Kec²ti khandhakabh±ºak±. Paµhama½ vutto pana dhammapadabh±ºak±na½ v±do. Yad±…pe… dhamm±ti ettha nidassanattho, ±dyattho ca iti-saddo luttaniddiµµho. Nidassanena hi mariy±davacanena vin± padatthavipall±sak±rin±va attho paripuººo na hoti. Tattha ±dyatthameva iti-sadda½ gahetv± iti-saddo ±di-attho, “tena ±t±pino…pe… sahetudhamman’ti-±dig±th±ttaya½ saªgaºh±t²”ti (s±rattha. µ². paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±) ±cariyas±riputtattherena vutta½. Khandhaketi mah±vagge. Ud±nag±thanti j±tiy± ekavacana½, tatth±pi v± paµhamag±thameva gahetv± vuttanti veditabba½.
Ettha ca khandhakabh±ºak± eva½ vadanti “dhammapadabh±ºak±na½ g±th± manas±va desitatt± tad± mahato janassa upak±r±ya n±hosi, amh±ka½ pana g±th± vac²bheda½ katv± desitatt± tad± suºant±na½ devabrahm±na½ upak±r±ya ahosi, tasm± idameva paµhamabuddhavacanan”ti. Dhammapadabh±ºak± pana “desan±ya janassa upak±r±nupak±rabh±vo paµhamabh±ve lakkhaºa½ na hoti, bhagavat± manas± paµhama½ desitatt± idameva paµhamabuddhavacanan”ti vadanti Tasm± ubhayampi ubhayath± yujjat²ti veditabba½. Nanu ca yadi “anekaj±tisa½s±ran”ti g±th± manas±va desit±, atha kasm± dhammapadaµµhakath±ya½ “anekaj±tisa½s±ran’ti ima½ dhammadesana½ satth± bodhirukkham³le nisinno ud±navasena ud±netv± aparabh±ge ±nandattherena puµµho kathes²”ti (dha. pa. aµµha. 2.152 ud±navatthu) vuttanti? Atthavasena tath±yeva gahetabbatt±. Tatth±pi hi manas± ud±netv±ti atthoyeva gahetabbo. Desan± viya hi ud±nampi manas± ud±na½, vacas± ud±nanti dvidh± viññ±yati. Yadi c±ya½ vacas± ud±na½ siy±, ud±nap±¼iyam±ru¼h± bhaveyya tasm± ud±nap±¼iyaman±ru¼habh±voyeva vacas± anud±netv± manas± ud±nabh±ve k±raºanti daµµhabba½. “P±µipadadivase”ti ida½ “sabbaññubh±vappattass±”ti etena na sambajjhitabba½, “paccavekkhantassa uppann±”ti etena pana sambajjhitabba½. Vis±khapuººam±yameva hi bhagav± pacc³sasamaye sabbaññuta½ patto. Lokiyasamaye pana evampi sambajjhana½ bhavati, tath±pi nesa s±sanasamayoti na gahetabba½. Somanassameva somanassamaya½ yath± “d±namaya½, s²lamayan”ti, (d². ni. 3.305; itivu. 60; netti. 34) ta½sampayuttañ±ºen±ti attho. Somanassena v± sahaj±t±disattiy± pakata½, t±disena ñ±ºen±tipi vaµµati.
Hand±ti codanatthe nip±to. Iªgha samp±deth±ti hi codeti. ¾mantay±m²ti paµiveday±mi, bodhem²ti attho. Voti pana “±mantay±m²”ti etassa kammapada½. “¾mantanatthe dutiy±yeva, na catutth²”ti hi vatv± tamevud±haranti akkharacintak±. Vayadhamm±ti aniccalakkhaºamukhena saªkh±r±na½ dukkh±nattalakkhaºampi vibh±veti “yadanicca½, ta½ dukkha½. Ya½ dukkha½, tadanatt±”ti (sa½. ni. 2.15, 45, 76, 77; 2.3.1, 4; paµi. ma. 2.10) vacanato. Lakkhaºattayavibh±vananayeneva ca tad±rammaºa½ vipassana½ dassento sabbatitthiy±na½ avisayabh³ta½ buddh±veºika½ catusaccakammaµµh±n±dhiµµh±na½ avipar²ta½ nibb±nag±minipaµipada½ pak±set²ti daµµhabba½. Id±ni tattha samm±paµipattiya½ niyojeti “appam±dena samp±deth±”ti, t±ya catusaccakammaµµh±n±dhiµµh±n±ya avipar²tanibb±nag±minipaµipad±ya appam±dena samp±deth±ti attho. Apica “vayadhamm± saªkh±r±”ti etena saªkhepena sa½vejetv± “appam±dena samp±deth±”ti saªkhepeneva niravasesa½ samm±paµipatti½ dasseti Appam±dapadañhi sikkhattayasaªgahita½ kevalaparipuººa½ s±sana½ pariy±diyitv± tiµµhati, sikkhattayasaªgahit±ya kevalaparipuºº±ya s±sanasaªkh±t±ya samm±paµipattiy± appam±dena samp±deth±ti attho. Ubhinnamantareti dvinna½ vacan±namantar±¼e vemajjhe. Ettha hi k±lavat± k±lopi nidassito tadavin±bh±vitt±ti veditabbo.
Suttantapiµakanti ettha suttameva suttanta½ yath± “kammanta½, vanantan”ti. Saªg²tañca asaªg²tañc±ti sabbasar³pam±ha. “Asaªg²tanti ca saªg²tikkhandhakakath±vatthuppakaraº±di. Keci pana ‘subhasutta½ (d². ni. 1.444) paµhamasaªg²tiyamasaªg²tan’ti vadanti, ta½ na yujjati. Paµhamasaªg²tito puretarameva hi ±yasmat± ±nandattherena jetavane viharantena subhassa m±ºavassa bh±sitan”ti (d². ni. µ². paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±) ±cariyadhammap±lattherena vutta½. Subhasutta½ pana “eva½ me sutta½ eka½ samaya½ ±yasm± ±nando s±vatthiya½ viharati jetavane an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me aciraparinibbute bhagavat²”ti-±din± (d². ni. 1.444) ±gata½. Tattha “eva½ me sutan”ti-±divacana½ paµhamasaªg²tiya½ ±yasmat± ±nandatthereneva vattu½ yuttar³pa½ na hoti. Na hi ±nandatthero sayameva subhasutta½ desetv± “eva½ me sutan”ti-±d²ni vadati. Eva½ pana vattabba½ siy± “ekamid±ha½ bhante samaya½ s±vatthiya½ vihar±mi jetavane an±thapiº¹ikassa ±r±me”ti-±di. Tasm± dutiyatatiyasaªg²tik±rakehi “eva½ me sutan”ti-±din± subhasutta½ saªg²tim±ropita½ viya dissati. Ath±cariyadhammap±lattherassa evamadhipp±yo siy± “±nandatthereneva vuttampi subhasutta½ paµhamasaªg²tim±ropetv± tanti½ µhapetuk±mehi mah±kassapatther±d²hi aññesu suttesu ±gatanayeneva ‘eva½ me sutan’ti-±din± tanti µhapit±”ti. Eva½ sati yujjeyya. Atha v± ±yasm± ±nando subhasutta½ saya½ desentopi s±maññaphal±d²su bhagavat± desitanayeneva deses²ti bhagavato sammukh± laddhanaye µhatv± desitatt± bhagavat± desita½ dhamma½ attani adahanto “eva½ me sutan”ti-±dim±h±ti evamadhipp±yepi sati yujjateva. “Anusaªg²tañc±”tipi p±µho. Dutiyatatiyasaªg²t²su puna saªg²tañc±ti atthavasena ninn±n±karaºameva. Samodh±netv± vinayapiµaka½ n±ma veditabba½, sutta…pe… abhidhammapiµaka½ n±ma veditabbanti yojan±.
Bhikkhubhikkhun²p±timokkhavasena ubhay±ni p±timokkh±ni. Bhikkhubhikkhun²vibhaªgavasena dve vibhaªg±. Mah±vaggac³¼avaggesu ±gat± dv±v²sati khandhak±. Pacceka½ so¼asahi v±rehi upalakkhitatt± so¼asa pariv±r±ti vutta½. Pariv±rap±¼iyañhi mah±vibhaªge so¼asa v±r±, bhikkhun²vibhaªge so¼asa v±r± c±ti b±tti½sa v±r± ±gat±. Potthakesu pana katthaci “pariv±r±”ti ettakameva dissati, bah³su pana potthakesu vinayaµµhakath±ya½, abhidhammaµµhakath±yañca “so¼asa pariv±r±”ti evameva dissam±natt± ayampi p±µho na sakk± paµib±hitunti tassevattho vutto. “It²”ti yath±vutta½ buddhavacana½ nidassetv± “idan”ti ta½ par±masati. Iti-saddo v± idamatthe, idanti vacanasiliµµhat±matta½, iti idanti v± pariy±yadvaya½ idamattheyeva vattati “id±netarahi vijjat²”ti-±d²su viya. Esa nayo ²disesu. Brahmaj±l±d²ni catutti½sa sutt±ni saªgayhanti ettha, etena v±, tesa½ v± saªgaho gaºan± etass±ti brahmaj±l±dicatutti½sasuttasaªgaho. Evamitaresupi. Heµµh± vuttesu d²ghabh±ºakamajjhimabh±ºak±na½ v±desu majjhimabh±ºak±naññeva v±dassa yuttataratt± khuddakap±µh±dayopi suttantapiµakeyeva saªgahetv± dassento “khuddaka…pe… suttantapiµaka½ n±m±”ti ±ha. Tattha “suº±tha bh±vitatt±na½, g±th± atth³pan±yik±ti (therag±. nid±nag±th±) vuttatt± “therag±th± ther²g±th±”ti ca p±µho yutto.
Eva½ sar³pato piµakattaya½ niyametv± id±ni nibbacana½ dassetu½ “tatth±”ti-±di vutta½. Tatth±ti tesu tibbidhesu piµakesu. Vividhavisesanayatt±ti vividhanayatt±, visesanayatt± ca. Vinayanatoti vinayanabh±vato, bh±vappadh±naniddesoya½, bh±valopo v±, itarath± dabbameva padh±na½ siy±, tath± ca sati vinayanat±guºasamaªgin± vinayadabbeneva hetubh³tena vinayoti akkh±to, na pana vinayanat±guºen±ti anadhippetatthappasaªgo bhaveyya. Aya½ nayo edisesu. Vin²yate v± vinayana½, tatoti attho. Aya½ vinayoti atthapaññattibh³to saññ²saªkh±to aya½ tanti vinayo. Vinayoti akkh±toti saddapaññattibh³to saññ±saªkh±to vinayo n±m±ti kathito. Atthapaññattiy± hi n±mapaññattivibh±vana½ nibbacananti.
Id±ni imiss± g±th±ya attha½ vibh±vento ±ha “vividh± h²”ti-±di. “Vividh± ettha nay±, tasm± vividhanayatt± vinayoti akkh±to”ti-±din± yojetabba½. Vividhatta½ sar³pato dasseti “pañcavidh±”ti-±din±, tath± visesattampi “da¼h²kamm±”ti-±din±. Lokavajjesu sikkh±padesu da¼h²kammapayojan±, paººattivajjesu sithilakaraºapayojan±. Saññamavela½ abhibhavitv± pavatto ±c±ro ajjh±c±ro, v²tikkamo, k±ye, v±c±ya ca pavatto so, tassa nisedhana½ tath±, tena tath±nisedhanameva pariy±yena k±yav±c±vinayana½ n±m±ti dasseti. “Tasm±”ti vatv± tass±nekadh± par±masanam±ha “vividhanayatt±”ti-±di. Yath±vutt± ca g±th± ²disassa nibbacanassa pak±sanattha½ vutt±ti dassetu½ “ten±”ti-±di vutta½. Ten±ti vividhanayatt±dihetun± karaºabh³ten±ti vadanti. Apica “vividh± h²”ti-±div±kyassa yath±vuttassa guºa½ dassento “ten±”ti-±dim±h±tipi sambandha½ vadanti. Eva½ sati ten±ti vividhanayatt±din± hetubh³ten±ti attho. Atha v± yath±vuttavacanameva sandh±ya por±ºehi aya½ g±th± vutt±ti sa½sandetu½ “ten±”ti-±di vuttantipi vadanti, dutiyanaye viya “ten±”ti padassa attho. Etanti g±th±vacana½. Etass±ti vinayasaddassa, “vacanatth±”ti padena sambandho. “Vacanassa attho”ti hi sambandhe vuttepi tassa vacanas±maññato visesa½ dassetu½ “etass±”ti puna vutta½. Neruttik± pana sam±sataddhitesu siddhesu s±maññatt±, n±masaddatt± ca edisesu saddantarena visesitabh±va½ icchanti.
“Atth±nan”ti pada½ “s³canato…pe… sutt±º±”ti padehi yath±raha½ kammasambandhavasena yojetabba½. Tamattha½ vivarati “tañh²”ti-±din±. Attatthaparatth±dibhede attheti yo ta½ sutta½ sajjh±yati, suº±ti, v±ceti, cinteti, deseti ca, suttena saªgahito s²l±di-attho tassapi hoti, tena parassa s±dhetabbato parassap²ti tadubhaya½ ta½ sutta½ s³ceti d²peti, tath± diµµhadhammikasampar±yikatthe lokiyalokuttaratthe c±ti evam±dibhede atthe ±di-saddena saªgaºh±ti. Atthasaddo c±ya½ hitapariy±yo, na bh±sitatthavacano. Yadi siy±, sutta½ attanopi bh±sitattha½ s³ceti, parassap²ti ayamanadhippetattho vutto siy±. Suttena hi yo attho pak±sito, so tasseva pak±sakassa suttassa hoti, tasm± na tena parattho s³cito, tena s³cetabbassa paratthassa nivattetabbassa abh±v± attatthaggahaºañca na kattabba½. Attatthaparatthavinimuttassa bh±sitatthassa abh±v± ±diggahaºañca na kattabba½, tasm± yath±vuttassa hitapariy±yassa atthassa sutte asambhavato sutt±dh±rassa puggalassa vasena attatthaparatth± vutt±.
Atha v± sutta½ anapekkhitv± ye attatth±dayo atthappabhed± “na ha’ññadattha’tthi pasa½sal±bh±”ti etassa padassa niddese (mah±ni. 63) vutt± “attattho, parattho, ubhayattho, diµµhadhammiko attho, sampar±yiko attho, utt±no attho, gambh²ro attho, g³¼ho attho, paµicchanno attho, neyyo attho, n²to attho, anavajjo attho, nikkileso attho, vod±no attho, paramattho”ti, (mah±ni. 63) te atthappabhede s³cet²ti attho gahetabbo. Kiñc±pi hi suttanirapekkha½ attatth±dayo vutt± suttatthabh±vena aniddiµµhatt±, tesu pana ekopi atthappabhedo suttena d²petabbata½ n±tivattat²ti. Imasmiñca atthavikappe atthasaddo bh±sitatthapariy±yopi hoti. Ettha hi purimak± pañca atthappabhed± hitapariy±y±, tato pare cha bh±sitatthappabhed±, pacchimak± catt±ro ubhayasabh±v±. Tattha suviññeyyat±ya vibh±vena anag±dhabh±vo utt±no. Duradhigamat±ya vibh±vena ag±dhabh±vo gambh²ro. Avivaµo g³¼ho. M³ludak±dayo viya pa½sun± akkharasannives±din± tirohito paµicchanno. Niddh±retv± ñ±petabbo neyyo. Yath±rutavasena veditabbo n²to. Anavajjanikkilesavod±n± pariy±yavasena vutt±, kusalavip±kakiriy±dhammavasena v± yath±kkama½ yojetabb±. Paramattho nibb±na½, dhamm±na½ avipar²tasabh±vo eva v±.