Suppatiµµhitap±dat±lakkhaºavaººan±

201. “Purima½ j±tinti purim±ya½ j±tiya½, bhummatthe eta½ upayogavacanan”ti vadanti. “Pubbe nivutthakkhandhasant±ne µhito”ti vacanato accantasa½yoge v± upayogavacana½. Yattha yattha hi j±tiya½ mah±satto puññakamma½ k±tu½ ±rabhati, ±rabhato paµµh±ya accantameva tattha puññakammappasuto hoti. Ten±ha “da¼hasam±d±no”ti-±di. Sesapadadvayepi eseva nayo. Nivutthakkhandh± “j±t²”ti vutt± khandhavinimutt±ya j±tiy± abh±vato, nibbattilakkhaºassa ca vik±rassa idha anupayujjanato. J±tavasen±ti j±yanavasena. “Tath±”ti imin± “pubbe nivutthakkhandh±”ti ima½ pada½ upasa½harati. Bhavanavasen±ti paccayato nibbattanavasena. Nivutthavasen±ti nivusitat±vasena. ¾layaµµhen±ti ±vasitabh±vena. Niv±sattho hi niketattho.
Tatth±ti devalok±dimhi. ¾di-saddena ekacca½ tiracch±nayoni½ saªgaºh±ti. Na sukaranti devagatiy± ekantasukhat±ya, duggatiy± ekantadukkhat±ya, dukkhabahulat±ya ca puññakiriy±ya ok±so na sulabhar³po paccayasamav±yassa dullabhabh±vato, uppajjam±n± ca s± u¼±r±, vipul± ca na hot²ti gativasen±pi khettavisesat± icchitabb± “tiracch±nagate d±na½ datv± sataguº± dakkhiº± p±µikaªkhitabb±, puthujjanaduss²le d±na½ datv± sahassaguº± dakkhiº± p±µikaªkhitabb±”ti (ma. ni. 3.379) vacanato Manussagatiy± pana sukhabahulat±ya puññakiriy±ya ok±so sulabhar³po paccayasamav±yassa ca yebhuyyena sulabhabh±vato. Yañca tattha dukkha½ uppajjati, tampi visesato puññakiriy±ya upanissayo hoti, dukkh³panis± saddh±ti. Yath± hi ayoghanena satthake nipph±diyam±ne tassa ekantato aggimhi t±pana½, udakena v± temana½ chedanakiriy±samatthat±ya na visesapaccayo, t±petv± pana sam±nayogato udakatemana½ tass± visesapaccayo, evameva sattasant±nassa ekantadukkhasamaªgit± dukkhabahulat± ekantasukhasamaªgit± sukhabahulat± ca puññakiriy±samatthat±ya na visesapaccayo, sati pana sam±nayogato dukkhasant±pane, sukhumabr³hane ca laddh³panissay± puññakiriy± samatthat±ya sambhavati, tath± sati uppajjam±n± puññakiriy± mah±jutik± mah±vipph±r± paµipakkhacchedanasamatth± hoti. Tasm± manussabh±vo puññakiriy±ya visesapaccayo. Tena vutta½ “tattha na sukara½, manussabh³tasseva sukaran”ti.
Atha “manussabh³tass±”ti ettha ko vacanattho? “Manassa ussannat±ya manuss±ti, s³rabh±vasatimantat±brahmacariyayogyat±diguºavasena upacitamanak± ukkaµµhaguºacitt±ti attho. Ke pana te? Jambud²pav±sino sattavises±. Ten±ha bhagav±–
‘T²hi, bhikkhave, µh±nehi jambud²pak± manuss± uttarakuruke ca manusse adhiggaºhanti deve ca t±vati½se. Katamehi t²hi? S³r± satimanto idha brahmacariyav±so’ti (a. ni. 9.21; kath±. 271).
Tath± hi buddh± bhagavanto, paccekabuddh±, aggas±vak± mah±s±vak±, cakkavattino, aññe ca mah±nubh±v± satt± tattheva uppajjanti. Te hi sam±nar³p±dit±ya pana saddhi½ parittad²pav±s²hi itaramah±d²pav±sinopi manuss± tveva paññ±yi½s³”ti keci. Apare pana bhaºanti “lobh±d²hi, alobh±d²hi ca sahitassa manassa ussannat±ya manuss±. Ye hi satt± manussaj±tik±, tesu visesato lobh±dayo, alobh±dayo ca ussann±, te lobh±di-ussannat±ya ap±yamagga½, alobh±di-ussannat±ya sugatimagga½, nibb±nag±mimaggañca parip³renti, tasm± lobh±d²hi, alobh±d²hi ca sahitassa manassa ussannat±ya parittad²pav±s²hi saddhi½ catud²pav±sino sattavises± manuss±ti vuccant²”ti. Lokiy± pana “manuno apaccabh±vena manuss±”ti vadanti. Manu n±ma paµhamakappiko lokamariy±d±ya ±dibh³to satt±na½ hit±hitavidh±yako kattabb±kattabbat±su niyojanat±vasena pituµµh±niyo, yo s±sane “mah±sammato”ti vuccati amh±ka½ mah±bodhisatto, paccakkhato, parampar± ca tassa ov±d±nus±saniya½ µhit± satt± puttasadisat±ya “manuss±, m±nus±”ti ca vuccanti. Tato eva hi te “m±nav±, manuj±”ti ca vohar²yanti. Manussabh³tass±ti manussesu bh³tassa j±tassa, manussabh±va½ v± pattass±ti attho. Ayañca nayo lokiyamah±janassa vasena vutto. Mah±bodhisatt±na½ pana sant±nassa mah±bhin²h±rato paµµh±ya kusaladhammapaµipattiya½ sammadeva abhisaªkhatatt± tesa½ sugatiya½, attano uppajjanaduggatiyañca nibbatt±na½ kusalakamma½ garutaramev±ti dassetu½ “ak±raºa½ v± etan”ti-±di vutta½.
Evar³pe attabh±veti hatthi-±di-attabh±ve. Ýhitena katakamma½ na sakk± sukhena d²petu½ loke appaññ±tar³patt±. Sukhena d²petu½ “asukasmi½ dese asukasmi½ nagare asuko n±ma r±j±, br±hmaºo hutv± ima½ kusalakamma½ ak±s²”ti eva½ suviññ±payabh±vato. Thiraggahaºoti asithilagg±h² th±mappattaggahaºo. Niccalaggahaºoti acañcalagg±h² tattha kenacipi asa½h±riyo Paµikuµat²ti sa½kuµati, jigucchanavasena vivaµµati v±. Pas±riyat²ti vitthata½ hoti vepulla½ p±puº±ti.
Taveso mah±samuddasadisoti eso udakogho teva mah±samuddasadiso.
D²yati eten±ti d±na½, paricc±gacetan±. Diyyanavasen±ti deyyadhammassa pariyatta½ katv± pariccajanavasena d±na½. Sa½vibh±gakaraºavasen±ti tasseva attan± saddhi½ parassa sa½vibhajanavasena sa½vibh±go, tath±pavatt± cetan±. S²lasam±d±neti s²lassa sammadeva ±d±ne, gahaºe pavattaneti attho. Ta½ pavattik±lena dassento “p³raºak±le”ti ±ha. M±tu hito matteyyo, yassa pana dhammassa vasena so “matteyyo”ti vuccati, so matteyyat±ti ±ha “m±tu k±tabbavatte”ti. Eseva nayo “petteyyat±y±”ti-±d²su. Aññataraññatares³ti aññamaññavisiµµhesu aññesu, te pana kusalabh±vena vutt± kusal±ti ±ha “evar³pes³”ti. Adhikusales³ti abhivisiµµhesu kusalesu, s± pana abhivisiµµhat± up±d±yup±d±ya hoti. Ya½ panettha ukka½sagata½ adhikusala½, tadukka½sanayena idh±dhippetanti ta½ dassetu½ “atthi kusal±, atthi adhikusal±”ti-±di vutta½. Nanu paññ±p±ramisaªgahañ±ºasambh±rabh³t± kusal± dhamm± nippariy±yena sabbaññutaññ±ºapaµil±bhapaccay± kusal± n±ma, ime pana mah±purisalakkhaºanibbattak± puññasambh±rabh³t± kasm± tath± vutt±ti? Sabbesampi mah±bodhisattasant±nagat±na½ p±ramidhamm±na½ sabbaññutaññ±ºapaµil±bhapaccayabh±vato. Mah±bhin²h±rato paµµh±ya hi mah±puriso ya½ kiñci puñña½ karoti, sabba½ ta½ samm±sambodhisamadhigam±yeva pariº±meti. Tath± hi sasambh±r±by±so, d²ghak±l±by±so, nirantar±by±so, sakkacc±by±soti catt±ro aby±s± caturadhiµµh±naparip³ritasambandh± anupubbena mah±bodhiµµh±n± sampajjanti.
Sakimp²ti pi-saddena anekav±rampi kata½ vij±tiyena antarita½ saªgaºh±ti. Abhiºhakaraºen±ti bahul²k±rena. Upacitanti upar³pari va¹¹hita½. Piº¹²katanti piº¹aso kata½. R±s²katanti r±sibh±vena kata½. Anekakkhattuñhi pavattiyam±na½ kusalakamma½ sant±ne tath±laddhaparibh±vana½ piº¹²bh³ta½ viya, r±s²bh³ta½ viya ca hoti. Vip±ka½ pati sa½haccak±ribh±vatt± cakkav±¼a½ atisamb±dha½ bhavagga½ atin²ca½, sace pane ta½ r³pa½ siy±ti adhipp±yo. Vipulatt±ti mahantatt±. Yasm± pana ta½ kamma½ mett±karuº±satisampajaññ±hi pariggahitat±ya durasamuss±rita½ pam±ºakaraºadhammanti pam±ºarahitat±ya “appam±ºan”ti vattabbata½ arahati, tasm± “appam±ºatt±”ti vutta½.
Adhibhavat²ti phalassa u¼±rabh±vena abhibhuyya tiµµhati. Atthato paº²tapaº²t±na½ bhog±na½ paµil±bho ev±ti ±ha “atireka½ labhat²”ti. Adhigacchat²ti vindati, nibbattam±nova tena samann±gato hot²ti attho. Ekadesena aphusitv± sabbappadesehi phusanato sabbappadesehi phusantiyo etesa½ p±datal±na½ sant²ti “sabb±vantehi p±dataleh²”ti vutta½. Yath± nikkhipane sabbe p±datalappades± sa½haccak±rino aninnat±ya samabh±vato, eva½ uddharaºep²ti vutta½ “sama½ phusati, sama½ uddharat²”ti. Id±ni imassa mah±purisalakkhaºassa samadhigamena laddhabbanissandaphalavibh±vanamukhena ±nubh±va½ vibh±vetu½ “sacepi h²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha narakanti ±v±µa½. Anto pavisati samabh±v±pattiy±. “Cakkalakkhaºena patiµµh±tabbaµµh±nan”ti ida½ ya½ bh³mippadesa½ p±datala½ phusati, tattha cakkalakkhaºampi phusanavasena patiµµh±t²ti katv± vutta½. Tassa pana tath± patiµµh±na½ suppatiµµhitap±dat±ya ev±ti suppatiµµhitap±dat±ya ±nubh±vakittane “lakkhaºantar±nayana½ kimatthiyan”ti na cintetabba½. S²latejen±ti s²lappabh±vena. Puññatejen±ti kusalappabh±vena. Dhammatejen±ti ñ±ºappabh±vena. T²hipi padehi bhagavato buddhabh³tassa dhamm± gahit±, “dasanna½ p±ram²nan”ti imin± buddhakaradhamm± gahit±.
202. Mah±samuddova s²m± sabbabh³missarabh±vato. “Akhilamanimittamakaºµakan”ti t²hipi padehi theyy±bh±vova vuttoti ±ha “niccoran”ti-±di Kharasamphassaµµhen±ti ghaµµanena dukkhasamphassabh±vena khil±ti. Upaddavapaccayaµµhen±ti anatthahetut±ya nimitt±ti. “Akhilan”ti-±din± ekac±r²hi cor±bh±vo vutto, “nirabbudan”ti imin± pana gaºabandhavasena vicaraºacor±bh±vo vuttoti dassetu½ “gumba½ gumba½ hutv±”ti-±di vutta½. Avikkhambhan²yoti na vibandhan²yo kenaci appaµib±han²yo µh±nato anikka¹¹han²yo. Paµipakkha½ aniµµha½ atthet²ti paccatthiko, etena p±kaµabh±vena virodha½ akaronto veripuggalo vutto. Paµiviruddho amitto pacc±mitto, etena p±kaµabh±vena virodha½ karonto veripuggalo vutto. Vikkhambhetu½ n±sakkhi½su, aññadatthu sayameva vigh±tabyasana½ p±puºi½su ceva s±vakattañca pavedesu½.
“Kamman”ti-±d²su kamma½ n±ma buddhabh±va½ uddissa kat³pacito lakkhaºasa½vattaniyo puññasambh±ro. Ten±ha “satasahassakapp±dhik±n²”ti-±di. Kammasarikkhaka½ n±ma tasseva puññasambh±rassa karaºak±le kenaci akampan²yassa da¼h±vatthitabh±vassa anucchaviko suppatiµµhitap±dat±saªkh±tassa lakkhaºassa parehi avikkhambhan²yat±ya ñ±pakanimittabh±vo, sv±ya½ nimittabh±vo tasseva lakkhaºass±ti aµµhakath±ya½ “kammasarikkhaka½ n±ma…pe… mah±purisalakkhaºan”ti vutta½. Ýh±nagamanesu p±d±na½ da¼h±vatthitabh±vo lakkhaºa½ n±ma. P±d±na½ bh³miya½ sama½ nikkhipana½, p±datal±na½ sabbabh±gehi phusana½, samameva uddharaºa½, tasm± suµµhu sama½ sabbabh±gehi patiµµhit± p±d± etass±ti suppatiµµhitap±do, tassa bh±vo suppatiµµhitap±dat±ti vuccati lakkhaºa½. Suµµhu sama½ bh³miy± phusaneneva hi nesa½ tattha da¼h±vatthitabh±vo siddho, ya½ “kammasarikkhakan”ti vutta½. Lakkhaº±nisa½soti lakkhaºapaµil±bhassa udrayo, lakkhaºasa½vattaniyassa kammassa ±nisa½saphalanti attho. Nissandaphala½ pana heµµh± bh±vitameva.
203. Kamm±dibhedeti kammakammasarikkhakalakkhaºa lakkhaº±nisa½savisaññite vibh±ge. G±th±bandha½ sandh±ya vutta½, attho pana apubba½ natth²ti adhipp±yo. Por±ºakatther±ti aµµhakath±cariy±. Vaººan±g±th±ti thoman±g±th± vuttamevattha½ gahetv± thoman±vasena pavattatt±. Aparabh±ge ther± n±ma p±¼i½, aµµhakathañca potthak±ropanavasena sam±gat± mah±ther±, ye s±µµhakatha½ piµakattaya½ potthak±ru¼ha½ katv± saddhamma½ addhaniyaciraµµhitika½ aka½su. Ekapadikoti “da¼hasam±d±no ahos²”ti-±dip±µhe ekekapadag±h². Atthuddh±roti tadatthassa sukhaggahaºattha½ g±th±bandhavasena uddharaºato atthuddh±rabh³to, tayida½ p±¼iya½ ±gatapad±ni gahetv± g±th±bandhavasena tadatthavic±raºabh±vadassana½, na pana dhammabhaº¹±g±rikena µhapitabh±vapaµikkhipananti daµµhabba½.
Kusaladhamm±na½ vac²saccassa bahuk±rata½, tappaµipakkhassa ca mus±v±dassa mah±s±vajjata½ dassetu½ anantarameva kusalakammapathadhamme vadantopi tato vac²sacca½ n²haritv± katheti sacceti v± sannidh±neva “dhamme”ti vuccam±n± kusalakammapathadhamm± eva yutt±ti vutta½ “dhammeti dasakusalakammapathadhamme”ti. Gobal²baddañ±yena v± ettha attho veditabbo. Indriyadamaneti indriyasa½vare. Kusalakammapathagghaºenassa v±rittas²lameva gahitanti itarampi saªgahetv± dassetu½ sa½yamasseva gahaºa½ katanti “sa½yameti s²lasa½yame”ti vutta½. Suci vuccati puggalo yassa dhammassa vasena, ta½ soceyya½, k±yasucarit±di. Etasseva hi vibh±gassa dassanattha½ vuttampi ceta½ puna vutta½, manosoceyyaggahaºena v± jh±n±di-uttarimanussadhamm±nampi saªgaºhanattha½ soceyyaggahaºa½. ¾layabh³tanti samathavipassan±na½ adhiµµh±nabh³ta½. Uposathakammanti uposathadivase sam±diyitv± sam±caritabba½ puññakamma½ uposatho sahacaraºañ±yena. “Avihi½s±y±ti satt±na½ aviheµhan±y±”ti vadanti, ta½ pana s²laggahaºeneva gahita½. Tasm± avihi½s±y±ti karuº±y±ti attho. Avihi½s±ggahaºeneva cettha appamaññ±s±maññena catt±ropi brahmavih±r± upac±r±vatth± gahit± lakkhaºah±ranayena. Sakalanti anavasesa½ paripuººa½. Evamettha k±m±vacarattabh±vapariy±pannatt± lakkhaºassa ta½sa½vattanikak±m±vacarakusaladhamm± eva p±ramit±saªgahapuññasambh±rabh³tak±yasucarit±d²hi dv±dasadh± vibhatt± eva. G±th±ya½ “sacce”ti-±din± dasadh± saªgayha dassit±. Esa nayo sesalakkhaºepi.
A½nubh²ti g±th±sukhattha½ ak±ra½ s±nun±sika½ katv± vutta½. Byañjan±ni lakkhaº±ni ±cikkhant²ti veyañjanik±. Vikkhambhetabbanti paµib±hitabba½ tass±ti mah±purisassa, tassa v± mah±purisalakkhaºassa. Lakkhaºas²sena cettha ta½sa½vattanikapuññasambh±ro vuccati.