, sam±dhi vipassan±y±”ti-±din± payojanatthav²ma½sañca na karont²ti attho. Anupaparikkhatanti anupaparikkhant±na½ tesa½ moghapuris±na½. Na nijjh±nakkhamant²ti nijjh±na½ nissesena pekkhana½ pañña½ na khamanti. Jhe-saddo hi idha pekkhaneyeva, na cintanajh±panesu, tañca ñ±ºapekkhanameva, na cakkhupekkhana½, ±rammaº³panijjh±nameva v±, na lakkhaº³panijjh±na½, tasm± paññ±ya disv± rocetv± gahetabb± na hont²ti adhipp±yo veditabbo. Nissesena jh±yate pekkhateti hi nijjh±na½. Sandhivasena anusv±ralopo nijjh±nakkhamant²ti, “nijjh±na½ khamant²”tipi p±µho, tena imamattha½ d²peti “tesa½ paññ±ya atthassa anupaparikkhanato te dhamm± na upaµµhahanti, imasmi½ µh±ne s²la½, sam±dhi, vipassan±, maggo, vaµµa½, vivaµµha½ kathitanti eva½ j±nitu½ na sakk± hont²”ti.