Kasm± pana bhagavat± catt±rova satipaµµh±n± vutt± an³n± anadhik±ti? Veneyyahitatt±. Taŗh±caritadiµµhicaritasamathay±nikavipassan±y±nikesu hi mandatikkhavasena dvedh± dvedh± pavattesu veneyyesu mandassa taŗh±caritassa o¼±rika½ k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa sukhuma½ vedan±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½. Diµµhicaritassapi mandassa n±tippabhedagata½ citt±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa atippabhedagata½ dhamm±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ visuddhimaggo. Samathay±nikassa ca mandassa akicchena adhigantabbanimitta½ paµhama½ satipaµµh±na½ visuddhimaggo, tikkhassa o¼±rik±rammaŗe asaŗµhahanato dutiya½. Vipassan±y±nikassapi mandassa n±tippabhedagat±rammaŗa½ tatiya½, tikkhassa atippabhedagat±rammaŗa½ catuttha½. Iti catt±rova vutt± an³n± anadhik±ti.
Subhasukhanicca-attabh±vavipall±sappah±nattha½ v±. K±yo hi asubho, tattha ca subhavipall±savipallatth± satt±. Tesa½ tattha asubhabh±vadassanena tassa vipall±sassa pah±nattha½ paµhama½ satipaµµh±na½ vutta½. Sukha½ nicca½ att±ti gahitesupi ca vedan±d²su vedan± dukkh±, citta½ anicca½, dhamm± anatt±, tesu ca sukhanicca-attavipall±savipallatth± satt±. Tesa½ tattha dukkh±dibh±vadassanena tesa½ vipall±s±na½ pah±nattha½ ses±ni t²ŗi vutt±n²ti eva½ subhasukhanicca-attabh±vavipall±sappah±nattha½ v± catt±rova vutt± an³n± anadhik±ti veditabb±. Na kevalańca vipall±sappah±natthameva, atha kho caturoghayog±savagantha-up±d±na-agatipah±natthampi catubbidh±h±raparińńatthańca catt±rova vutt±ti veditabb±. Aya½ t±va pakaraŗanayo.
Aµµhakath±ya½ pana saraŗavasena ceva ekattasamosaraŗavasena ca ekameva satipaµµh±na½ ±rammaŗavasena catt±roti etadeva vutta½. Yath± hi catudv±re nagare p±c²nato ±gacchant± p±c²nadis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± p±c²nadv±rena nagarameva pavisanti, dakkhiŗato. Pacchimato. Uttarato ±gacchant± uttaradis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± uttaradv±rena nagarameva pavisanti; eva½– sampadamida½ veditabba½. Nagara½ viya hi nibb±namah±nagara½, dv±ra½ viya aµµhaŖgiko lokuttaramaggo, p±c²nadis±dayo viya k±y±dayo.
Yath± p±c²nato ±gacchant± p±c²nadis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± p±c²nadv±rena nagarameva pavisanti, eva½ k±y±nupassan±mukhena ±gacchant± cuddasavidhena k±y±nupassana½ bh±vetv± k±y±nupassan±bh±van±nubh±vanibbattena ariyamaggena eka½ nibb±nameva osaranti. Yath± dakkhiŗato ±gacchant± dakkhiŗ±ya dis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± dakkhiŗadv±rena nagarameva pavisanti, eva½ vedan±nupassan±mukhena ±gacchant± navavidhena vedan±nupassana½ bh±vetv± vedan±nupassan±bh±van±nubh±vanibbattena ariyamaggena eka½ nibb±nameva osaranti. Yath± pacchimato ±gacchant± pacchimadis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± pacchimadv±rena nagarameva pavisanti, eva½ citt±nupassan±mukhena ±gacchant± so¼asavidhena citt±nupassana½ bh±vetv± citt±nupassan±bh±van±nubh±vanibbattena ariyamaggena eka½ nibb±nameva osaranti. Yath± uttarato ±gacchant± uttaradis±ya uµµh±naka½ bhaŗ¹a½ gahetv± uttaradv±rena nagarameva pavisanti, eva½ dhamm±nupassan±mukhena ±gacchant± pańcavidhena dhamm±nupassana½ bh±vetv± dhamm±nupassan±bh±van±nubh±vanibbattena ariyamaggena eka½ nibb±nameva osaranti. Eva½ saraŗavasena ceva ekattasamosaraŗavasena ca ekameva satipaµµh±na½ ±rammaŗavasena catt±rova vutt±ti veditabb±.
Katame catt±roti kathetukamyat± pucch±. Idh±ti imasmi½ s±sane. Bhikkhaveti dhammapaµigg±hakapuggal±lapanameta½. Bhikkh³ti paµipattisamp±dakapuggalanidassanameta½. Ańńepi ca devamanuss± paµipatti½ samp±dentiyeva, seµµhatt± pana paµipattiy± bhikkhubh±vadassanato ca “bhikkh³”ti ±ha. Bhagavato hi anus±sani½ sampaµicchantesu bhikkhu seµµho, sabbappak±r±ya anus±saniy± bh±janabh±vato. Tasm± seµµhatt± “bhikkh³”ti ±ha. Tasmi½ gahite pana ses± gahit±va honti, r±jagaman±d²su r±jaggahaŗena sesaparis± viya. Yo ca ima½ paµipatti½ paµipajjati, so bhikkhu n±ma hot²ti paµipattiy± bhikkhubh±vadassanatopi “bhikkh³”ti ±ha. Paµipannako hi devo v± hotu manusso v±, bhikkh³ti saŖkhya½ gacchatiyeva yath±ha–
“AlaŖkato cepi sama½ careyya,
santo danto niyato brahmac±r²;
sabbesu bh³tesu nidh±ya daŗ¹a½,
so br±hmaŗo so samaŗo sa bhikkh³”ti. (Dha. pa. 142).
K±yeti r³pak±ye. R³pak±yo hi idha aŖgapaccaŖg±na½ kes±d²nańca dhamm±na½ sam³haµµhena hatthik±yarathak±y±dayo viya k±yoti adhippeto. Yath± ca sam³haµµhena, eva½ kucchit±na½ ±yaµµhena. Kucchit±nańhi paramajegucch±na½ so ±yotipi k±yo. ¾yoti uppattideso. Tatth±ya½ vacanattho. ¾yanti tatoti ±yo. Ke ±yanti? Kucchit± kes±dayo. Iti kucchit±na½ ±yoti k±yo.
K±y±nupass²ti k±ye anupassanas²lo k±ya½ v± anupassam±no. K±yeti ca vatv±pi puna k±y±nupass²ti dutiyak±yaggahaŗa½ asammissato vavatth±naghanavinibbhog±didassanattha½ katanti veditabba½. Tena na k±ye vedan±nupass² v±, cittadhamm±nupass² v±, atha kho k±y±nupass²yev±ti k±yasaŖkh±te vatthusmi½ k±y±nupassan±k±rasseva dassanena asammissato vavatth±na½ dassita½ hoti. Tath± na k±ye aŖgapaccaŖgavinimutta-ekadhamm±nupass², n±pi kesalom±divinimutta-itthipuris±nupass², yopi cettha kesalom±diko bh³tup±d±yasam³hasaŖkh±to k±yo, tatthapi na bh³tup±d±yavinimutta-ekadhamm±nupass², atha kho rathasambh±r±nupassako viya aŖgapaccaŖgasam³h±nupass², nagar±vayav±nupassako viya kesalom±disam³h±nupass², kadalikkhandhapattavaµµivinibbhujako viya rittamuµµhiviniveµhako viya ca bh³tup±d±yasam³h±nupass²yev±ti n±nappak±rato sam³havaseneva k±yasaŖkh±tassa vatthuno dassanena ghanavinibbhogo dassito hoti. Na hettha yath±vuttasam³havinimutto k±yo v± itth² v± puriso v± ańńo v± koci dhammo dissati, yath±vuttadhammasam³hamatteyeva pana tath± tath± satt± micch±bhinivesa½ karonti. Ten±hu por±ŗ±–
“Ya½ passati na ta½ diµµha½, ya½ diµµha½ ta½ na passati;
apassa½ bajjhate m³¼ho, bajjham±no na muccat²”ti.
Ghanavinibbhog±didassanatthanti vutta½, ±disaddena cettha ayampi attho veditabbo. Ayańhi etasmi½ k±ye k±y±nupass²yeva, na ańńa dhamm±nupass²ti vutta½ hoti. Yath± anudakabh³t±yapi mar²ciy± udak±nupassino honti, na eva½ aniccadukkh±natta-asubhabh³teyeva imasmi½ k±ye niccasukha-attasubhabh±v±nupass², atha kho k±y±nupass² aniccadukkh±natta-asubh±k±rasam³h±nupass²yev±ti vutta½ hoti. Atha v± yv±ya½ parato “idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arańńagato v±…pe… so satova assasat²”ti-±din± nayena ass±sapass±s±dicuŗŗikaj±ta-aµµhikapariyos±no k±yo vutto, yo ca “idhekacco pathav²k±ya½ aniccato anupassati, ±pok±ya½ tejok±ya½ v±yok±ya½ kesak±ya½ lomak±ya½ chavik±ya½ cammak±ya½ ma½sak±ya½ rudhirak±ya½ nh±ruk±ya½ aµµhik±ya½ aµµhimińjak±yan”ti (paµi. ma. 3.35) paµisambhid±ya½ k±yo vutto, tassa sabbassa imasmińńeva k±ye anupassanato k±ye k±y±nupass²ti evampi attho veditabbo.
Atha v± k±ye ahanti v± mamanti v± eva½ gahetabbassa yassa kassaci ananupassanato, tassa tasseva pana kesalom±dikassa n±n±dhammasam³hassa anupassanato k±ye kes±didhammasam³hasaŖkh±tak±y±nupass²ti evamattho daµµhabbo.
Apica “imasmi½ k±ye aniccato anupassati, no niccato”ti-±din± anukkamena paµisambhid±ya½ ±gatanayassa sabbasseva aniccalakkhaŗ±dino ±k±rasam³hasaŖkh±tassa k±yassa anupassanatopi k±ye k±y±nupass²ti evampi attho daµµhabbo. Tath± hi aya½ k±ye k±y±nupassan±paµipada½ paµipanno bhikkhu ima½ k±ya½ anicc±nupassan±d²na½ sattanna½ anupassan±na½ vasena aniccato anupassati, no niccato. Dukkhato anupassati, no sukhato. Anattato anupassati, no attato. Nibbindati, no nandati, virajjati, no rajjati, nirodheti. No samudeti, paµinissajjati, no ±diyati. So ta½ aniccato anupassanto niccasańńa½ pajahati dukkhato anupassanto sukhasańńa½ pajahati, anattato anupassanto attasańńa½ pajahati, nibbindanto nandi½ pajahati virajjanto r±ga½ pajahati, nirodhento samudaya½ pajahati, paµinissajjanto ±d±na½ pajahat²ti veditabbo.
Viharat²ti iriyati. ¾t±p²ti t²su bhavesu kilese ±t±pet²ti ±t±po, v²riyasseta½ n±ma½. ¾t±po assa atth²ti ±t±p². Sampaj±noti sampajańńasaŖkh±tena ń±ŗena samann±gato. Satim±ti k±yaparigg±hik±ya satiy± samann±gato. Aya½ pana yasm± satiy± ±rammaŗa½ pariggahetv± pańń±ya anupassati, na hi sativirahitassa anupassan± n±ma atthi, tenev±ha– “satińca khv±ha½, bhikkhave, sabbatthika½ vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.234). Tasm± ettha “k±ye k±y±nupass² viharat²”ti ett±vat± k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ vutta½ hoti. Atha v± yasm± an±t±pino antosaŖkhepo antar±yakaro hoti, asampaj±no up±yapariggahe anup±yaparivajjane ca sammuyhati, muµµhassati up±y±paricc±ge anup±y±pariggahe ca asamattho hoti, tenassa ta½ kammaµµh±na½ na sampajjati. Tasm± yesa½ dhamm±na½ ±nubh±vena ta½ sampajjati, tesa½ dassanattha½ “±t±p² sampaj±no satim±”ti ida½ vuttanti veditabba½.
Iti k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±na½ sampayogaŖgańcassa dassetv± id±ni pah±naŖga½ dassetu½ vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassanti vutta½. Tattha vineyy±ti tadaŖgavinayena v± vikkhambhanavinayena v± vinayitv±. Loketi tasmińńeva k±ye. K±yo hi idha lujjanapalujjanaµµhena lokoti adhippeto. Yasm± panassa na k±yamatteyeva abhijjh±domanassa½ pah²yati, vedan±d²supi pah²yatiyeva. Tasm± pańcapi up±d±nakkhandh± lokoti vibhaŖge vutta½. LokasaŖkh±tatt± v± tesa½ dhamm±na½ atthuddh±ranayeneta½ vutta½. Ya½ pan±ha– “tattha katamo loko? Sveva k±yo loko”ti, ayamevettha attho. Tasmi½ loke abhijjh±domanassa½ vineyy±ti eva½ sambandho daµµhabbo. Yasm± panettha abhijjh±ggahaŗena k±macchando, domanassaggahaŗena by±p±do saŖgaha½ gacchati, tasm± n²varaŗapariy±pannabalavadhammadvayadassanena n²varaŗappah±na½ vutta½ hot²ti veditabba½.
Visesena cettha abhijjh±vinayena k±yasampattim³lakassa anurodhassa, domanassavinayena k±yavipattim³lakassa virodhassa, abhijjh±vinayena ca k±ye abhiratiy±, domanassavinayena k±yabh±van±ya anabhiratiy±, abhijjh±vinayena k±ye abh³t±na½ subhasukhabh±v±d²na½ pakkhepassa, domanassavinayena k±ye bh³t±na½ asubh±sukhabh±v±d²na½ apanayanassa ca pah±na½ vutta½. Tena yog±vacarassa yog±nubh±vo yogasamatthat± ca d²pit± hoti. Yog±nubh±vo hi esa, yadida½ anurodhavirodhavippamutto aratiratisaho abh³tapakkhepabh³t±panayanavirahito ca hoti. Anurodhavirodhavippamutto cesa aratiratisaho abh³ta½ apakkhipanto bh³tańca anapanayanto yogasamattho hot²ti.
Aparo nayo “k±ye k±y±nupass²”ti ettha anupassan±ya kammaµµh±na½ vutta½. “Viharat²”ti ettha vuttavih±rena kammaµµh±nikassa k±yapariharaŗa½, “±t±p²”ti-±d²su pana ±t±pena sammappadh±na½, satisampajańńena sabbatthakakammaµµh±na½, kammaµµh±napariharaŗ³p±yo v±. Satiy± v± k±y±nupassan±vasena paµiladdhasamatho, sampajańńena vipassan± abhijjh±domanassavinayena bh±van±bala½ vuttanti veditabba½.
VibhaŖge pana anupass²ti tattha “katam± anupassan±? Y± pańń± paj±nan± vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo sallakkhaŗ± upalakkhaŗ± paccupalakkhaŗ± paŗ¹icca½ kosalla½ nepuńńa½ vebhaby± cint± upaparikkh± bh³r²medh± pariŗ±yik± vipassan± sampajańńa½ patodo pańń± pańńindriya½ pańń±bala½ pańń±sattha½ pańń±p±s±do pańń±-±loko pańń±-obh±so pańń±pajjoto pańń±ratana½ amoho dhammavicayo samm±diµµhi, aya½ vuccati anupassan±. Im±ya anupassan±ya upeto hoti samupeto upagato samupagato upapanno samann±gato, tena vuccati anupass²ti. Viharat²ti iriyati pavattati p±leti yapeti y±peti carati viharati, tena vuccati viharat²ti. ¾t±p²ti tattha katama½ ±t±pa½? Yo cetasiko v²riy±rambho nikammo parakkamo uyy±mo v±y±mo uss±ho usso¼h² th±mo dhiti asithilaparakkamat± anikkhittaddandat± anikkhittadhurat± dhurasampagg±h² v²riya½ v²riyindriya½ v²riyabala½ samm±v±y±mo, ida½ vuccati ±t±pa½. Imin± ±t±pena upeto hoti…pe… samann±gato tena vuccati ±t±p²ti. Sampaj±noti tattha katama½ sampajańńa½? Y± pańń± paj±nan± vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo sallakkhaŗ± upalakkhaŗ± paccupalakkhaŗ± paŗ¹icca½ kosalla½ nepuńńa½ vebhaby± cint± upaparikkh± bh³r²medh± pariŗ±yik± vipassan± sampajańńa½ patodo pańń± pańńindriya½ pańń±bala½ pańń±sattha½ pańń±p±s±do pańń±-±loko pańń±-obh±so pańń±pajjoto pańń±ratana½ amoho dhammavicayo samm±diµµhi, ida½ vuccati sampajańńa½. Imin± sampajańńena upeto hoti …pe… samann±gato, tena vuccati sampaj±noti. Satim±ti tattha katam± sati? Y± sati anussati paµissati sati saraŗat± dh±raŗat± apil±panat± asammusanat± sati satindriya½ satibala½ samm±sati aya½ vuccati sati. Im±ya satiy± upeto hoti…pe… samann±gato, tena vuccati satim±ti.
Vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassanti tattha katamo loko? Sveva k±yo loko. Pańcapi up±d±nakkhandh± loko, aya½ vuccati loko. Tattha katam± abhijjh±? Yo r±go s±r±go anunayo anurodho nand² nandir±go cittassa s±r±go, aya½ vuccati abhijjh±. Tattha katama½ domanassa½? Ya½ cetasika½ as±ta½ cetasika½ dukkha½ cetosamphassaj± as±t± dukkh± vedan±, ida½ vuccati domanassa½. Iti ayańca abhijjh±, idańca domanassa½ imamhi loke vin²t± honti paµivin²t± sant± samit± v³pasamit± atthaŖgat± abbhatthaŖgat± appit± byappit± sosit± visosit± byant²kat±, tena vuccati vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassan”ti (vibha. 357-362).
Evametesa½ pad±na½ attho vutto. Tena saha aya½ aµµhakath±nayo yath± sa½sandati, eva½ veditabbo. Aya½ t±va k±y±nupassan±satipaµµh±nuddesassa atthavaŗŗan±.
Id±ni vedan±su. Citte. Dhammesu dhamm±nupass² viharati…pe… vineyya loke abhijjh±domanassanti ettha vedan±su vedan±nupass²ti evam±d²su vedan±d²na½ puna vacane payojana½ k±y±nupassan±ya½ vuttanayeneva veditabba½. Vedan±su vedan±nupass². Citte citt±nupass². Dhammesu dhamm±nupass²ti ettha pana vedan±ti tisso vedan±, t± ca lokiy± eva. Cittampi lokiya½, tath± dhamm±. Tesa½ vibh±go niddesav±re p±kaµo bhavissati. Kevala½ panidha yath± vedan± anupassitabb±, tath± t± anupassanto “vedan±su vedan±nupass²”ti veditabbo. Esa nayo cittadhammesupi. Kathańca vedan± anupassitabb±ti? Sukh± t±va vedan± dukkhato, dukkh± sallato, adukkhamasukh± aniccato. Yath±ha–
“Yo sukha½ dukkhato adda, dukkhamaddakkhi sallato;
adukkhamasukha½ santa½, addakkhi na½ aniccato;
sa ve sammaddaso bhikkhu, upasanto carissat²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 4.253).
Sabb± eva cet± “dukkh±”tipi anupassitabb±. Vuttańheta½– “ya½ kińci vedayita½, ta½ dukkhasminti vad±m²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.259). Sukhadukkhatopi ca anupassitabb±. Yath±ha “sukh± vedan± µhitisukh± vipariŗ±madukkh±”ti (ma. ni. 1.465) sabba½ vitth±retabba½. Apica anicc±disatta-anupassan±vasenapi anupassitabb±. Sesa½ niddesav±reyeva p±kaµa½ bhavissati.
Cittadhammesupi citta½ t±va ±rammaŗ±dhipatisahaj±tabh³mikammavip±kakiriy±din±nattabhed±na½ anicc±di-anupassan±na½ niddesav±re ±gatasar±g±dibhed±nańca vasena anupassitabba½. Dhamm± salakkhaŗas±mańńalakkhaŗ±na½ suńńatadhammassa anicc±disatt±nupassan±na½ niddesav±re ±gatasant±dibhed±nańca vasena anupassitabb±. Sesa½ vuttanayameva. K±mańcettha yassa k±yasaŖkh±te loke abhijjh±domanassa½ pah²na½, tassa vedan±d²supi ta½ pah²nameva. N±n±puggalavasena pana n±n±cittakkhaŗikasatipaµµh±nabh±van±vasena ca sabbattha vutta½. Yato v± ekattha pah²na½ sesesupi pah²na½ hoti, tenevassa tattha pah±nadassanatthampi eta½ vuttanti veditabbanti.

Uddesav±rakath± niµµhit±.