Ekamekasmiñcetth±ti etesu t²su piµakesu ekamekasmi½ piµake, ca-saddo v±ky±rambhe, pakkhantare v±. Pi-saddo, api-saddo v± avayavasampiº¹ane, tena na kevala½ catubbidhasseva gambh²rabh±vo, atha kho pacceka½ tadavayav±namp²ti sampiº¹ana½ karoti. Esa nayo ²disesu. Id±ni te sar³pato dassetu½ “tatth±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha tant²ti p±¼i. S± hi ukkaµµh±na½ s²l±di-atth±na½ bodhanato, sabh±vaniruttibh±vato, buddh±d²hi bh±sitatt± ca pakaµµh±na½ vacan±na½ ±¼i pant²ti “p±¼²”ti vuccati.
Idha pana vinayagaºµhipadak±r±d²na½ saddav±d²na½ matena pubbe vavatth±pit± paramatthasaddappabandhabh³t± tanti dhammo n±ma. Iti-saddo hi n±matthe, “dhammo”ti v± vuccati. Tass±yev±ti tass± yath±vutt±ya eva tantiy± attho. Manas± vavatth±pit±y±ti uggahaºa-dh±raº±divasappavattena manas± pubbe vavatth±pit±ya yath±vutt±ya paramatthasaddappabandhabh³t±ya tass± tantiy±. Desan±ti pacch± paresamavabodhanattha½ desan±saªkh±t± paramatthasaddappabandhabh³t± tantiyeva. Apica yath±vuttatanti saªkh±tasaddasamuµµh±pako cittupp±do desan±. Tantiy±, tanti-atthassa c±ti yath±vutt±ya duvidh±yapi tantiy±, tadatthassa ca yath±bh³t±vabodhoti attho veditabbo. Te hi bhagavat± vuccam±nassa atthassa, voh±rassa ca d²pako saddoyeva tanti n±m±ti vadanti. Tesa½ pana v±de dhammass±pi saddasabh±vatt± dhammadesan±na½ ko visesoti ce? Tesa½ tesa½ atth±na½ bodhakabh±vena ñ±to, uggahaº±divasena ca pubbe vavatth±pito paramatthasaddappabandho dhammo, pacch± paresa½ avabodhanattha½ pavattito ta½ tadatthappak±sako saddo desan±ti ayamimesa½ visesoti. Atha v± yath±vuttasaddasamuµµh±pako cittupp±do desan± des²yati samuµµh±p²yati saddo eten±ti katv± mus±v±d±dayo viya tatth±pi hi mus±v±d±disamuµµh±pik± cetan± mus±v±d±disaddehi vohar²yat²ti. Kiñc±pi akkhar±valibh³to paññattisaddoyeva atthassa ñ±pako, tath±pi m³lak±raºabh±vato “akkharasaññ±to”ti-±d²su viya tass±yeva atthoti paramatthasaddoyeva atthassa ñ±pakabh±vena vuttoti daµµhabba½. “Tass± tantiy± desan±”ti ca sadisavoh±rena vutta½ yath± “uppann± ca kusal±dhamm± bhiyyobh±v±ya vepull±ya sa½vattant²”ti.
Abhidhammagaºµhipadak±r±d²na½ pana paººattiv±d²na½ matena sammutiparamatthabhedassa atthassa anur³pav±cakabh±vena paramatthasaddesu ekantena bhagavat± manas± vavatth±pit± n±mapaññattipabandhabh³t± tanti dhammo n±ma, “dhammo”ti v± vuccati. Tass±yev±ti tass± n±mapaññattibh³t±ya tantiy± eva attho. Manas± vavatth±pit±y±ti sammutiparamatthabhedassa atthass±nur³pav±cakabh±vena paramatthasaddesu bhagavat± manas± vavatth±pit±ya n±mapaººattipabandhabh³t±ya tass± tantiy±. Desan±ti paresa½ pabodhanena atisajjan± v±c±ya pak±san± vac²bhedabh³t± paramatthasaddappabandhasaªkh±t± tanti. Tantiy±, tanti-atthassa c±ti yath±vutt±ya dubbidh±yapi tantiy±, tadatthassa ca yath±bh³t±vabodhoti attho. Te hi eva½ vadanti– sabh±vatthassa, sabh±vavoh±rassa ca anur³pavaseneva bhagavat± manas± vavatth±pit± paººatti idha “tant²”ti vuccati. Yadi ca saddav±d²na½ matena saddoyeva idha tanti n±ma siy±. Tantiy±, desan±ya ca n±nattena bhavitabba½, manas± vavatth±pit±ya ca tantiy± vac²bhedakaraºamatta½ µhapetv± desan±ya n±natta½ natthi. Tath± hi desana½ dassentena manas± vavatth±pit±ya tantiy± desan±ti vac²bhedakaraºamatta½ vin± tantiy± saha desan±ya anaññat± vutt±. Tath± ca upari “desan±ti paññatt²”ti vuttatt± desan±ya anaññabh±vena tantiy±pi paººattibh±vo kathito hoti.
Apica yadi tantiy± aññ±yeva desan± siy±, “tantiy± ca tanti-atthassa ca desan±ya ca yath±bh³t±vabodho”ti vattabba½ siy±. Eva½ pana avatv± “tantiy± ca tanti-atthassa ca yath±bh³t±vabodho”ti vuttatt± tantiy±, desan±ya ca anaññabh±vo dassito hoti. Evañca katv± upari “desan± n±ma paññatt²”ti dassentena desan±ya anaññabh±vato tantiy± paººattibh±vo kathito hot²ti. Tadubhayampi pana paramatthato saddoyeva paramatthavinimutt±ya sammutiy± abh±v±, imameva ca naya½ gahetv± keci ±cariy± “dhammo ca desan± ca paramatthato saddo ev±”ti voharanti, tepi anupavajj±yeva. Yath± k±m±vacarapaµisandhivip±k± “paritt±rammaº±”ti vuccanti, eva½ sampadamida½ daµµhabba½. Na hi k±m±vacarapaµisandhivip±k± “nibbattitaparamatthavisay±yev±”ti sakk± vattu½ itthipuris±di-±k±raparivitakkapubbak±na½ r±g±di-akusal±na½, mett±dikusal±nañca ±rammaºa½ gahetv±pi samuppajjanato. Paramatthadhammam³lakatt± panassa parikappassa paramatthavisayat± sakk± paññapetu½, evamidh±pi daµµhabbanti ca. Evampi paººattiv±d²na½ mata½ hotu, saddav±d²na½ matepi dhammadesan±na½ n±natta½ vuttanayeneva ±cariyadhammap±latther± d²hi pak±sitanti. Hoti cettha–
“Saddo dhammo desan± ca, icc±hu apare gar³;
dhammo paººatti saddo tu, desan± v±ti c±pare”ti.
T²supi cetesu ete dhammatthadesan±paµivedh±ti ettha tanti-attho, tantidesan±, tanti-atthapaµivedho c±ti ime tayo tantivisay± hont²ti vinayapiµak±d²na½ atthadesan±paµivedh±dh±rabh±vo yutto, piµak±ni pana tantiyev±ti tesa½ dhamm±dh±rabh±vo katha½ yujjeyy±ti? Tantisamud±yassa avayavatantiy± ±dh±rabh±vato. Samud±yo hi avayavassa parikappan±mattasiddhena ±dh±rabh±vena vuccati yath± “rukkhe s±kh±”ti. Ettha ca dhamm±d²na½ dukkhog±habh±vato tehi dhamm±d²hi vinay±dayo gambh²r±ti vinay±d²nampi catubbidho gambh²rabh±vo vuttoyeva, tasm± dhamm±dayo eva dukkhog±hatt± gambh²r±, na vinay±dayoti na codetabbameta½ samukhena, visayavisay²mukhena ca vinay±d²naññeva gambh²rabh±vassa vuttatt±. Dhammo hi vinay±dayo eva abhinnatt±. Tesa½ visayo attho v±cakabh³t±na½ tesameva v±ccabh±vato, visayino desan±paµivedh± dhammatthavisayabh±vatoti. Tattha paµivedhassa dukkarabh±vato dhammatth±na½, desan±ñ±ºassa dukkarabh±vato desan±ya ca dukkhog±habh±vo veditabbo, paµivedhassa pana upp±detu½ asakkuºeyyatt±, tabbisayañ±ºuppattiy± ca dukkarabh±vato dukkhog±hat± veditabb±. Dhammatthadesan±na½ gambh²rabh±vato tabbisayo paµivedhopi gambh²ro yath± ta½ gambh²rassa udakassa pam±ºaggahaºe d²ghena pam±ºena bhavitabba½, eva½sampadamidanti (vajira. µ². paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±) vajirabuddhitthero. Piµak±vayav±na½ dhamm±d²na½ vuccam±no gambh²rabh±vo ta½samud±yassa piµakass±pi vuttoyeva, tasm± tath± na codetabbantipi vadanti, vic±retabbameta½ sabbesampi tesa½ piµak±vayav±sambhavato. Mah±samuddo dukkhog±ho, alabbhaneyyapatiµµho viya c±ti sambandho. Atthavas± hi vibhattivacanaliªgapariº±moti. Dukkhena ogayhanti, dukkho v± og±ho anto pavisanametes³ti dukkhog±h±. Na labhitabboti alabbhan²yo, soyeva alabbhaneyyo, labh²yate v± labbhana½, ta½ n±rahat²ti alabbhaneyyo. Patiµµhahanti ettha ok±seti patiµµho, patiµµhahana½ v± patiµµho, alabbhaneyyo so yesu te alabbhaneyyapatiµµh±. Ekadesena og±hantehipi mandabuddh²hi patiµµh± laddhu½ na sakk±yev±ti dassetu½ eta½ puna vutta½. “Evan”ti-±di nigamana½.
Id±ni hetuhetuphal±d²nampi vasena gambh²rabh±va½ dassento “aparo nayo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha het³ti paccayo. So ca attano phala½ dahati vidahat²ti dhammo da-k±rassa dha-k±ra½ katv±. Dhammasaddassa cettha hetupariy±yat± katha½ viññ±yat²ti ±ha “vuttañhetan”ti-±di. Vutta½ paµisambhid±vibhaªge (vibha. 718). Nanu ca “hetumhi ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±”ti etena vacanena dhammassa hetubh±vo katha½ viññ±yat²ti? “Dhammapaµisambhid±”ti etassa sam±sapadassa avayavapadattha½ dassentena “hetumhi ñ±ºan”ti vuttatt±. “Dhamme paµisambhid± dhammapaµisambhid±”ti ettha hi “dhamme”ti etassa attha½ dassentena “hetumh²”ti vutta½, “paµisambhid±”ti etassa attha½ dassentena “ñ±ºan”ti. Tasm± hetudhammasadd± ekatth±, ñ±ºapaµisambhid± sadd± c±ti imamattha½ vadantena s±dhito dhammassa hetubh±voti. Tath± “hetuphale ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti etena vacanena s±dhito atthassa hetuphalabh±voti daµµhabbo. Hetuno phala½ hetuphala½, tañca hetu-anus±rena ar²yati adhigam²yat²ti atthoti vuccati.
Desan±ti paññatt²ti ettha saddav±d²na½ v±de atthabyañjanak± avipar²t±bhil±padhammaniruttibh³t± paramatthasaddappabandhasaªkh±t± tanti “desan±”ti vuccati, desan± n±m±ti v± attho. Des²yati attho et±y±ti hi desan±. Pak±rena ñ±p²yati attho et±ya, pak±rato v± ñ±pet²ti paññatti. Tameva sar³pato dassetu½ “yath±dhamma½ dhamm±bhil±poti adhipp±yo”ti vutta½. Yath±dhammanti ettha pana dhammasaddo hetu½, hetuphalañca sabba½ saªgaºh±ti. Sabh±vav±cako hesa dhammasaddo, na pariyattihetu-±div±cako, tasm± yo yo avijj±saªkh±r±didhammo, tasmi½ tasminti attho. Tesa½ tesa½ avijj±saªkh±r±didhamm±na½ anur³pa½ v± yath±dhamma½. Desan±pi hi paµivedho viya avipar²tasavisayavibh±vanato dhamm±nur³pa½ pavattati, tatoyeva ca avipar²t±bhil±poti vuccati. Dhamm±bhil±poti hi atthabyañjanako avipar²t±bhil±po dhammaniruttibh³to tantisaªkh±to paramatthasaddappabandho. So hi abhilappati ucc±r²yat²ti abhil±po, dhammo avipar²to sabh±vabh³to abhil±po dhamm±bhil±poti vuccati, etena “tatra dhammanirutt±bhil±pe ñ±ºa½ niruttipaµisambhid±”ti (vibha. 718) ettha vutta½ dhammanirutti½ dasseti saddasabh±vatt± desan±ya. Tath± hi niruttipaµisambhid±ya paritt±rammaº±dibh±vo paµisambhid±vibhaªgap±¼iya½ (vibha. 718) vutto. Tadaµµhakath±ya ca “ta½ sabh±vanirutti½ sadda½ ±rammaºa½ katv±”ti-±din± (vibha. aµµha. 718) tass± sadd±rammaºat± dassit±. “Imassa atthassa aya½ saddo v±cako”ti hi vacanavacanatthe vavatthapetv± ta½ ta½ vacanatthavibh±vanavasena pavattito saddo “desan±”ti vuccati. “Adhipp±yo”ti etena “desan±ti paññatt²”ti eta½ vacana½ dhammanirutt±bhil±pa½ sandh±ya vutta½, na tato vinimutta½ paññatti½ sandh±y±ti dasseti anekadh± atthasambhave attan± adhippetatthasseva vuttatt±ti aya½ saddav±d²na½ v±dato vinicchayo.
Paññattiv±d²na½ v±de pana sammutiparamatthabhedassa atthass±nur³pav±cakabh±vena paramatthasaddesu bhagavat± manas± vavatth±pit± tantisaªkh±t± n±mapaññatti desan± n±ma, “desan±”ti v± vuccat²ti attho. Tadeva m³lak±raºabh³tassa saddassa dassanavasena k±raº³pac±rena dassetu½ “yath±dhamma½ dhamm±bhil±poti adhipp±yo”ti vutta½. Kiñc±pi hi “dhamm±bhil±po”ti ettha abhilappati ucc±r²yat²ti abhil±poti saddo vuccati, na paººatti, tath±pi sadde vuccam±ne tadanur³pa½ voh±ra½ gahetv± tena voh±rena d²pitassa atthassa j±nanato sadde kathite tadanur³p± paººattipi k±raº³pac±rena kathit±yeva hoti. Apica “dhamm±bhil±poti attho”ti avatv± “dhamm±bhil±poti adhipp±yo”ti vuttatt± desan± n±ma saddo na hot²ti d²pitameva. Tena hi adhipp±yamattameva m³lak±raºasaddavasena kathita½, na idha gahetabbo “desan±”ti etassa atthoti aya½ paññattiv±d²na½ v±dato vinicchayo. Atthantaram±ha “anuloma…pe… kathanan”ti, etena heµµh± vutta½ desan±samuµµh±paka½ cittupp±da½ dasseti. Kath²yati attho eten±ti hi kathana½. ¾disaddena n²taneyy±dik± p±¼igatiyo, ekatt±dinandiy±vatt±dik± p±¼inissit± ca nay± saªgahit±.