K±mañcettha paresa½ hitopasa½h±rasukh±di-aparih±nijjh±nasabh±vat±ya, by±p±d±d²na½ ujuvipaccan²kat±ya ca sattasant±nagatasant±pavicchedan±k±rappavattiy± mett±mudit±nampi cittas²talabh±vak±raºat± upalabbhati, tath±pi paradukkh±panayan±k±rappavattiy± par³pat±p±sahanaras± avihi½s±bh³t± karuº±va visesena bhagavato cittassa cittapassaddhi viya s²tibh±vanimittanti tass±yeva cittas²talabh±vak±raºat± vutt±. Karuº±mukhena v± mett±mudit±nampi hadayas²talabh±vak±raºat± vutt±ti daµµhabba½. Na hi sabbattha niravasesattho upadis²yati, padh±nasahacaraº±vin±bh±v±dinayehipi yath±labbham±na½ gayham±natt±. Apicettha ta½sampayuttañ±ºassa cha-as±dh±raºañ±ºapariy±pannat±ya as±dh±raºañ±ºavisesanibandhanabh³t± s±tisaya½, niravasesañca sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ viya savisayaby±pit±ya mah±karuº±bh±vamupagat± anaññas±dh±raºas±tisayabh±vappatt± karuº±va hadayas²talattahetubh±vena vutt±. Atha v± satipi mett±mudit±na½ paresa½ hitopasa½h±rasukh±di-aparih±nijjh±nasabh±vat±ya s±tisaye hadayas²talabh±vanibandhanatte sakalabuddhaguºavisesak±raºat±ya t±sampi k±raºanti karuº±ya eva hadayas²talabh±vak±raºat± vutt±. Karuº±nid±n± hi sabbepi buddhaguº±. Karuº±nubh±vanibb±piyam±nasa½s±radukkhasant±passa hi bhagavato paradukkh±panayanak±mat±ya anek±nipi kapp±namasaªkhyeyy±ni akilantar³passeva niravasesabuddhakaradhammasambharaºaniratassa samadhigatadhamm±dhipateyyassa ca sannihitesupi sattasaªgh±tasamupan²tahaday³pat±panimittesu na ²sakampi cittas²tibh±vassa aññathattamahos²ti. T²su cettha vikappesu paµhame vikappe avisesabh³t± buddhabh³migat±, dutiye tatheva mah±karuº±bh±v³pagat±, tatiye paµham±bhin²h±rato paµµh±ya t²supi avatth±su pavatt± bhagavato karuº± saªgahit±ti daµµhabba½.
Paj±n±t²ti paññ±, yath±sabh±va½ pak±rehi paµivijjhat²ti attho. Paññapet²ti v± paññ±, ta½ tadattha½ p±kaµa½ karot²ti attho. S±yeva ñeyy±varaºappah±nato pak±rehi dhammasabh±vajotanaµµhena pajjototi paññ±pajjoto. Paññavato hi ekapallaªkenapi nisinnassa dasasahassilokadh±tu ekapajjot± hoti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat± “catt±rome bhikkhave, pajjot±. Katame catt±ro? Candapajjoto, s³riyapajjoto, aggipajjoto, paññ±pajjoto, ime kho bhikkhave, catt±ro pajjot±. Etadagga½ bhikkhave, imesa½ catunna½ pajjot±na½ yadida½ paññ±pajjoto”ti (a. ni. 4.145). Tena vihato visesena samuggh±µitoti paññ±pajjotavihato, visesat± cettha upari ±vi bhavissati. Muyhanti tena, saya½ v± muyhati, muyhanamattameva v± tanti moho, avijj±. Sveva visayasabh±vapaµicch±danato andhak±rasarikkhat±ya tamo viy±ti mohatamo. Satipi tamasaddassa sadisakappanamantarena avijj±v±cakatte mohasaddasannidh±nena tabbisesakat±vettha yutt±ti sadisakappan±. Paññ±pajjotavihato mohatamo yass±ti paññ±pajjotavihatamohatamo, ta½ paññ±pajjotavihatamohatama½.
Nanu ca sabbesampi kh²º±sav±na½ paññ±pajjotena avijjandhak±rahatat± sambhavati, atha kasm± aññas±dh±raº±visesaguºena bhagavato thoman± vutt±ti? Sav±sanappah±nena anaññas±dh±raºavisesat±sambhavato. Sabbesampi hi kh²º±sav±na½ paññ±pajjotahat±vijjandhak±rattepi sati saddh±dhimuttehi viya diµµhippatt±na½ s±vakapaccekabuddhehi samm±sambuddh±na½ sav±sanappah±nena kilesappah±nassa viseso vijjatev±ti. Atha v± paropadesamantarena attano sant±ne accanta½ avijjandhak±ravigamassa nipph±ditatt± (nibbattitatt± ma. ni. µ². 1.1), tattha ca sabbaññut±ya balesu ca vas²bh±vassa samadhigatatt±, parasantatiyañca dhammadesan±tisay±nubh±vena sammadeva tassa pavattitatt±, bhagav±yeva visesato paññ±pajjotavihatamohatamabh±vena thometabboti. Imasmiñca atthavikappe paññ±pajjotapadena sasant±nagatamohavidhaman± paµivedhapaññ± ceva parasant±nagatamohavidhaman± desan±paññ± ca s±maññaniddesena, ekasesanayena v± saªgahit±. Na tu purimasmi½ atthavikappe viya paµivedhapaññ±yev±ti veditabba½.
Aparo nayo– bhagavato ñ±ºassa ñeyyapariyantikatt± sakalañeyyadhammasabh±v±vabodhanasamatthena an±varaºañ±ºasaªkh±tena paññ±pajjotena sakalañeyyadhammasabh±vacch±dakamohatamassa vihatatt± an±varaºañ±ºabh³tena anaññas±dh±raºapaññ±pajjotavihatamohatamabh±vena bhagavato thoman± veditabb±. Imasmi½ pana atthavikappe mohatamavidhamanante adhigatatt± an±varaºañ±ºa½ k±raº³pac±rena sakasant±ne mohatamavidhamananti veditabba½. Abhin²h±rasampattiy± sav±sanappah±nameva hi kiles±na½ ñeyy±varaºappah±nanti, parasant±ne pana mohatamavidhamanassa k±raºabh±vato phal³pac±rena an±varaºañ±ºameva mohatamavidhamananti vuccati. An±varaºañ±ºanti ca sabbaññutaññ±ºameva, yena dhammadesan±paccavekkhaº±ni karoti. Tadidañhi ñ±ºadvaya½ atthato ekameva. Anavasesasaªkhat±saªkhatasammutidhamm±rammaºat±ya sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ tatth±varaº±bh±vato nissaªgac±ramup±d±ya an±varaºañ±ºanti, visayappavattimukhena pana aññehi as±dh±raºabh±vadassanattha½ dvidh± katv± cha¼±s±dh±raºañ±ºabhede vutta½.
Ki½ panettha k±raºa½ avijj±samuggh±toyeveko pah±nasampattivasena bhagavato thoman±ya gayhati, na pana s±tisaya½ niravasesakilesappah±nanti? Vuccate– tappah±navacaneneva hi tadekaµµhat±ya sakalasa½kilesasamuggh±tassa jotitabh±vato niravasesakilesappah±namettha gayhati. Na hi so sa½kileso atthi, yo niravases±vijj±samuggh±tanena na pah²yat²ti. Atha v± sakalakusaladhammuppattiy±, sa½s±ranivattiy± ca vijj± viya niravases±kusaladhammuppattiy±, sa½s±rappavattiy± ca avijj±yeva padh±nak±raºanti tabbigh±tavacaneneva sakalasa½kilesasamuggh±tavacanasiddhito soyeveko gayhat²ti. Atha v± sakalasa½kilesadhamm±na½ muddhabh³tatt± avijj±ya ta½ samuggh±toyeveko gayhati. Yath±ha–
“Avijj± muddh±ti j±n±hi, vijj± muddh±dhip±tin²;
saddh±satisam±dh²hi, chandav²riyena sa½yut±”ti. (Su. ni. 1032; c³¼a. ni. 51).
Sanar±maralokagarunti ettha pana paµhamapakatiy± avibh±gena sattopi naroti vuccati, idha pana dutiyapakatiy± manujapurisoyeva, itarath± lokasaddassa avattabbat± siy±. “Yath± hi paµhamapakatibh³to satto itar±ya pakatiy± seµµhaµµhena pure uccaµµh±ne seti pavattat²ti purisoti vuccati, eva½ jeµµhabh±va½ net²ti naroti. Puttabh±tubh³topi hi puggalo m±tujeµµhabhagin²na½ pituµµh±ne tiµµhati, pageva bhattubh³to itar±san”ti (vi. aµµha. 43-46) n±v±vim±navaººan±ya½ vutta½. Ekasesappakappanena puthuvacanantaviggahena v± nar±, maraºa½ maro, so natthi yesanti amar±, saha narehi, amarehi c±ti sanar±maro.Garati uggacchati uggato p±kaµo bhavat²ti garu, garasaddo hi uggame. Apica p±s±ºacchatta½ viya bh±riyaµµhena “gar³”ti vuccati.
M±t±pit±cariyesu dujjare alahumhi ca;
mahante cuggate ceva, nichek±dikaresu ca;
tath± vaººavisesesu, garusaddo pavattati.

Idha pana sabbalok±cariye tath±gate. Keci pana “garu, gur³ti ca dvidh± gahetv± bh±riyav±cakatte garusaddo, ±cariyav±cakatte tu gurusaddo”ti vadanti, ta½ na gahetabba½. P±¼ivisaye hi sabbesampi yath±vutt±namatth±na½ v±cakatte garusaddoyevicchitabbo ak±rassa ±k±rabh±vena “g±ravan”ti taddhitantapadassa savuddhikassa dassanato. Sakkatabh±s±visaye pana gurusaddoyevicchitabbo uk±rassa vuddhibh±vena aññath± taddhitantapadassa dassanatoti. Sanar±maro ca so loko c±ti sanar±maraloko, tassa gar³ti tath±, ta½ sanar±maralokagaru½. “Sanaramar³lokagarun”tipi paµhanti, tadapi ariy±g±thatt± vuttilakkhaºato, atthato ca yuttameva. Atthato hi d²gh±yuk±pi sam±n± yath±pariccheda½ maraºasabh±vatt± mar³ti dev± vuccanti. Etena devamanuss±na½ viya tadavasiµµhasatt±nampi yath±raha½ guºavises±vahat±ya bhagavato upak±rakata½ dasseti. Nanu cettha devamanuss± padh±nabh³t±, atha kasm± tesa½ appadh±nat± niddis²yat²ti? Atthato padh±nat±ya gahetabbatt±. Añño hi saddakkamo, añño atthakkamoti saddakkam±nus±rena padh±n±padh±nabh±vo na codetabbo. Edisesu hi sam±sapadesu padh±nampi appadh±na½ viya niddis²yati yath± ta½ “sar±jik±ya paris±y±”ti, tasm± sabbattha atthatova adhipp±yo gavesitabbo, na byañjanamattena. Yath±hu por±º±–

“Atthañhi n±tho saraºa½ avoca,
na byañjana½ lokahito mahesi;
tasm± akatv± ratimakkharesu,
atthe niveseyya mati½ matim±”ti. (Kaªkh±. aµµha. paµhamap±r±jikakaº¹avaººan±).
K±mañcettha sattasaªkh±rabh±janavasena tividho loko, garubh±vassa pana adhippetatt± garukaraºasamatthasseva yujjanato sattalokavasena attho gahetabbo. So hi lok²yanti ettha puññ±puññ±ni tabbip±ko c±ti loko, dassanatthe ca lokasaddamicchanti saddavid³. Amaraggahaºena cettha upapattidev± adhippet±. Aparo nayo– sam³hattho ettha lokasaddo samud±yavasena lok²yati paññ±p²yat²ti katv±. Saha nareh²ti sanar±, teyeva amar±ti sanar±mar±, tesa½ loko tath±, purimanayeneva yojetabba½. Amarasaddena cettha upapattidev± viya visuddhidev±pi saªgayhanti. Tepi hi paramatthato maraº±bh±vato amar±. Imasmi½ pana atthavikappe nar±mar±nameva gahaºa½ ukkaµµhaniddesavasena yath± “satth± devamanuss±nan”ti (d². ni. 1.157, 255). Tath± hi sabb±natthaparih±napubbaªgam±ya niravasesahitasukhavidh±natappar±ya niratisay±ya payogasampattiy±, sadevamanuss±ya paj±ya accantamupak±rit±ya aparimitanirupamappabh±vaguºasamaªgit±ya ca sabbasattuttamo bhagav± aparim±º±su lokadh±t³su aparim±º±na½ satt±na½ uttamamanaññas±dh±raºa½ g±ravaµµh±nanti. K±mañca itth²nampi tath±-upak±ratt± bhagav± garuyeva, padh±nabh³ta½ pana loka½ dassetu½ purisaliªgena vuttanti daµµhabba½. Neruttik± pana avisesanicchitaµµh±ne tath± niddiµµhamicchanti yath± “nar± n±g± ca gandhabb±, abhiv±detv±na pakkamun”ti (apa. 1.1.48). Tath± c±hu–
“Napu½sakena liªgena, saddod±hu pumena v±;
niddissat²ti ñ±tabbamavisesavinicchite”ti.
Vandeti ettha pana–
Vattam±n±ya pañcamya½, sattamyañca vibhattiya½;
etesu t²su µh±nesu, vandesaddo pavattati.

Idha pana vattam±n±ya½ aññ±samasambhavato. Tattha ca uttamapurisavasenattho gahetabbo “aha½ vand±m²”ti. Namanathutiyatthesu ca vandasaddamicchanti ±cariy±, tena ca sugatapada½, n±thapada½ v± ajjh±haritv± yojetabba½. Sobhana½ gata½ gamana½ etass±ti sugato. Gamanañcettha k±yagamana½, ñ±ºagamanañca, k±yagamanampi vineyyajanopasaªkamana½, pakatigamanañc±ti dubbidha½. Bhagavato hi vineyyajanopasaªkamana½ ekantena tesa½ hitasukhanipph±danato sobhana½, tath± lakkhaº±nubyañjanapaµimaº¹itar³pak±yat±ya dutavilambitakhalit±nuka¹¹hananipp²¼anukkuµika-kuµil±kulat±didosarahita- mavahasitar±jaha½sa- vasabhav±raºamigar±jagamana½ pakatigamanañca, vimalavipulakaruº±sativ²riy±diguºavisesasahitampi ñ±ºagamana½ abhin²h±rato paµµh±ya y±va mah±bodhi, t±va niravajjat±ya sobhanamev±ti. Atha v± “sayambh³ñ±ºena sakalampi loka½ pariññ±bhisamayavasena parij±nanto samm± gato avagatoti sugato. Yo hi gatyattho, so buddhayattho. Yo ca buddhayattho, so gatyatthoti. Tath± lokasamudaya½ pah±n±bhisamayavasena pajahanto anuppattidhammatam±p±dento samm± gato at²toti sugato. Lokanirodha½ sacchikiriy±bhisamayavasena samm± gato adhigatoti sugato. Lokanirodhag±mini½ paµipada½ bh±van±bhisamayavasena samm± gato paµipannoti sugato, ayañcattho ‘sot±pattimaggena ye kiles± pah²n±, te kilese na puneti na pacceti na pacc±gacchat²’ti (mah±ni. 38; c³¼ani. 27) sugatoti-±din± niddesanayena vibh±vetabbo.