Dukavaŗŗan±

304. Iti ekakavasena s±maggirasa½ dassetv± id±ni dukavasena dassetu½ puna desana½ ±rabhi. Tattha n±mar³paduke n±manti catt±ro ar³pino khandh± nibb±nańca. Tattha catt±ro khandh± n±manaµµhena n±ma½. N±manaµµhen±ti n±makaraŗaµµhena. Yath± hi mah±janasammatatt± mah±sammatassa “mah±sammato”ti n±ma½ ahosi, yath± m±t±pitaro “aya½ tisso n±ma hotu, phusso n±ma hot³”ti eva½ puttassa kittiman±ma½ karonti, yath± v± “dhammakathiko vinayadharo”ti guŗato n±ma½ ±gacchati, na eva½ vedan±d²na½. Vedan±dayo hi mah±pathav²-±dayo viya attano n±ma½ karont±va uppajjanti. Tesu uppannesu tesa½ n±ma½ uppannameva hoti. Na hi vedana½ uppanna½ “tva½ vedan± n±ma hoh²”ti, koci bhaŗati, na cass± yena kenaci k±raŗena n±maggahaŗakicca½ atthi, yath± pathaviy± uppann±ya “tva½ pathav² n±ma hoh²”ti n±maggahaŗakicca½ natthi, cakkav±¼asinerumhi candimas³riyanakkhattesu uppannesu “tva½ cakkav±¼a½ n±ma, tva½ nakkhatta½ n±ma hoh²”ti n±maggahaŗakicca½ natthi, n±ma½ uppannameva hoti, opap±tik± pańńatti nipatati, eva½ vedan±ya uppann±ya “tva½ vedan± n±ma hoh²”ti n±maggahaŗakicca½ natthi, t±ya uppann±ya vedan±ti n±ma½ uppannameva hoti. Sańń±d²supi eseva nayo at²tepi hi vedan± vedan±yeva. Sańń±. SaŖkh±r±. Vińń±ŗa½ vińń±ŗameva. An±gatepi. Paccuppannepi. Nibb±na½ pana sad±pi nibb±namev±ti. N±manaµµhena n±ma½. Namanaµµhen±pi cettha catt±ro khandh± n±ma½. Te hi ±rammaŗ±bhimukha½ namanti. N±manaµµhena sabbampi n±ma½. Catt±ro hi khandh± ±rammaŗe ańńamańńa½ n±menti nibb±na½ ±rammaŗ±dhipatipaccayat±ya attani anavajjadhamme n±meti.
R³panti catt±ro ca mah±bh³t± catunnańca mah±bh³t±na½ up±d±ya r³pa½, ta½ sabbampi ruppanaµµhena r³pa½. Tassa vitth±rakath± visuddhimagge vuttanayeneva veditabb±.
Avijj±ti dukkh±d²su ańń±ŗa½. Ayampi vitth±rato visuddhimagge kathit±yeva. Bhavataŗh±ti bhavapatthan±. Yath±ha “tattha katam± bhavataŗh±? Yo bhavesu bhavacchando”ti-±di (dha. sa. 1319).
Bhavadiµµh²ti bhavo vuccati sassata½, sassatavasena uppajjanakadiµµhi. S± “tattha katam± bhavadiµµhi? ‘Bhavissati att± ca loko c±’ti y± evar³p± diµµhi diµµhigatan”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1320) nayena abhidhamme vitth±rit±. Vibhavadiµµh²ti vibhavo vuccati uccheda½, ucchedavasena uppajjanakadiµµhi. S±pi “tattha katam± vibhavadiµµhi? ‘Na bhavissati att± ca loko c±’ti (dha. sa. 285). Y± evar³p± diµµhi diµµhigatan”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1321) nayena tattheva vitth±rit±.
Ahirikanti “ya½ na hir²yati hir²yitabben±”ti (dha. sa. 1328) eva½ vitth±rit± nillajjat±. Anottappanti “ya½ na ottappati ottappitabben±”ti (dha. sa. 1329) eva½ vitth±rito abh±yanaka-±k±ro.
Hir² ca ottappańc±ti “ya½ hir²yati hir²yitabbena, ottappati ottappitabben±”ti (dha. sa. 1330-31) eva½ vitth±rit±ni hiri-ottapp±ni. Api cettha ajjhattasamuµµh±n± hir², bahiddh±samuµµh±na½ ottappa½. Att±dhipateyy± hir², lok±dhipateyya½ ottappa½. Lajj±sabh±vasaŗµhit± hir², bhayasabh±vasaŗµhita½ ottappa½. Vitth±rakath± panettha sabb±k±rena visuddhimagge vutt±.
Dovacassat±ti dukkha½ vaco etasmi½ vippaµik³lag±himhi vipaccan²kas±te an±dare puggaleti dubbaco, tassa kamma½ dovacassa½, tassa bh±vo dovacassat±. Vitth±rato panes± “tattha katam± dovacassat±? Sahadhammike vuccam±ne dovacass±yan”ti (dha. sa. 1332) abhidhamme ±gat±. S± atthato saŖkh±rakkhandho hoti. “Catunnańca khandh±na½ eten±k±rena pavatt±na½ eta½ adhivacanan”ti vadanti. P±pamittat±ti p±p± assaddh±dayo puggal± etassa mitt±ti p±pamitto, tassa bh±vo p±pamittat±. Vitth±rato panes±– “tattha katam± p±pamittat±? Ye te puggal± assaddh± duss²l± appassut± maccharino duppańń±. Y± tesa½ sevan± nisevan± sa½sevan± bhajan± sa½bhajan± bhatti sa½bhatti ta½sampavaŖkat±”ti (dha. sa. 1333) eva½ ±gat±. S±pi atthato dovacassat± viya daµµhabb±.
Sovacassat± ca kaly±ŗamittat± ca vuttappaµipakkhanayena veditabb±. Ubhopi panet± idha lokiyalokuttaramissak± kathit±.
¾pattikusalat±ti “pańcapi ±pattikkhandh± ±pattiyo, sattapi ±pattikkhandh± ±pattiyo. Y± t±sa½ ±patt²na½ ±pattikusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1336) eva½ vutto ±pattikusalabh±vo.
¾pattivuµµh±nakusalat±ti “y± t±hi ±patt²hi vuµµh±nakusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1337) eva½ vutt± saha kammav±c±ya ±patt²hi vuµµh±naparicchedaj±nan± pańń±.
Sam±pattikusalat±ti “atthi savitakkasavic±r± sam±patti, atthi avitakkavic±ramatt± sam±patti, atthi avitakka-avic±r± sam±patti. Y± t±sa½ sam±patt²na½ kusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1338) eva½ vutt± saha parikammena appan±paricchedaj±nan± pańń±. Sam±pattivuµµh±nakusalat±ti “y± t±hi sam±patt²hi vuµµh±nakusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1339) eva½ vutt± yath±paricchinnasamayavaseneva sam±pattito vuµµh±nasamatth± “ettaka½ gate s³riye uµµhahiss±m²”ti vuµµh±nak±laparicchedak± pańń±.
Dh±tukusalat±ti “aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo cakkhudh±tu…pe… manovińń±ŗadh±tu. Y± t±sa½ dh±t³na½ kusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1340) eva½ vutt± aµµh±rasanna½ dh±t³na½ sabh±vaparicchedak± savanadh±raŗasammasanapaµivedhapańń±. Manasik±rakusalat±ti “y± t±sa½ dh±t³na½ manasik±rakusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1341) eva½ vutt± t±sa½yeva dh±t³na½ sammasanapaµivedhapaccavekkhaŗapańń±.
¾yatanakusalat±ti “dv±das±yatan±ni cakkh±yatana½…pe… dhamm±yatana½. Y± tesa½ ±yatan±na½ ±yatanakusalat± pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1342) eva½ vutt± dv±dasanna½ ±yatan±na½ uggahamanasik±rapaj±nan± pańń±. Apica dh±tukusalat±pi uggahamanasik±rasavanasammasanapaµivedhapaccavekkhaŗesu vattati manasik±rakusalat±pi ±yatanakusalat±pi. Aya½ panettha viseso, savana-uggahapaccavekkhaŗ± lokiy±, paµivedho lokuttaro, sammasanamanasik±r± lokiyalokuttaramissak±. Paµiccasamupp±dakusalat±ti “avijj±paccay± saŖkh±r±…pe… samudayo hot²ti y± tattha pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1343) eva½ vutt± dv±dasanna½ paccay±k±r±na½ uggah±divasena pavatt± pańń±.
Żh±nakusalat±ti “ye ye dhamm± yesa½ yesa½ dhamm±na½ hetupaccay± upp±d±ya ta½ ta½ µh±nanti y± tattha pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1344) eva½ vutt± “cakkhu½ vatthu½ katv± r³pa½ ±rammaŗa½ katv± uppannassa cakkhuvińń±ŗassa cakkhur³pa½ (dha. sa. aµµha. 1344) µh±nańceva k±raŗańc±”ti eva½ µh±naparicchindanasamatth± pańń±. Aµµh±nakusalat±ti “ye ye dhamm± yesa½ yesa½ dhamm±na½ na het³ na paccay± upp±d±ya ta½ ta½ aµµh±nanti y± tattha pańń± paj±nan±”ti (dha. sa. 1345) eva½ vutt± “cakkhu½ vatthu½ katv± r³pa½ ±rammaŗa½ katv± sotavińń±ŗ±d²ni nuppajjanti, tasm± tesa½ cakkhur³pa½ na µh±na½ na k±raŗan”ti eva½ aµµh±naparicchindanasamatth± pańń± apica etasmi½ duke “kitt±vat± pana, bhante, µh±n±µh±nakusalo bhikkh³ti ala½ vacan±y±ti. Idh±nanda, bhikkhu aµµh±nameta½ anavak±so, ya½ diµµhisampanno puggalo kańci saŖkh±ra½ niccato upagaccheyya, neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²ti paj±n±ti. Żh±nańca kho eta½ vijjati, ya½ puthujjano kańci saŖkh±ra½ niccato upagaccheyy±”ti (ma. ni. 3.127) imin±pi suttena attho veditabbo.
Ajjavanti gomuttavaŖkat± candavaŖkat± naŖgalakoµivaŖkat±ti tayo anajjav±. Ekacco hi bhikkhu paµhamavaye ekav²satiy± anesan±su chasu ca agocaresu carati, majjhimapacchimavayesu lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±mo hoti, aya½ gomuttavaŖkat± n±ma. Eko paµhamavayepi pacchimavayepi catup±risuddhis²la½ p³reti, lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±mo hoti, majjhimavaye purimasadiso, aya½ candavaŖkat± n±ma. Eko paµhamavayepi majjhimavayepi catup±risuddhis²la½ p³reti, lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±mo hoti, pacchimavaye purimasadiso aya½ naŖgalakoµivaŖkat± n±ma. Eko sabbameta½ vaŖkata½ pah±ya t²supi vayesu pesalo lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±mo hoti. Tassa yo so ujubh±vo, ida½ ajjava½ n±ma. Abhidhammepi vutta½– “tattha katamo ajjavo. Y± ajjavat± ajimhat± avaŖkat± akuµilat±, aya½ vuccati ajjavo”ti (dha. sa. 1346). Lajjavanti “tattha katamo lajjavo? Yo hir²yati hir²yitabbena hir²yati p±pak±na½ akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±pattiy±. Aya½ vuccati lajjavo”ti eva½ vutto lajj²bh±vo.
Khant²ti “tattha katam± khanti? Y± khanti khamanat± adhiv±sanat± acaŗ¹ikka½ anassuropo attamanat± cittass±”ti (dha. sa. 1348) eva½ vutt± adhiv±sanakhanti. Soraccanti “tattha katama½ soracca½? Yo k±yiko av²tikkamo, v±casiko av²tikkamo, k±yikav±casiko av²tikkamo. Ida½ vuccati soracca½. Sabbopi s²lasa½varo soraccan”ti (dha. sa. 1349) eva½ vutto suratabh±vo.
S±khalyanti “tattha katama½ s±khalya½? Y± s± v±c± aŗ¹ak± kakkas± parakaµuk± par±bhisajjan² kodhas±mant± asam±dhisa½vattanik±, tath±r³pi½ v±ca½ pah±ya y± s± v±c± ne¼± kaŗŗasukh± peman²y± hadayaŖgam± por² bahujanakant± bahujanaman±p±, tath±r³pi½ v±ca½ bh±sit± hoti. Y± tattha saŗhav±cat± sakhilav±cat± apharusav±cat±. Ida½ vuccati s±khalyan”ti (dha. sa. 1350) eva½ vutto sammodakamudukabh±vo. Paµisanth±roti aya½ lokasanniv±so ±misena dhammena c±ti dv²hi chiddo, tassa ta½ chidda½ yath± na pańń±yati, eva½ p²µhassa viya paccattharaŗena ±misena dhammena ca paµisantharaŗa½. Abhidhammepi vutta½ “tattha katamo paµisanth±ro ¾misapaµisanth±ro ca dhammapaµisanth±ro ca. Idhekacco paµisanth±rako hoti ±misapaµisanth±rena v± dhammapaµisanth±rena v±. Aya½ vuccati paµisanth±ro”ti (dha. sa. 1351). Ettha ca ±misena saŖgaho ±misapaµisanth±ro n±ma. Ta½ karontena m±t±pit³na½ bhikkhugatikassa veyy±vaccakarassa rańńo cor±nańca agga½ aggahetv±pi d±tu½ vaµµati. ¾masitv± dinne hi r±j±no ca cor± ca anatthampi karonti j²vitakkhayampi p±penti, an±masitv± dinne attaman± honti. Coran±gavatthu-±d²ni cettha vatth³ni kathetabb±ni. T±ni samantap±s±dik±ya vinayaµµhakath±ya½ (p±ci. aµµha. 185-7) vitth±rit±ni. Sakkacca½ uddesad±na½ p±¼ivaŗŗan± dhammakath±kathananti eva½ dhammena saŖgaho dhammapaµisanth±ro n±ma.
Avihi½s±ti karuŗ±pi karuŗ±pubbabh±gopi. Vuttampi ceta½– “tattha katam± avihi½s±? Y± sattesu karuŗ± karuŗ±yan± karuŗ±yitatta½ karuŗ±cetovimutti, aya½ vuccati avihi½s±”ti. Soceyyanti mett±ya ca mett±pubbabh±gassa ca vasena sucibh±vo. Vuttampi ceta½– “tattha katama½ soceyya½? Y± sattesu metti mett±yan± mett±yitatta½ mett±cetovimutti, ida½ vuccati soceyyan”ti.
Muµµhassaccanti sativippav±so, yath±ha “tattha katama½ muµµhassacca½? Y± asati ananussati appaµissati assaraŗat± adh±raŗat± pil±panat± sammussanat±, ida½ vuccati muµµhassacca½” (dha. sa. 1356). Asampajańńanti, “tattha katama½ asampajańńa½? Ya½ ańń±ŗa½ adassana½ avijj±laŖg² moho akusalam³lan”ti eva½ vutt± avijj±yeva. Sati satiyeva. Sampajańńa½ ń±ŗa½.
Indriyesu aguttadv±rat±ti “tattha katam± indriyesu aguttadv±rat±? Idhekacco cakkhun± r³pa½ disv± nimittagg±h² hot²”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 1352) nayena vitth±rito indriyasa½varabhedo. Bhojane amattańńut±ti “tattha katam± bhojane amattańńut±? Idhekacco appaµisaŖkh± ayoniso ±h±ra½ ±h±reti dav±ya mad±ya maŗ¹an±ya vibh³san±ya. Y± tattha asantuµµhit± amattańńut± appaµisaŖkh± bhojane”ti eva½ ±gato bhojane amattańńubh±vo. Anantaraduko vuttappaµipakkhanayena veditabbo.
PaµisaŖkh±nabalanti “tattha katama½ paµisaŖkh±nabala½? Y± pańń± paj±nan±”ti eva½ vitth±rita½ appaµisaŖkh±ya akampanań±ŗa½. Bh±van±balanti bh±ventassa uppanna½ bala½. Atthato v²riyasambojjhaŖgas²sena satta bojjhaŖg± honti. Vuttampi ceta½– “tattha katama½ bh±van±bala½? Y± kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ ±sevan± bh±van± bahul²kamma½, ida½ vuccati bh±van±bala½. SattabojjhaŖg± bh±van±balan”ti.
Satibalanti assatiy± akampanavasena satiyeva. Sam±dhibalanti uddhacce akampanavasena sam±dhiyeva. Samatho sam±dhi. Vipassan± pańń±. Samathova ta½ ±k±ra½ gahetv± puna pavattetabbassa samathassa nimittavasena samathanimitta½ pagg±hanimittepi eseva nayo. Pagg±ho v²riya½. Avikkhepo ekaggat±. Imehi pana sati ca sampajańńańca paµisaŖkh±nabalańca bh±van±balańca satibalańca sam±dhibalańca samatho ca vippassan± ca samathanimittańca pagg±hanimittańca pagg±ho ca avikkhepo c±ti chahi dukehi parato s²ladiµµhisampad±dukena ca lokiyalokuttaramissak± dhamm± kathit±.
S²lavipatt²ti “tattha katam± s²lavipatti? K±yiko v²tikkamo…pe… sabbampi duss²lya½ s²lavipatt²”ti eva½ vutto s²lavin±sako asa½varo. Diµµhivipatt²ti “tattha katam± diµµhivipatti? Natthi dinna½ natthi yiµµhan”ti eva½ ±gat± samm±diµµhivin±sik± micch±diµµhi.
S²lasampad±ti “tattha katam± s²lasampad±? K±yiko av²tikkamo”ti eva½ pubbe vuttasoraccameva s²lassa samp±danato parip³raŗato “s²lasampad±”ti vutta½. Ettha ca “sabbopi s²lasa½varo s²lasampad±”ti ida½ m±nasikapariy±d±nattha½ vutta½. Diµµhisampad±ti “tattha katam± diµµhisampad±? Atthi dinna½ atthi yiµµha½…pe… sacchikatv± pavedent²ti y± evar³p± pańń± paj±nan±”ti eva½ ±gata½ diµµhip±rip³ribh³ta½ ń±ŗa½.
S²lavisuddh²ti visuddhi½ p±petu½ samattha½ s²la½. Abhidhamme pan±ya½ “tattha katam± s²lavisuddhi? K±yiko av²tikkamo v±casiko av²tikkamo k±yikav±casiko av²tikkamo, aya½ vuccati s²lavisuddh²”ti eva½ vibhatt±. Diµµhivisuddh²ti visuddhi½ p±petu½ samattha½ dassana½. Abhidhamme pan±ya½ “tattha katam± diµµhivisuddhi? Kammassakatań±ŗa½ sacc±nulomikań±ŗa½ maggasamaŖgissań±ŗa½ phalasamaŖgissań±ŗan”ti eva½ vutt±. Ettha ca tividha½ duccarita½ attan± katampi parena katampi saka½ n±ma na hoti atthabhańjanato. Sucarita½ saka½ n±ma atthajananatoti eva½ j±nana½ kammassakatań±ŗa½ n±ma. Tasmi½ µhatv± bahu½ vaµµag±mikamma½ ±y³hitv± sukhato sukheneva arahatta½ patt± gaŗanapatha½ v²tivatt±. Vipassan±ń±ŗa½ pana vac²saccańca anulometi, paramatthasaccańca na vilomet²ti sacc±nulomika½ ń±ŗanti vutta½.
“Diµµhivisuddhi kho pana yath±diµµhissa ca padh±nan”ti ettha diµµhivisuddh²ti ń±ŗadassana½ kathita½. Yath±diµµhissa ca padh±nanti ta½sampayuttameva v²riya½. Api ca purimapadena catumaggań±ŗa½. Pacchimapadena ta½sampayutta½ v²riya½. Abhidhamme pana “diµµhivisuddhi kho pan±ti y± pańń± paj±nan± amoho dhammavicayo samm±diµµhi. Yath±diµµhissa ca padh±nanti yo cetasiko v²riy±rambho samm±v±y±mo”ti eva½ aya½ duko vibhatto.
“Sa½vego ca sa½vejan²yesu µh±nes³”ti ettha “sa½vegoti j±tibhaya½ jar±bhaya½ by±dhibhaya½ maraŗabhayan”ti eva½ j±ti-±d²ni bhayato dassanań±ŗa½. Sa½vejan²ya½ µh±nanti j±tijar±by±dhimaraŗa½. Et±ni hi catt±ri j±ti dukkh±, jar± dukkh±, by±dhi dukkho, maraŗa½ dukkhanti eva½ sa½veguppattik±raŗatt± sa½vejan²ya½ µh±nanti vutt±ni. Sa½viggassa ca yoniso padh±nanti eva½ sa½vegaj±tassa up±yapadh±na½. “Idha bhikkhu anuppann±na½ p±pak±na½ akusal±na½ dhamm±na½ anupp±d±ya chanda½ janet²”ti eva½ ±gatav²riyasseta½ adhivacana½.
Asantuµµhit± ca kusalesu dhammes³ti y± kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ bh±van±ya asantuµµhassa bhiyyokamyat±, t±ya hi samaŖg²bh³to puggalo s²la½ p³retv± jh±na½ upp±deti. Jh±na½ labhitv± vipassana½ ±rabhati. ¾raddhavipassako arahatta½ agahetv± antar± vos±na½ n±pajjati. Appaµiv±nit± ca padh±nasminti “kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ bh±van±ya sakkaccakiriyat± s±taccakiriyat± aµµhitakiriyat± anol²navuttit± anikkhittachandat± anikkhittadhurat± ±sevan± bh±van± bahul²kamman”ti eva½ vutt± rattindiva½ cha koµµh±se katv± j±gariy±nuyogavasena ±raddhe padh±nasmi½ arahatta½ apatv± anivattanat±.
Vijj±ti tisso vijj±. Vimutt²ti dve vimuttiyo, cittassa ca adhimutti, nibb±nańca. Ettha ca aµµha sam±pattiyo n²varaŗ±d²hi suµµhu muttatt± adhimutti n±ma. Nibb±na½ sabbasaŖkhatato muttatt± vimutt²ti veditabba½.
Khaye ń±ŗanti kilesakkhayakare ariyamagge ń±ŗa½. Anupp±de ń±ŗanti paµisandhivasena anupp±dabh³te ta½ta½maggavajjhakiles±na½ v± anupp±dapariyos±ne uppanne ariyaphale ń±ŗa½. Tenev±ha “khaye ń±ŗanti maggasamaŖgissa ń±ŗa½. Anupp±de ń±ŗanti phalasamaŖgissa ń±ŗan”ti. Ime kho, ±vusoti-±di ekake vuttanayeneva yojetabba½. Iti pańcati½s±ya duk±na½ vasena thero s±maggirasa½ dasses²ti.

Dukavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.