Catumah±padesavaººan±

187. Mah±-ok±seti mahante ok±se. Mahant±ni dhammassa patiµµh±panaµµh±n±ni. Yesu patiµµh±pito dhammo nicch²yati asandehato, k±ni pana t±ni? ¾gamanavisiµµh±ni suttotaraº±d²ni. Dutiyavikappe apadisant²ti apades±, “sammukh± meta½ ±vuso bhagavato sutan”ti-±din± kenaci ±bhatassa “dhammo”ti vinicchinane k±raºa½. Ki½ pana tanti? Tassa yath±bhatassa suttotaraº±di eva. Yadi eva½ katha½ catt±roti? Yasm± dhammassa dve sampar±y± satth±, s±vak± ca, tesu ca s±vak± saªghagaºapuggalavasena tividh± eva½ “tumh±ka½ may± ya½ dhammo paµiggahito”ti apadisitabb±na½ bhedena catt±ro. Ten±ha “sammukh± me ta½ ±vuso bhagavato sutan”ti-±di. Tath± ca vutta½ nettiya½ “catt±ro mah±pades± buddh±padeso saªgh±padeso sambahulatther±padeso ekatther±padeso. Ime catt±ro mah±pades±”ti (netti. 18) buddho apadeso etass±ti buddh±padeso. Esa nayo sesesupi. Ten±ha “buddh±dayo…pe… mah±k±raº±n²”ti.
188. Neva abhinanditabbanti na sampaµicchitabba½. Ganthassa sampaµicchana½ n±ma savananti ±ha “na sotabban”ti. Padabyañjan±n²ti pad±ni ca byañjan±ni ca, atthapad±ni, byañjanapad±ni c±ti attho. Pajjati attho eteh²ti pad±ni, akkhar±d²ni byañjanapad±ni. Pajjitabbato pad±ni, saªk±san±d²ni atthapad±ni. Aµµhakath±ya½pana “‘padasaªkh±t±ni byañjan±n²’ti byañjanapad±neva vutt±n²”ti keci, ta½ na, attha½ byañjent²ti byañjan±ni, byañjanapad±ni, tehi byañjitabbato byañjan±ni, atthapad±n²ti ubhayasaªgahato. Imasmi½ µh±neti ten±bhatasuttassa imasmi½ padese. P±¼i vutt±ti kevalo p±¼idhammo pavatto. Attho vuttoti p±¼iy± attho pavatto niddiµµho. Anusandhi kathitoti yath±raddhadesan±ya, upari desan±ya ca anusandh±na½ kathita½ sambandho kathito Pubb±para½ kathitanti pubben±para½ avirujjhanañceva vises±dh±nañca kathita½ pak±sita½. Eva½ p±¼idhamm±d²ni sammadeva sallakkhetv± gahaºa½ s±dhuka½ uggahaºanti ±ha “suµµhu gahetv±”ti. Sutte ot±retabb±n²ti ñ±ºena sutte og±hetv± t±retabb±ni, ta½ pana og±hetv± taraºa½ tattha otaraºa½ anuppavesana½ hot²ti vutta½ “sutte ot±retabb±n²”ti. Sa½sandetv± dassana½ sandassananti ±ha “vinaye sa½sandetabb±n²”ti.
Ki½ pana ta½ sutta½, ko v± vinayoti vic±raº±ya ±cariy±na½ matibhedamukhena tamattha½ dassetu½ “ettha c±”ti-±di vutta½. Vinayoti vibhaªgap±µham±ha. So hi m±tik±saññitassa suttassa atthas³canato “suttan”ti vattabbata½ arahati. Vividhanayatt±, visiµµhanayatt± ca vinayo, khandhakap±µho. Evanti eva½ suttavinayesu pariggayham±nesu vinayapiµakampi na pariy±d²yati pariv±rap±¼iy± asaªgahitatt±. Suttant±bhidhammapiµak±ni v± sutta½ atthas³can±di-atthasambhavato. Evamp²ti “suttant±bhidhammapiµak±ni sutta½, vinayapiµaka½ vinayo”ti eva½ suttavinayavibh±ge vuccam±nepi. Na t±va pariy±d²yant²ti na t±va anavasesato pariggayhanti, kasm±ti ±ha “asuttan±makañh²”ti-±di. Yasm± “suttan”ti ima½ n±ma½ an±ropetv± saªg²tampi j±tak±dibuddhavacana½ atthi, tasm± vuttanayena t²ºi piµak±ni na pariy±diºº±n²ti. Suttanip±ta-ud±na-itivuttak±d²ni d²ghanik±y±dayo viya suttan±ma½ ±ropetv± asaªg²t±n²ti adhipp±ye panettha j±tak±d²hi saddhi½ t±nipi gahit±ni. Buddhava½sacariy±piµak±na½ panettha aggahaºe k±raºa½ maggitabba½, ki½ v± tena magganena? Sabbop±ya½ vaººan±nayo therav±da½ dassanamukhena paµikkhitto ev±ti.
Atth²ti ki½ atthi, asuttan±maka½ buddhavacana½ natthi ev±ti dasseti. Tath± hi nid±navaººan±ya½ (d². ni. µ². 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±; s±rattha. µ². 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±) amhehi vutta½ “suttanti s±maññavidhi, visesavidhayo pare”ti. Ta½ sabba½ paµikkhipitv± “suttanti vinayo”ti-±din± vutta½ sa½vaººan±naya½ “n±yamattho idh±dhippeto”ti paµisodhetv±. Vineti etena kileseti vinayo, kilesavinayan³p±yo, so eva ca na½ karot²ti k±raºanti ±ha “vinayo pana k±raºan”ti.
Dhammeti pariyattidhamme. Sar±g±y±ti sar±gabh±v±ya k±mar±gabhavar±gaparibr³han±ya. Saññog±y±ti bhavasa½yojan±ya. ¾cay±y±ti vaµµassa va¹¹hanatth±ya. Mahicchat±y±ti mahicchabh±v±ya. Asantuµµhiy±ti asantuµµhibh±v±ya. Saªgaºik±y±ti kilesasaªgaºagaºasaªgaºavih±r±ya. Kosajj±y±ti kus²tabh±v±ya. Dubbharat±y±ti dupposat±ya. Vir±g±y±ti sakalavaµµato virajjanatth±ya. Visaññog±y±ti k±mabhav±d²hi visa½yujjanatth±ya. Apacay±y±ti sabbass±pi vaµµassa apacayan±ya, nibb±n±y±ti attho. Appicchat±y±ti paccayappicchat±divasena sabbaso icch±pagam±ya. Santuµµhiy±ti dv±dasavidhasantuµµhibh±v±ya. Pavivek±y±ti pavivittabh±v±ya, k±yavivek±ditadaªgavivek±divivekasiddhiy±. V²riy±rambh±y±ti k±yikassa ceva, cetasikassa ca v²riyassa paggahaºatth±ya. Subharat±y±ti sukhaposanatth±ya. Eva½ yo pariyattidhammo uggahaºadh±raºaparipucch±manasik±ravasena yoniso paµipajjantassa sar±g±dibh±vaparivajjanassa k±raºa½ hutv± vir±g±dibh±v±ya sa½vattati, eka½sato eso dhammo. Eso vinayo, sammadeva ap±y±d²su apatanavasena dh±raºato, kiles±na½ vinayanato, satthu samm±sambuddhassa ov±d±nusiµµhibh±vato eta½ satthus±sananti dh±reyy±si j±neyy±si, avabujjheyy±s²ti attho. Catusaccassa s³cana½ suttanti ±ha “sutteti tepiµake buddhavacane”ti. Tepiµakañhi buddhavacana½ saccavinimutta½ natthi. R±g±divinayanak±raºa½ tath±gatena suttapadena pak±sitanti ±ha “vinayeti etasmi½ r±g±divinayak±raºe”ti.
Sutte osaraºañcettha tepiµake buddhavacane pariy±pannat±vaseneva veditabba½, na aññath±ti ±ha “suttapaµip±µiy± katthaci an±gantv±”ti. Challi½ uµµhapetv±ti arogassa mahato rukkhassa tiµµhato upakkamena challiy± sakalik±ya, papaµik±ya v± uµµhapana½ viya arogassa s±sanadhammassa tiµµhato byañjanamattena tappariy±panna½ viya hutv± challisadisa½ pubb±paraviruddhat±didosa½ uµµhapetv± parid²petv±, t±dis±ni pana eka½sato gu¼havessantar±dipariy±pann±ni hont²ti ±ha “gu¼havessantara…pe…paññ±yant²ti attho”ti R±g±divinayeti r±g±d²na½ vinayanatthe. Tad±k±rat±ya na paññ±yam±n±ni na dissam±n±ni cha¹¹etabb±ni vajjitabb±ni na gahetabb±ni. Sabbatth±ti sabbav±resu.
Imasmi½ pana µh±neti imasmi½ mah±padesaniddesaµµh±ne. “Sutte catt±ro mah±pades±”ti-±din± vuttampi avuttena saddhi½ gahetv± pakiººakakath±ya m±tika½ uddisati. ѱtu½ icchito attho pañho, tassa vissajjan±ni pañh±by±karaº±ni, atthas³can±di-atthena sutta½, p±¼i, ta½ sutta½ anulometi anuk³let²ti sutt±nuloma½, mah±padeso. ¾cariy± vadanti sa½vaººenti p±¼i½ eten±ti ±cariyav±do aµµhakath±. Tassa tassa therassa attano eva mati adhipp±yoti attanomati. Dhammavinicchaye patteti dhamme vinicchinitabbe upaµµhite. Imeti anantara½ vutt± catt±ro mah±pades±. Pam²yati dhammo paricchijjati vinicch²yati eten±ti pam±ºa½. Ten±ha “ya½ ettha samet²”ti-±di. Itaranti mah±padesesu asamenta½. Puna itaranti akappiya½ anulomenta½ kappiya½ paµib±hanta½ sandh±y±ha.
Eka½seneva by±k±tabbo vissajjetabboti eka½saby±karaº²yo. Vibhajj±ti pucchitamattha½ avadh±raº±dibhedena vibhajitv±. Paµipucch±ti pucchanta½ puggala½ paµipucchitv±. Ýhapan²yoti tidh±pi avissajjan²yatt± µhapan²yo by±karaºa½ akatv± µhapetabbo. “Cakkhu½ aniccan”ti pañhe uttarapad±vadh±raºa½ sandh±ya “eka½seneva by±k±tabban”ti vutta½ niccat±ya lesass±pi tattha abh±vato. Purimapad±vadh±raºe pana vibhajjaby±karaº²yat± cakkhusotesu visesatthas±maññatth±na½ as±dh±raºabh±vato. Dvinna½ tesa½ sadisat±codan± paµipucchanamukheneva by±karaº²y± paµikkhepavasena, anuññ±tavasena ca vissajjitabbatoti ±ha “yath± cakkhu, tath± sota½…pe… aya½ paµipucch±by±karaº²yo pañho”ti. Ta½ j²va½ ta½ sar²ranti j²vasar²r±na½ anaññat±pañho. Yassa yena anaññat±codit±, so eva paramatthato nupalabbhat²ti vañjh±tanayassa matteyyat±kittanasadisoti aby±k±tabbat±ya µhapan²yo vuttoti. Im±ni catt±ri pañhaby±karaº±ni pam±ºa½ teneva nayena tesa½ pañh±na½ by±k±tabbato.
Vinayamah±padeso kappiy±nulomavidh±nato nippariy±yato anulomakappiya½ n±ma, mah±padesabh±vena pana ta½sadisat±ya suttantamah±padesesupi “anulomakappiyan”ti aya½ aµµhakath±voh±ro. Yadipi tattha tattha bhagavat± pavattitapakiººakadesan±va aµµhakath±, s± pana dhammasaªg±hakehi paµhama½ t²ºi piµak±ni saªg±yitv± tassa atthavaººan±nur³peneva v±can±magga½ ±ropitatt± “±cariyav±do”ti vuccati ±cariy± vadanti sa½vaººenti p±¼i½ eten±ti. Ten±ha “±cariyav±do n±ma aµµhakath±”ti. Tisso saªg²tiyo ±ru¼ho eva ca buddhavacanassa atthasa½vaººan±bh³to kath±maggo mahindattherena tambapaººid²pa½±bhato pacch± tambapaººiyehi mah±therehi s²ha¼abh±s±ya µhapito nik±yantaraladdhisaªkarapariharaºattha½. Attanomati n±ma therav±do. Nayagg±hen±ti sutt±dito labbham±nanayaggahaºena. Anubuddhiy±ti sutt±d²niyeva anugatabuddhiy±. Attano paµibh±nanti attano eva tassa atthassa vuttanayena upaµµh±na½, yath±-upaµµhit± atth± eva tath± vutt±. Samentameva gahetabbanti yath± suttena sa½sandati, eva½ mah±padesato atth± uddharitabb±ti dasseti. Pam±dap±µhavasena ±cariyav±dassa kad±ci p±¼iy± asa½sandan±pi siy±, so na gahetabboti dassento ±ha “±cariyav±dopi suttena samentoyeva gahetabbo”ti. Sabbadubbal± puggalassa saya½ paµibh±nabh±vato. Tath± ca s±pi gahetabb±, k²dis²? Suttena sament± yev±ti yojan±. T±s³ti t²su saªg²t²su. “¾gatameva pam±ºan”ti imin± mah±kassap±d²hi saªg²tameva “suttan”ti idh±dhippetanti tadaññassa suttabh±vameva paµikkhipati. Tadatth± eva hi tisso saªg²tiyo. Tatth±ti g±rayhasutte. Na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissant²ti veditabb±ni tassa asuttabh±vato tena “anulomakappiya½ suttena samentameva gahetabban”ti vutta½ evattha½ nigamanavasena nidasseti. Sabbattha “na itaran”ti vacana½ tattha tattha gahit±vadh±raºaphaladassana½ daµµhabba½.