Saraºagamanakath±vaººan±

Saraºagamanassa visayappabhedaphalasa½kilesabhed±na½ viya kattu ca vibh±van± tattha kosall±ya hot²ti “saraºagamanesu kosallattha½ saraºa½…pe… veditabbo”ti vutta½ tena vin± saraºagamanasseva asambhavato. Kasm± panettha vod±na½ na gahita½, nanu vod±navibh±van±pi tattha kosall±vah±ti? Saccameta½, ta½ pana sa½kilesaggahaºeneva atthato d²pita½ hot²ti na gahita½. Y±ni hi nesa½ sa½kilesak±raº±ni aññ±º±d²ni, tesa½ sabbena sabba½ anuppann±na½ anupp±danena, uppann±nañca pah±nena vod±na½ hot²ti. Hi½satthassa sara-saddassa vaseneta½ pada½ daµµhabbanti “hi½sat²ti saraºan”ti vatv± ta½ pana hi½sana½ kesa½ katha½ kassa v±ti codana½ sodhento “saraºagat±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha bhayanti vaµµabhaya½. Sant±santi cittutr±sa½ teneva cetasikadukkhassa gahitatt±. Dukkhanti k±yikadukkha½. Duggatiparikilesanti duggatipariy±panna½ sabbampi dukkha½, tayida½ sabba½ parato phalakath±ya½ ±vibhavissati. Etanti “saraºan”ti pada½.
Eva½ avisesato saraºa-saddassa attha½ dassetv± id±ni visesato dassetu½ “atha v±”ti-±di vutta½. Hite pavattanen±ti “sampannas²l± bhikkhave viharath±”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.64, 69) atthe niyojanena. Ahit± ca nivattanen±ti. “P±º±tip±tassa kho p±pako vip±ko, p±paka½ abhisampar±yan”ti-±din± ±d²navadassan±dimukhena anatthato nivattanena. Bhaya½ hi½sat²ti hit±hitesu appavattipavattihetuka½ byasana½ appavattikaraºena vin±seti. Bhavakant±r± utt±raºena maggasaªkh±to dhammo, itaro ass±sad±nena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sat²ti yojan±. K±r±nanti d±navasena p³j±vasena ca upan²t±na½ sakk±r±na½. Vipulaphalapaµil±bhakaraºena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sat²ti yojan±, anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±vatoti adhipp±yo. Imin±pi pariy±yen±ti imin±pi vibhajitv± vuttena k±raºena.
“Samm±sambuddho bhagav±, sv±kkh±to dhammo, suppaµipanno saªgho”ti eva½ pavatto tattha ratanattaye pas±do tappas±do, tadeva ratanattaya½ garu etass±ti taggaru tabbh±vo taggarut±, tappas±do ca taggarut± ca tappas±dataggarut±, t±hi tappas±dataggarut±hi. Vidh³tadiµµhivicikicch±sammoha-assaddhiy±dit±ya vihatakileso. Tadeva ratanattaya½ par±yaºa½ par±gati t±ºa½ leºanti eva½ pavattiy± tappar±yaºat±k±rappavatto cittupp±do saraºagamana½ saraºa½ gacchati eten±ti. Ta½samaªg²ti tena yath±vuttacittupp±dena samann±gato. Eva½ upet²ti bhajati sevati payirup±sati, eva½ v± j±n±ti bujjhat²ti evamattho veditabbo. Ettha ca pas±da-ggahaºena lokiyasaraºagamanam±ha. Tañhi pas±dappadh±na½. Garut±gahaºena lokuttara½. Ariy± hi ratanattaya½ guº±bhiññat±ya p±s±ºacchatta½ viya garu½ katv± passanti. Tasm± tappas±dena vikkhambhanavasena vigatakileso, taggarut±ya samucchedavasen±ti yojetabba½ ag±ravakaraºahet³na½ samucchindanato. Tappar±yaºat± panettha taggatikat±ti t±ya catubbidhampi vakkham±na½ saraºagamana½ gahitanti daµµhabba½. Avisesena v± pas±dagarut± jotit±ti pas±daggahaºena aveccappas±dassa itarassa ca gahaºa½, tath± garut±gahaºen±ti ubhayen±pi ubhaya½ saraºagamana½ yojetabba½.
Maggakkhaºe ijjhat²ti yojan±. “Nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv±”ti etena atthato catusacc±dhigamo eva lokuttarasaraºagamananti dasseti. Tattha hi nibb±nadhammo sacchikiriy±bhisamayavasena, maggadhammo bh±van±bhisamayavasena paµivijjhiyam±noyeva saraºagamanattha½ s±dheti. Buddhaguº± pana s±vakagocarabh³t± pariññ±bhisamayavasena, tath± ariyasaªghaguº±, ten±ha “kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhat²”ti. Ijjhantañca saheva ijjhati, na lokiya½ viya patip±µiy± asammohapaµivedhena paµividdhatt±ti adhipp±yo. Ye pana vadanti “na saraºagamana½ nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv± pavattati. Maggassa adhigatatt± pana adhigatameva hoti ekacc±na½ tevijj±d²na½ lokiyavijj±dayo viy±”ti, tesa½ lokiyameva saraºagamana½ siy±, na lokuttara½, tañca ayutta½ duvidhass±pi icchitabbatt±.
Tanti lokiya½ saraºagamana½. Saddh±paµil±bho “samm±sambuddho bhagav±”ti-±din±. Saddh±m³lik±ti yath±vuttasaddh±pubbaªgam± samm±diµµhiti buddhasubuddhata½, dhammasudhammata½, saªghasuppaµipattiñca lokiy±vabodhavaseneva samm± ñ±yena dassanato. “Saddh±m³lik± samm±diµµh²”ti etena saddh³panissay± yath±vuttalakkhaº± paññ± lokiyasaraºagamananti dasseti, ten±ha “diµµhijukammanti vuccat²”ti. Diµµhi eva attano paccayehi uju kar²yat²ti katv± diµµhi v± uju kar²yati eten±ti diµµhijukamma½, tath± pavatto cittupp±do. Evañca katv± “tappar±yaºat±k±rappavatto cittupp±do”ti ida½ vacana½ samatthita½ hoti. Saddh±pubbaªgamasamm±diµµhiggahaºa½ pana cittupp±dassa tappadh±nat±y±ti daµµhabba½. “Saddh±paµil±bho”ti imin± m±t±d²hi uss±hitad±rak±d²na½ viya ñ±ºavippayutta½ saraºagamana½ dasseti, “samm±diµµh²”ti imin± ñ±ºasampayutta½ saraºagamana½. Tayida½ lokiya½ saraºagamana½. Att± sanniyy±t²yati app²yati pariccaj²yati eten±ti attasanniyy±tana½, yath±vutta½ diµµhijukamma½. Ta½ ratanattaya½ par±yaºa½ paµisaraºa½ etass±ti tappar±yaºo, puggalo, cittupp±do v±. Tassa bh±vo tappar±yaºat±, yath±vutta½ diµµhijukammameva. “Saraºan”ti adhipp±yena sissabh±va½ antev±sikabh±va½ upagacchati eten±ti sissabh±v³pagamana½. Saraºagaman±dhipp±yeneva paºipatati eten±ti paºip±to. Sabbattha yath±vuttadiµµhijukammavaseneva attho veditabbo.
Attapariccajananti sa½s±radukkhanittharaºattha½ attano attabh±vassa pariccajana½. Eseva nayo sesesupi. Buddh±d²na½ yev±ti avadh±raºa½ attasanniyy±tan±d²supi tattha tattha vattabba½. Evañhi tadaññanivattana½ kata½ hoti.
Eva½ attasanniyy±tan±d²ni ekena pak±rena dassetv± id±ni aparehipi pak±rehi dassetu½ “apic±”ti-±di ±raddha½, tena pariy±yantarehipi attasanniyy±tan±di katameva hoti atthassa abhinnatt±ti dasseti. ¾¼avak±d²nanti ±di-saddena s±t±girahemavat±d²na½ saªgaho daµµhabbo. Nanu cete ±¼avak±dayo maggeneva ±gatasaraºagaman±, katha½ tesa½ tappar±yaºat±saraºagamana½ vuttanti? Maggen±gatasaraºagamanehipi. “So aha½ vicariss±mi…pe… sudhammata½” (sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 194) “te maya½ vicariss±ma g±m± g±ma½ nag± naga½…pe… sudhammatan”ti, (su. ni. 182) tehi tappar±yaºat±k±rassa paveditatt± tath± vutta½.
So panesa ñ±ti…pe… vasen±ti ettha ñ±tivasena, bhayavasena, ±cariyavasena, dakkhiºeyyavasen±ti pacceka½ yojetabba½. Tattha ñ±tivasen±ti ñ±tibh±vavasena. Eva½ sesesupi. Dakkhiºeyyapaºip±ten±ti dakkhiºeyyat±hetukena paºip±tena. Itareh²ti ñ±tibh±v±divasappavattehi t²hi paºip±tehi. “Itareh²”ti-±din± saªkhepato vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “tasm±”ti-±di vutta½. Vandat²ti paºip±tassa lakkhaºavacana½. Evar³panti diµµhadhammika½ sandh±ya vadati. Sampar±yikañhi niyy±nika½ v± anus±sani½ pacc±sisanto dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tameva karot²ti adhipp±yo.
Saraºagamanappabhedoti saraºagamanavibh±go.
Ariyamaggo eva lokuttara½ saraºagamananti “catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni vip±kaphalan”ti vutta½. Sabbadukkhakkhayoti sakalassa vaµµadukkhassa anupp±danirodho. Etanti “catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, sammappaññ±ya passat²”ti eva½ vutta½ ariyasaccassa dassana½.
Nicc±dito anupagaman±divasen±ti “niccan”ti aggahaº±divasena. Aµµh±nanti hetupaµikkhepo. Anavak±soti paccayapaµikkhepo. Ubhayen±pi k±raºameva paµikkhipati. Yanti yena k±raºena. Diµµhisampannoti maggadiµµhiy± samann±gato sot±panno. Kañci saªkh±ranti catubh³makesu saªkhatasaªkh±resu ekasaªkh±rampi. Niccato upagaccheyy±ti “nicco”ti gaºheyya. “Sukhato upagaccheyy±”ti. “Ekantasukh² att± hoti arogo para½ maraº±”ti (d². ni. 1.76) eva½ attadiµµhivasena sukhato g±ha½ sandh±yeta½ vutta½ Diµµhivippayuttacittena pana ariyas±vako pari¼±hav³pasamanattha½ mattahatthiparitt±sito viya cokkhabr±hmaºo ukk±rabh³mi½ kañci saªkh±ra½ sukhato upagacchati. Attav±re kasiº±dipaññattisaªgahattha½ “saªkh±ran”ti avatv± “kañci dhamman”ti vutta½. Imesupi v±resu catubh³makavaseneva paricchedo veditabbo, tebh³makavaseneva v±. Ya½ yañhi puthujjano g±havasena gaºh±ti, tato tato ariyas±vako g±ha½ viniveµheti.
“M±taran”ti-±d²su janik± m±t±, janako pit±, manussabh³to kh²º±savo arah±ti adhippeto. Ki½ pana ariyas±vako añña½ j²vit± voropeyy±ti? Etampi aµµh±na½, puthujjanabh±vassa pana mah±s±vajjabh±vadassanattha½, ariyas±vakassa ca phaladassanattha½ eva½ vutta½. Duµµhacittoti vadhakacittena paduµµhacitto. Lohita½ upp±deyy±ti j²vam±nakasar²re khuddakamakkhik±ya pivanamattampi lohita½ upp±deyya. Saªgha½ bhindeyy±ti sam±nasa½v±saka½ sam±nas²m±ya½ µhita½ saªgha½. “Kammena, uddesena, voharanto, anuss±vanena, sal±kagg±hen±”ti (pari. 458) eva½ vuttehi pañcahi k±raºehi bhindeyya. Añña½ satth±ranti añña½ titthakara½ “aya½ me satth±”ti eva½ gaºheyya, neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²ti attho. Na te gamissanti ap±yabh³minti te buddha½ saraºa½ gat± ta½nimitta½ ap±ya½ na gamissanti, devak±ya½ pana parip³ressant²ti attho.
Dasahi µh±neh²ti dasahi k±raºehi. Adhigaºhant²ti abhibhavanti. Vel±masutt±divasen±p²ti ettha kar²sassa catutthabh±gappam±º±na½ catur±s²tisahassasaªkhy±na½ suvaººap±tir³piyap±tika½sap±t²na½ yath±kkama½ r³piyasuvaººahiraññap³r±na½, sabb±laªk±rapaµimaº¹it±na½ catur±s²tiy± hatthisahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± assasahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± rathasahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± dhenusahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± kaññ±sahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± pallaªkasahass±na½, catur±s²tiy± vatthakoµisahass±na½, aparim±ºassa ca khajjabhojj±dibhedassa ±h±rassa pariccajanavasena sattam±s±dhik±ni sattasa½vacchar±ni nirantara½ pavattavel±mamah±d±nato ekassa sot±pannassa dinnad±na½ mahapphalatara½, tato sata½ sot±pann±na½ dinnad±nato ekassa sakad±g±mino, tato ekassa an±g±mino, tato ekassa arahato, tato ekassa paccekabuddhassa, tato samm±sambuddhassa, tato buddhappamukhassa saªghassa dinnad±na½ mahapphalatara½, tato c±tuddisasaªgha½ uddissa vih±rakaraºa½, tato saraºagamana½ mahapphalataranti imamattha½ pak±sentassa vel±masuttassa (a. ni. 9.20) vasena. Vuttañheta½ “ya½ gahapati vel±mo br±hmaºo d±na½ ad±si mah±d±na½, yo ceka½ diµµhisampanna½ bhojeyya, ida½ tato mahapphalataran”ti-±di (a. ni. 9.20). Vel±masutt±d²ti ±disaddena aggappas±dasutt±d²na½ (a. ni. 4.34; itivu. 90) saªgaho daµµhabbo.
Aññ±ºa½ vatthuttayassa guº±na½ aj±nana½, tattha sammoho. “Buddho nu kho, na nu kho”ti-±din± vicikicch± sa½sayo. Micch±ñ±ºa½ tassa guº±na½ aguºabh±vaparikappanena vipar²tagg±ho. ¾di-saddena an±dar±g±rav±d²na½ saªgaho. Na mah±jutikanti na ujjala½, aparisuddha½ apariyod±tanti attho. Na mah±vipph±ranti anu¼±ra½. S±vajjoti taºh±diµµh±divasena sadoso, lokiyasaraºagamana½ sikkh±sam±d±na½ viya aggahitak±lapariccheda½ j²vitapariyantameva hoti, tasm± tassa khandhabhedena bhedoti ±ha “anavajjo k±lakiriy±y±”ti. Soti anavajjo saraºagamanabhedo. Satipi anavajjatte iµµhaphalopi na hot²ti ±ha “aphalo”ti. Kasm±? Avip±katt±. Na hi ta½ akusalanti.
Ko up±sakoti sar³papucch±, ki½lakkhaºo up±sakoti vutta½ hoti. Kasm±ti hetupucch±, tena kena pavattinimittena up±saka-saddo tasmi½ puggale nir³¼hoti dasseti, ten±ha “kasm± up±sakoti vuccat²”ti. Saddassa abhidheyye pavattinimitta½ tadatthassa tabbh±vak±raºa½. Kimassa s²lanti k²disa½ assa up±sakassa s²la½, kittakena s²len±ya½ s²lasampanno n±ma hot²ti attho. Ko ±j²voti ko assa samm±-±j²vo, so pana micch±j²vassa parivajjanena hot²ti sopi vibhaj²yati. K± vipatt²ti k± assa s²lassa, ±j²vassa v± vipatti. Anantarassa hi vidhi v± paµisedho v±. Sampatt²ti etth±pi eseva nayo.
Yo koc²ti khattiy±d²su yo koci, tena saraºagamana½ eva½ k±raºa½, na j±ti ±divisesoti dasseti.
Up±sanatoti teneva saraºagamanena, tattha ca sakkaccakiriy±ya ±dara g±ravabahum±n±diyogena payirup±sanato.
Veramaºiyoti vera½ vuccati p±º±tip±t±diduss²lya½, tassa maºanato hananato vin±sanato veramaºiyo, pañca viratiyo viratipadh±natt± tassa s²lassa, tenev±ha “paµivirato hot²”ti.
Micch±vaºijj±ti na samm±vaºijj± ayuttavaºijj± as±ruppavaºijj±. Pah±y±ti akaraºeneva pajahitv±. Dhammen±ti dhammato anapetena, tena aññampi adhammika½ j²vika½ paµikkhipati. Samen±ti avisamena, tena k±yavisa½ ±diduccarita½ vajjetv± k±yasam±din± sucaritena j²vika½ dasseti. Satthavaºijj±ti ±vudhabhaº¹a½ katv± v± k±retv± v± yath±kata½ v± paµilabhitv± tassa vikkayo. Sattavaºijj±ti manussavikkayo. Ma½savaºijj±ti s³nak±r±dayo viya migas³kar±dike posetv± ma½sa½ samp±detv± vikkayo. Majjavaºijj±ti ya½ kiñci majja½ yojetv± tassa vikkayo. Visavaºijj±ti visa½ yojetv± v± visa½ gahetv± v± tassa vikkayo. Tattha satthavaºijj± paroparodhanimittat±ya akaraº²y± vutt± sattavaºijj± abhujissabh±vakaraºato, ma½savaºijj± vadhahetuto, majjavaºijj± pam±daµµh±nato.
Tassev±ti pañcaveramaºilakkhaºassa s²lassa ceva pañcamicch±vaºijj±lakkhaºassa ±j²vassa ca. Vipatt²ti bhedo, pakopo ca. Y±y±ti y±ya paµipattiy±. Caº¹±loti up±sakacaº¹±lo. Malanti up±sakamala½. Paµikiµµhoti up±sakanih²no. Buddh±d²su kammakammaphalesu ca saddh±vipariy±yo assaddhiya½ micch±dhimokkho, yath±vuttena assaddhiyena samann±gato assaddho. Yath±vuttas²lavipatti-±j²vavipattivasena duss²lo. “Imin± diµµh±din± ida½ n±ma maªgala½ hot²”ti eva½ b±lajanaparikappitakot³halasaªkh±tena diµµhasutamutamaªgalena samann±gato kot³halamaªgaliko. Maªgala½ paccet²ti diµµhamaªgal±dibheda½ maªgalameva pattiy±yati. No kammanti kammassakata½ no pattiy±yati. Ito ca bahiddh±ti ito sabbaññubuddhas±sanato bahiddh± b±hirakasamaye. Dakkhiºeyya½ pariyesat²ti duppaµipanna½ dakkhiº±rahasaññ² gavesati. Pubbak±ra½ karot²ti d±nam±na½ ±dika½ kusalakiriya½ paµhamatara½ karoti. Ettha ca dakkhiºeyyapariyesanapubbak±re eka½ katv± pañca dhamm± veditabb±.
Vipattiya½ vuttavipariy±yena sampatti veditabb±. Aya½ pana viseso– catunnampi paris±na½ ratijananaµµhena up±sakova ratana½ up±sakaratana½. Guºasobh±kittisaddasugandhat±ya up±sakova paduma½ up±sakapaduma½. Tath± up±sakapuº¹ar²ka½.
¾dimh²ti-±di-atthe. Koµiyanti pariyantakoµiya½. Vih±raggen±ti ovarakakoµµh±sena, “imasmi½ gabbhe vasant±namida½ n±ma panasaphala½ p±puº±t²”ti-±din± ta½ ta½vasanaµµh±nakoµµh±sen±ti attho. Ajjatagganti v± ajjadagganti v± ajja icceva attho.
“P±ºehi upetan”ti imin± tassa saraºagamanassa ±p±ºakoµikata½ dassento “y±va me j²vita½ pavattat²”ti-±d²ni vatv± puna j²viten±pi ta½ vatthuttaya½ paµip³jento “saraºagamana½ rakkh±m²”ti uppanna½ tassa rañño adhipp±ya½ vibh±vento “ahañh²”ti-±dim±ha. P±ºehi upetanti hi y±va me p±º± dharanti, t±va saraºa½ upeta½, upento ca na v±c±mattena, na ekav±ra½ cittupp±damattena, atha kho p±º±na½ pariccajanavasena y±vaj²va½ upetanti evamettha attho veditabbo.
Accayana½ s±dhumariy±da½ madditv± v²tikkamana½ accayoti ±ha “apar±dho”ti. Acceti atikkamati eten±ti v± accayo, v²tikkamassa pavattanako akusaladhammo. So eva aparajjhati eten±ti apar±dho. So hi aparajjhanta½ purisa½ abhibhavitv± pavattati, ten±ha “atikkamma abhibhavitv± pavatto”ti. Carat²ti ±carati karoti. Dhammenev±ti dhammato anapetena payogena. Paµiggaºh±t³ti adhiv±sanavasena sampaµicchat³ti atthoti ±ha “khamat³”ti.
251. Sadevakena lokena “saraºan”ti araº²yato ariyo, tath±gatoti ±ha “ariyassa vinaye buddhassa bhagavato s±sane”ti. Puggal±dhiµµh±na½ karontoti k±ma½ “vuddhi hes±”ti dhamm±dhiµµh±navasena v±kya½ ±raddha½, tath±pi desana½ pana puggal±dhiµµh±na½ karonto sa½vara½ ±pajjat²ti ±h±ti yojan±.
253. Imasmi½yeva attabh±ve nippajjanak±na½ attano kusalam³l±na½ khaºanena khato, tesa½yeva upahananena upahato. Ubhayen±pi tassa kamm±par±dhameva vadati. Patiµµh±ti sammattaniy±mokkamana½ et±y±ti patiµµh±, tassa upanissayasampad±. S± kiriy±par±dhena bhinn± vin±sit± eten±ti bhinnapatiµµho, ten±ha “tath±”ti-±di. Dhammesu cakkhunti catusaccadhammesu tesa½ dassanaµµhena cakkhu. Aññesu µh±nes³ti aññesu suttapadesu. Muccissat²ti saµµhi vassasahass±ni paccitv± lohakumbh² narakato muccissati.
Yadi anantare attabh±ve narake paccati, ima½ pana sutta½ sutv± rañño ko ±nisa½so laddhoti ±ha “mah±nisa½so”ti-±di. So pana ±nisa½so nidd±l±bhas²sena vutto tad± k±yikacetasikadukkh±pagamo, tiººa½ ratan±na½ mah±sakk±rakiriy±, s±tisayo pothujjanikasaddh±paµil±bhoti eva½pak±ro diµµhadhammiko, sampar±yiko pana apar±paresupi bhavesu aparim±ºo yev±ti veditabbo.
Etth±ha– yadi rañño kammantar±y±bh±ve tasmi½yeva ±sane dhammacakkhu uppajjissati, katha½ an±gate paccekabuddho hutv± parinibb±yissati. Atha paccekabuddho hutv± parinibb±yissati, katha½ tad± dhammacakkhu½ uppajjissati, nanu ime s±vakabodhipaccekabodhi-upanissay± bhinnanissay±ti? N±ya½ virodho ito parato evassa paccekabodhisambh±r±na½ sambharaº²yato. S±vakabodhiy± bujjhanakasatt±pi hi asati tass± samav±ye k±lantare paccekabodhiy± bujjhissanti kat±bhin²h±rasambhavato. Apare pana bhaºanti “paccekabodhiy± yev±ya½ kat±bhin²h±ro. Kat±bhin²h±r±pi hi tattha niyati½ appatt± tassa ñ±ºassa parip±ka½ anupagatatt± satthu sammukh²bh±ve s±vakabodhi½ p±puºissant²ti bhagav± ‘sac±ya½ bhikkhave r±j±’ti-±dim±ha. Mah±bodhisatt±nameva ca ±nantariyaparimutti, na itarabodhisatt±na½. Tath± hi paccekabodhiya½ niyato sam±no devadatto cirak±lasambh³tena lokan±the ±gh±tena garutar±ni ±nantariy±ni pasavi, tasm± kammantar±yen±ya½ id±ni asamavetadassan±bhisamayo r±j± paccekabodhiniy±mena an±gate paccekabuddho hutv± parinibb±yissat²”ti daµµhabba½.

S±maññaphalasuttavaººan±ya l²natthappak±san±.