N±v± aµµh±si tassa p±pakammabalena v±tassa av±yanato. Ekadivasa½ rakkhita-uposathakamm±nubh±vena sampatti½ anubhavanto. Yath± purim±hi parato m± agam±s²ti vutto, eva½ apar±par±hip²ti ±ha “t±hi ‘parato parato m± agam±s²’ti vuccam±no”ti. Khuracakkadharanti khuradh±r³pamacakkadhara½ eka½ purisa½. Upaµµh±si p±pakammassa balena.
Catubbh²ti cat³hi acchar±sadis²hi vim±napet²hi, sampatti½ anubhavitv±ti vacanaseso. Aµµhajjhagam±ti r³p±dik±maguºehi tato visiµµhatar± aµµha vim±napetiyo adhigacchi. Atricchanti atricch±saªkh±tena atilobhena samann±gatatt± atra atra k±maguºe icchanto. Cakkanti khuracakka½. ¾sadoti anatth±vahabh±vena ±s±deti.
Soti gehas±miko bhatt±. Purimanayenev±ti anudahanassa paccayat±ya.
Atic±rin²ti s±mika½ atikkamitv± c±rin² micch±c±rin². Ratti½ dukkhanti attano p±pakamm±nubh±vasamupaµµhitena sunakhena kh±ditabbat±dukkha½. Vañcetv±ti ta½ aj±n±petv±va k±raºaµµh±nagamana½ sandh±ya vutta½. Paµapaµant²ti paµapaµ± katv±. Anuravadassanañheta½. Muµµhiyogo kir±ya½ tassa sunakhantaradh±nassa, yadida½ khe¼apiº¹a½ bh³miya½ niµµhubhitv± p±dena gha½sana½. Tena vutta½ “so tath± ak±si. Sunakh± antaradh±yi½s³”ti.
Dakkhiº±ti catt±ro paccay± diyyam±n± dakkhanti etehi hitasukh±n²ti. Ta½ dakkhiºa½ arahat²ti dakkhiºeyyo, bhikkhusaªgho. Revat²vatthu vim±navatthupetavatth³su (vi. va. 861 ±dayo) tesa½ aµµhakath±yañca (vi. va. 977-980; pe va. aµµha. 714-736) ±gatanayena veditabba½.
“Tividhena r³pasaªgaho”ti ettha nanu saªgaho ekavidhova, so kasm± “catubbidho”ti vuttoti? “Saªgaho”ti attha½ avatv± aniddh±ritatthassa saddasseva vuttatt±. “Tividhena r³pasaªgaho”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. r³pakaº¹a-tike) padesu saªgaha-saddo t±va attano atthavasena catubbidhoti ayañhettha attho. Atthopi v± aniddh±ritaviseso s±maññena gahetabbata½ patto “tividhena r³pasaªgaho”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. r³pakaº¹a-tike) “saªgaho”ti vuttoti na koci doso. Niddh±rite hi visese tassa ekavidhat± siy±, na tato pubbeti. “J±tisaªgaho”ti vuttepi j±ti-saddassa s±pekkhasaddatt± attano j±tiy± saªgahoti ayamattho viññ±yateva sambandh±rahassa aññassa avuttatt± yath± “m±t±pitu upaµµh±nan”ti (khu. p±. 5.6; su. ni. 265). Aµµhakath±ya½ pana yath±dhippetamattha½ aparipuººa½ katv± dassetu½ “j±tisaªgaho” icceva vutta½. Sam±naj±tik±na½ saªgaho, sam±naj±tiy± v± saªgaho saj±tisaªgaho. Sañj±yati etth±ti sañj±ti, sañj±tiy± saªgaho sañj±tisaªgaho, sañj±tidesena saªgahoti attho. Kiriy±ya evar³p±ya saªgaho kiriy±saªgaho. R³pakkhandhagaºananti “r³pakkhandho”ti gaºana½ saªkhya½ gacchati ruppanasabh±vatt±. T²hi koµµh±sehi r³pagaºan±ti vakkham±nehi t²hi bh±gehi r³passa saªgaho, gaºetabbat±ti attho.
R³p±yatana½ nipassati paccakkhato vij±n±t²ti nidassana½ cakkhuviññ±ºa½, nidassat²ti v± nidassana½, daµµhabbabh±vo, cakkhuviññ±ºassa gocarabh±vo, tassa ca r³p±yatanato anaññattepi aññehi dhammehi r³p±yatana½ visesetu½ añña½ viya katv± “saha nidassanen±ti sanidassanan”ti evamettha attho veditabbo. Dhammasabh±vas±maññena hi ek²bh³tesu dhammesu yo n±nattakaro sabh±vo, so añño viya katv± upacaritu½ yutto. Evañhi atthavises±vabodho hot²ti. Cakkhupaµihananasamatthatoti cakkhuno ghaµµanasamatthat±ya. Ghaµµana½ viya ca ghaµµana½ daµµhabba½. Dutiyena atthavikappena daµµhabbabh±vasaªkh±ta½ n±ssa nidassananti anidassananti yojan±. Ettha ca dasanna½ ±yatan±na½ yath±raha½ saya½, nissayavasena ca sampatt±na½, asampatt±nañca paµimukhabh±vo aññamaññapatana½ paµihanana½, yena by±p±r±divik±rapaccayantarasannidh±ne cakkh±d²na½ visayesu vik±ruppatti. Tattha by±p±ro cakkh±d²na½ savisayesu ±vicchanna½, r³p±d²na½ iµµh±niµµhat±, tattha ca cittassa ±bhujananti ime ±disaddasaªgahit±. Tehi vik±rappattiy± paccayantaraby±p±rato aññanti katv± anuggah³pagh±to vik±ro. Upanissayo pana appadh±nassa paccayo idha gahito. K±raºak±raºampi k±raºamev±ti gayham±ne siy± tass±pi saªgahoti. Vuttappak±ranti “cakkhuviññ±ºasaªkh±tan”ti vuttappak±ra½. N±ssa paµighoti etth±pi “vuttappak±ran”ti ±netv± sambandho. Avasesa½ so¼asavidha½ sukhumar³pa½.
Saªkharont²ti sampiº¹enti. Cetan± hi ±y³hanarasat±ya yath± sampayuttadhamme yath±saka½ kiccesu sa½vidahant² viya abhisandahant² vattam±n± teneva kiccavisesena te sampiº¹ent² viya hoti, eva½ attano vip±kadhammepi paccayasamav±ye saªkharont² sampiº¹ent² viya hoti. Ten±ha “sahaj±ta…pe… r±s² karont²”ti. Abhisaªkharot²ti abhivisiµµha½ katv± saªkharoti. Puññ±bhisaªkh±ro hi attano phala½ itarassa phalato ativiya visiµµha½ bhinna½ katv± saªkharoti paccayato, sabh±vato, pavatti-±k±rato ca saya½ itarehi visiµµhasabh±vatt±. Esa nayo itarehipi. Pujjabhavaphalanibbattanato, attano sant±nassa punanato ca puñño.
Mah±cittacetan±nanti asaªkhyeyy±yunipph±dan±dimah±nubh±vat±ya mah±cittesu pavattacetan±na½. Aµµheva cetan± honti, y± k±m±vacar± kusal±. “Terasap²”ti kasm± vutta½, nanu “nav±”ti vattabba½. Na hi bh±van± ñ±ºarahit± yutt±ti anuyoga½ sandh±y±ha “yath± h²”ti-±di. Kasiºaparikamma½ karontass±ti kasiºesu jh±naparikamma½ karontassa. “Pathav² pathav²”ti-±di bh±van± hi kasiºaparikamma½. Tassa hi parikammassa supaguºabh±vato anuyuttassa tattha ±dar±karaºena siy± ñ±ºarahitacitta½. Jh±napaccavekkhaº±yapi eseva nayo. Keci maº¹alakaraºampi bh±vana½ bhaj±penti.
D±navasena pavattacittacetasikadhamm± d±na½, tattha by±p±rabh³t± ±y³hanacetan± d±na½ ±rabbha, d±nañca adhikicca uppajjat²ti vutt±. Eva½ itaresupi. Aya½ saªkhepadesan±ti aya½ puññ±bhisaªkh±re saªkhepato atthadesan±, atthavaººan±ti attho.
Somanassacitten±ti anumodan±pavattidassanamattameta½ daµµhabba½. Upekkh±sahagaten±pi hi anussarati ev±ti. K±ma½ niccas²la½, uposathas²la½, niyamas²lampi s²lameva, paripuººa½ pana sabbaªgasampanna½ s²la½ dassetu½ “s²lap³raºatth±y±”ti-±di vutta½. Nayadassana½ v± eta½, tasm± “niccas²la½, uposathas²la½, niyamas²la½ sam±diyiss±m²”ti vih±ra½ gacchantassa, sam±diyitv± sam±dinnas²le ca tasmi½, “s±dhu suµµh³”ti ±vajjantassa, ta½ s²la½ sodhentassa ca pavatt± cetan± s²lamay±ti evamettha yojan± veditabb±.
Pubbe samathavasena bh±van±nayo gahitoti id±ni sammasananayena ta½ dassetu½ “paµisambhid±ya½ vutten±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha aniccatoti aniccabh±vato. Dukkhato, anattatoti etth±pi eseva nayo.
Tattha ye pañcup±d±nakkhandh± n±mar³pabh±vena pariggahit±, te yasm± dv±r±rammaºehi saddhi½ dv±rappavattadhammavasena vibh±ga½ labhanti, tasm± dv±rachakk±divasena cha chakk± gahit±. Yasm± pana lakkhaºesu anattalakkhaºa½ dubbibh±va½, tasm± tassa vibh±van±ya cha dh±tuyo gahit±. Tato yesu kasiºesu ito b±hirak±na½ att±bhiniveso, t±ni imesa½ jh±n±na½ ±rammaºabh±vena upaµµh±n±k±ramatt±ni, im±ni pana t±ni jh±n±n²ti dassanattha½ dasa kasiº±ni gahit±ni. Tato dukkh±nupassan±ya pariv±rabh±vena paµikk³l±k±ravasena dvatti½sa koµµh±s± gahit±. Pubbe khandhavasena saªkhepato ime dhamm± gahit±, id±ni n±tisaªkhepavitth±ranayena ca manasi k±tabb±ti dassanattha½ dv±das±yatan±ni, aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo ca gahit±. Tesu ime dhamm± satipi suññ±nir²ha-aby±p±rabh±ve dhammasabh±vato ±dhipaccabh±vena pavattant²ti anattabh±vavibh±vanattha½ indriy±ni gahit±ni. Eva½ anekabhedabhinn±pi ime dhamm± bh³mittayapariy±pannat±ya tividh±va hont²ti dassanattha½ tisso dh±tuyo gahit±. Ett±vat± nimitta½ dassetv± pavatta½ dassetu½ k±mabhav±dayo nava bhav± gahit±. Ettake abhiññeyyavisese pavattamanasik±rakosallena saºhasukhumesu nibbattitamahaggatadhammesu manasik±ro pavattetabboti dassanattha½ jh±na-appamaññ±r³p±ni gahit±ni. Tattha jh±n±ni n±ma vutt±vases±rammaº±ni r³p±vacarajjh±n±ni. Puna paccayapaccayuppannavibh±gato ime dhamm± vibhajja manasik±tabb±ti dassanattha½ paµiccasamupp±daªg±ni gahit±ni. Paccay±k±ramanasik±ro hi sukhena, suµµhutarañca lakkhaºattaya½ vibh±veti, tasm± so pacchato gahito. Eva½ ete sammasan²yabh±vena gahit± khandh±divasena koµµh±sato pañcav²satividh±, pabhedato pana at²t±dibheda½ an±masitv± gayham±n± dv²hi ³n±ni dvesat±ni honti. Ida½ t±vettha p±¼ivavatth±na½, atthavic±ra½ pana icchantehi paramatthamañj³s±ya½ visuddhimaggasa½vaººan±ya½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½.
Na puññoti apuñño. Tassa puñña-sadde vuttavipariy±yena attho veditabbo. Sant±nassa iñjanahet³na½ n²varaº±d²na½ suvikkhambhanato r³pataºh±saªkh±tassa iñjitassa abh±vato aniñja½, aniñjameva “±neñjan”ti vutta½. Tath± hi r³p±rammaºa½ r³panimitt±rammaºa½ sabbampi catutthajjh±na½ nippariy±yena “±neñjan”ti vuccati.
Catt±ro maggaµµh±, heµµhim± tayo phalaµµh±ti eva½ sattavidho. Tisso sikkh±ti adhis²l±dik± tisso sikkh±. T±su j±toti v± sekkho, ariyapuggalo hi ariy±ya j±tiy± j±yam±no sikkh±su j±yati, na yoniya½. Sikkhanas²loti v± sekkho. Puggal±dhiµµh±n±ya v± kath±ya sekkhassa ayanti aññ±s±dh±raºamaggaphalattayadhamm± sekkhapariy±yena vutt±. Asekkhoti ca yattha sekkhabh±v±saªk± atthi, tatth±ya½ paµisedhoti lokiyanibb±nesu asekkhabh±van±patti daµµhabb±. S²lasam±dhipaññ±saªkh±t± hi sikkh± attano paµipakkhakilesehivippamutt± parisuddh± upakkiles±na½ ±rammaºabh±vampi anupagamanato et± “sikkh±”ti vattu½ yutt± aµµhasupi maggaphalesu vijjanti, tasm± catumaggaheµµhimaphalattayasamaªgino viya arahattaphalasamaªg²pi t±su sikkh±su j±toti ca ta½samaªgino arahato itaresa½ viya sekkhatte sati sekkhassa ayanti ca sikkh± s²la½ etass±ti ca “sekkho”ti vattabbo siy±ti tannivattanattha½ asekkhoti yath±vuttasekkhabh±vapaµisedho kato. Arahattaphale hi pavattam±n± sikkh± pariniµµhitasikkh±kiccatt± na sikkh±kicca½ karonti, kevala½ sikkh±phalabh±veneva pavattanti, tasm± na t± sikkh±vacana½ arahanti, n±pi ta½samaªg² sekkhavacana½, na ca “sikkhanas²lo, sikkh±su j±to”ti ca vattabbata½ arahati. Heµµhimaphalesu pana sikkh± sakad±g±mimaggavipassan±d²na½ upanissayabh±vato sikkh±kicca½ karont²ti sikkh±vacana½ arahanti, ta½samaªgino ca sekkhavacana½, “sikkhanas²l±, sikkh±su j±t±”ti ca vattabbata½ arahanti.
“Sikkhat²ti sekkho”ti ca apariyositasikkho dassitoti. Anantarameva “kh²º±savo”ti ±di½ vatv± “na sikkhat²ti asekkho”ti vuttatt± pariyositasikkho dassito, na sikkh±rahito tassa tatiyapuggalabh±vena gahitatt±. Vuddhippattasikkho v± asekkhoti etasmi½ atthe sekkhadhammesu eva µhitassa kassaci ariyassa asekkhabh±v±patt²ti arahattamaggadhamm± vuddhippatt±, yath±vuttehi ca atthehi sekkhoti katv± ta½samaªgino aggamaggaµµhassa asekkhabh±vo ±pannoti? Na ta½sadisesu tabboh±rato. Arahattamaggato hi ninn±n±karaºa½ arahattaphala½ µhapetv± pariññ±dikiccakaraºa½, vip±kabh±vañca, tasm± te eva sekkhadhamm± “aggaphaladhammabh±va½ ±pann±”ti sakk± vattu½, kusalasukhato ca vip±kasukha½ santatarat±ya paº²tataranti, vuddhippatt± ca te dhamm± hont²ti ta½samaªg² “asekkho”ti vuccat²ti.