Buddhañ±ºassa mahantabh±vo paññ±yat²ti eva½vidhassa n±ma dhammassa desaka½ paµivedhakañc±ti buddh±na½ desan±ñ±ºassa paµivedhañ±ºassa ca u¼±rabh±vo p±kaµo hoti. Ettha ca kiñc±pi “sabba½ vac²kamma½ buddhassa bhagavato ñ±ºapubbaªgama½ ñ±º±nuparivatt²”ti (mah±ni. 69; c³¼ani. 85; paµi. ma. 3.5; netti. 14) vacanato sabb±pi bhagavato desan± ñ±ºarahit± natthi, s²hasam±navuttit±ya ca sabbattha sam±nuss±happavatti desetabbadhammavasena pana desan± visesato ñ±ºena anupaviµµh± gambh²ratar± ca hot²ti daµµhabba½. Katha½ pana vinayapaººatti½ patv± desan± tilakkhaº±hat± suññat±paµisa½yutt± hot²ti? Tatth±pi ca sannisinnaparis±ya ajjh±say±nur³pa½ pavattam±n± desan± saªkh±r±na½ aniccat±divibh±van², sabbadhamm±na½ attattaniyat±bh±vappak±san² ca hoti. Tenev±ha “anekapariy±yena dhammi½ katha½ katv±”ti-±di.
Bh³mantaranti dhamm±na½ avatth±visesañca µh±navisesañca. Tattha avatth±visesosati-±didhamm±na½ satipaµµh±nindriyabalabojjhaªgamaggaªg±dibhedo. Ýh±naviseso k±m±vacar±dibhedo. Paccay±k±rapadassa attho heµµh± vuttoyeva. Samayantaranti diµµhivises±, n±n±vihit± diµµhiyoti attho, aññasamaya½ v±. Eva½ otiººe vatthusminti eva½ lahukagaruk±divasena tadanur³pe otiººe vatthusmi½ sikkh±padapaññ±pana½.
Yadipi k±y±nupassan±divasena satipaµµh±n±dayo suttantapiµakepi (d². ni. 2.374; ma. ni. 1.107) vibhatt±, suttantabh±jan²y±divasena pana abhidhammeyeva te savisesa½ vibhatt±ti ±ha “ime catt±ro satipaµµh±n±…pe… abhidhammapiµaka½ vibhajitv±”ti. Tattha “satta phass±”ti sattaviññ±ºadh±tusampayogavasena vutta½. Tath± “satta vedan±”ti-±d²supi. Lokuttar± dhamm± n±m±ti ettha iti-saddo ±di-attho, pak±rattho v±, tena vutt±vasesa½ abhidhamme ±gata½ dhamm±na½ vibhajitabb±k±ra½ saªgaºh±ti. Catuv²sati samantapaµµh±n±ni etth±ti catuv²satisamantapaµµh±na½, abhidhammapiµaka½. Ettha paccayanaya½ aggahetv± dhammavaseneva samantapaµµh±nassa catuv²satividhat± vutt±. Yath±ha–
“Tikañca paµµh±navara½ dukuttama½,
dukatikañceva tikadukañca;
tikatikañceva dukadukañca,
cha anulomamhi nay± sugambh²r±. (Paµµh±. 1.paccayaniddesa 41, 44, 48, 52).
Tath±–
Tikañca…pe… cha paccan²yamhi nay± sugambh²r±;
tikañca…pe… cha anulomapaccan²yamhi nay± sugambh²r±;
tikañca…pe… paccan²y±nulomamhi nay± sugambh²r±”ti. (Paµµh±. 1.paccayaniddesa 44, 52).
Eva½ dhammavasena catuv²satibhedesu tikapaµµh±n±d²su ekeka½ paccayanayena anulom±divasena catubbidha½ hot²ti channavuti samantapaµµh±n±ni. Tattha pana dhamm±nulome tikapaµµh±ne kusalattike paµiccav±re paccay±nulome hetum³lake hetupaccayavasena ek³napaññ±sa pucch±nay± satta vissajjananay±ti ±din± dassiyam±n± anantabhed± nay±ti ±ha “anantanayan”ti. Hoti cettha–
“Paµµh±na½ n±ma pacceka½ dhamm±na½ anulom±dimhi tikaduk±d²su y± paccayam³lavisiµµh± catunayato sattadh± gat²”ti.
Navah±k±reh²ti upp±d±d²hi navahi paccay±k±rehi. Tattha uppajjati etasm± phalanti upp±do, uppattiy± k±raºabh±vo. Sati ca avijj±ya saªkh±r± uppajjanti, na asati, tasm± avijj± saªkh±r±na½ upp±do hutv± paccayo hoti. Tath± avijj±ya sati saªkh±r± pavattanti dharanti, nivisanti ca, te avijj±ya sati phala½ bhav±d²su khipanti, ±y³hanti phaluppattiy± ghaµanti, sa½yujjanti attano phalena, yasmi½ sant±ne sayañca uppann±, ta½ palibundhanti, paccayantarasamav±ye udayanti uppajjanti, hinoti ca saªkh±r±na½ k±raºabh±va½ gacchati, paµicca avijja½ saªkh±r± ayanti pavattant²ti eva½ avijj±ya saªkh±r±na½ k±raºabh±v³pagamanavises± upp±d±dayo veditabb±. Tath± saªkh±r±d²na½ viññ±º±d²su.
Upp±daµµhit²ti-±d²su ca tiµµhati eten±ti µhiti, k±raºa½. Upp±do eva µhiti upp±daµµhiti. Esa nayo sesesupi. Yasm± ayonisomanasik±ro, “±savasamuday± avijj±samudayo”ti (ma. ni. 1.103) vacanato ±sav± ca avijj±ya paccayo, tasm± vutta½ “ubhopete dhamm± paccayasamuppann±”ti. Paccayapariggahe paññ±ti saªkh±r±na½ avijj±ya ca upp±d±dike paccay±k±re paricchinditv± gahaºavasena pavatt± paññ±. Dhammaµµhitiñ±ºanti dhamm±na½ paccayuppann±na½ paccayabh±vato dhammaµµhitisaªkh±te paµiccasamupp±de ñ±ºa½. Paccayadhamm± hi paµiccasamupp±de “dv±dasa paµiccasamupp±d±”ti vacanato dv±dasa paccay±. Ayañca nayo na paccuppanne eva, atha kho at²t±n±gatak±lepi, na ca avijj±ya eva saªkh±resu, atha kho saªkh±r±d²nampi viññ±º±d²su labbhat²ti paripuººa½ katv± paccay±k±rassa vibhattabh±va½ dassetu½ “at²tampi addh±nan”ti-±di p±¼i½ ±rabhi. Paµµh±ne (paµµh±. 1.paccayaniddesa 1) dassit± het±dipaccay± evettha upp±d±dipaccay±k±rehi gahit±ti te yath±sambhava½ n²haritv± yojetabb±, ativitth±rabhayena pana na yojayimha.
Tassa tassa dhammass±ti tassa tassa saªkh±r±dipaccayuppannadhammassa. Tath± tath± paccayabh±ven±ti upp±d±dihet±dipaccayabh±vena. At²tapaccuppann±n±gatavasena tayo addh± k±l± etass±ti tiyaddha½. Hetuphalaphalahetuhetuphalavasena tayo sandh² etass±ti tisandhi½. Saªkhippanti ettha avijj±dayo viññ±º±dayo c±ti saªkhepo, kamma½ vip±ko ca. Saªkhippanti etth±ti v± saªkhepo, avijj±dayo viññ±º±dayo ca. Koµµh±sapariy±yo v± saªkhepa-saddo. At²te kammasaªkhep±divasena catt±ro saªkhep± etass±ti catusaªkhepa½. Sar³pato avutt±pi tasmi½ tasmi½ saªkhepe ±kir²yanti avijj±saªkh±r±diggahaºehi pak±s²yant²ti ±k±r±, at²te hetu-±d²na½ v± pak±r± ±k±r±, te saªkhepe pañca pañca katv± v²sati-±k±r± etass±ti v²sat±k±ra½.
Khattiy±dibhedena anekabhedabhinn±pi sassatav±dino j±tisatasahass±nussaraº±dino abhinivesahetuno vasena catt±rova honti na tato uddha½ adhoti sassatav±d±d²na½ parim±ºaparicchedassa anaññavisayata½ dassetu½ “catt±ro jan±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha catt±ro jan±ti catt±ro janasam³h±. Ida½ niss±y±ti ida½ idappaccayat±ya samm± aggahaºa½, tatth±pi ca hetuphalabh±vena sambandh±na½ santatighanassa abheditatt± paramatthato vijjam±nampi bhedanibandhana½ n±nattanaya½ anupadh±retv± gahita½ ekattaggahaºa½ niss±ya. Ida½ gaºhant²ti ida½ sassataggahaºa½ abhinivissa voharanti, imin± nayena ekaccasassatav±d±dayopettha yath±sambhava½ yojetv± vattabb±. Bhinditv±ti “±tappamanv±y±”ti-±din± vibhajitv± “tayida½ bhikkhave tath±gato paj±n±t²”ti-±din± vimadditv± nijjaµa½ nigumba½ katv± diµµhijaµ±vijaµanena diµµhigumbavivaraºena ca.
“Tasm±”ti-±din± buddhaguºe ±rabbha desan±ya samuµµhitatt± sabbaññutaññ±ºa½ uddisitv± desan±kusalo bhagav± samayantaravigg±haºavasena sabbaññutaññ±ºameva vissajjet²ti dasseti. “Sant²”ti imin± tesa½ diµµhigatik±na½ vijjam±nat±ya avicchinnata½, tato ca nesa½ micch±g±hato sithilakaraºavivecanehi attano desan±ya kiccak±rita½, avitathatañca d²peti dhammar±j±.
29. Atth²ti “sa½vijjant²”ti imin± sam±nattho puthuvacanavisayo eko nip±to “atthi imasmi½ k±ye kes±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.377; ma. ni. 1.110; ma. ni. 3.154; sa½. ni. 4.127; khu. p±. 3.1) viya. Sassat±divasena pubbanta½ kappent²ti pubbantakappik±. Yasm± pana te ta½ pubbanta½ purimasiddhehi taºh±diµµhikappehi kappetv±, ±sevanabalavat±ya vicittavuttit±ya ca vikappetv± aparabh±gasiddhehi abhinivesabh³tehi taºh±diµµhigg±hehi gaºhanti abhinivisanti par±masanti, tasm± vutta½ “pubbanta½ kappetv± vikappetv± gaºhant²”ti. Taºhup±d±navasena v± kappanaggahaº±ni veditabb±ni. Taºh±paccay± hi up±d±na½. Koµµh±ses³ti ettha koµµh±s±d²s³ti attho veditabbo. Padap³raºasam²pa-ummagg±d²supi hi anta-saddo dissati. Tath± hi “iªgha tva½ suttante v± g±th±yo v± abhidhamma½ v± pariy±puºassu (p±ci. 442), suttante ok±sa½ k±r±petv±”ti (p±ci. 1221) ca ±d²su padap³raºe anta-saddo vattati, g±manta½ osareyya, (p±r±. 409; c³¼ava. 343) g±mantasen±sanan”ti-±d²su sam²pe “k±masukhallik±nuyogo eko anto, atth²ti kho kacc±na ayameko anto”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.15; 3.90) ummaggeti.
Kappa-saddo mah±kappasamantabh±vakilesak±mavitakkak±lapaññattisadisabh±v±d²su vattat²ti ±ha “sambahulesu atthesu vattat²”ti. Tath± hesa “catt±rim±ni bhikkhave kappassa asaªkhyeyy±n²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.156) mah±kappe vattati, “kevalakappa½ ve¼uvana½ obh±setv±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.94) samantabh±ve, “saªkappo k±mo, r±go k±mo, saªkappar±go k±mo”ti-±d²su (mah±ni. 1; c³¼ani. 8) kilesak±me, “takko vitakko saªkappo”ti-±d²su (dha. sa. 7) vitakke, “yena suda½ niccakappa½ vihar±m²”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.387) k±le, “icc±yasm± kappo”ti-±d²su (su. ni. 1090; c³¼ani. 113) paññattiya½, “satthukappena vata kira bho s±vakena saddhi½ mantayam±n± na j±nimh±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.260) sadisabh±ve vattat²ti. Vuttampi cetanti mah±niddesa½ (mah±ni. 28) sandh±y±ha. Taºh±diµµhivasen±ti diµµhiy± upanissayabh³t±ya sahaj±t±ya abhinandanabh³t±ya ca taºh±ya, sassat±di-±k±rena abhinivisantassa micch±g±hassa ca vasena. Pubbenivutthadhammavisay±ya kappan±ya adhippetatt± at²tak±lav±cako idha pubba-saddo, r³p±dikhandhavinimuttassa kappan±vatthuno abh±v± anta-saddo ca bh±gav±cakoti ±ha “at²ta½ khandhakoµµh±san”ti. “Kappetv±”ti ca tasmi½ pubbante taºh±yan±bhinives±na½ samatthana½ pariniµµh±panam±ha. Ýhit±ti tass± laddhiy± avijahana½. ¾rabbh±ti ±lambitv±. Visayo hi tass± diµµhiy± pubbanto. Visayabh±vato eva hi so tass± ±gamanaµµh±na½, ±rammaºapaccayo c±ti vutta½ “±gamma paµicc±”ti.
Adhivacanapad±n²ti paññattipad±ni. D±s±d²su siriva¹¹hak±di-sadd± viya vacanamattameva adhik±ra½ katv± pavattiy± adhivacana½ paññatti. Atha v± adhi-saddo uparibh±ve, vuccat²ti vacana½, upari vacana½ adhivacana½, up±d±bh³tar³p±d²na½ upari paññ±piyam±n± up±d±paññatt²ti attho tasm± paññattid²pakapad±n²ti attho daµµhabbo. Paññattimattañheta½ vuccati, yadida½ “att±, loko”ti ca, na r³pavedan±dayo viya paramattho. Adhikavuttit±ya v± adhivuttiyoti diµµhiyo vuccanti. Adhikañhi sabh±vadhammesu sassat±di½ pakati-±didabb±di½ j²v±di½ k±y±diñca abh³tamattha½ ajjh±ropetv± diµµhiyo pavattant²ti.
30. Abhivadant²ti “idameva sacca½, moghamaññan”ti (ma. ni. 2.187, 203, 427; ma. ni. 3.27, 29) abhinivisitv± vadanti “aya½ dhammo, n±ya½ dhammo”ti-±din± vivadanti. Abhivadanakiriy±ya ajj±pi avicchedabh±vadassanattha½ vattam±nak±lavacana½. Diµµhi eva diµµhigata½ “muttagata½, (ma. ni. 2.119; a. ni. 9.11) saªkh±ragatan”ti-±d²su (mah±ni. 41) viya. Gantabb±bh±vato v± diµµhiy± gatamatta½, diµµhiy± gahaºamattanti attho. Diµµhippak±ro v± diµµhigata½. Lokiy± hi vidhayuttagatapak±ra-sadde sam±natthe icchanti. Ekekasmiñca “att±”ti, “loko”ti ca gahaºavisesa½ up±d±ya paññ±pana½ hot²ti ±ha “r³p±d²su aññatara½ att± ca loko c±ti gahetv±”ti. Amara½ nicca½ dhuvanti sassatavevacan±ni. Maraº±bh±vena v± amara½, upp±d±bh±vena sabbath±pi atthit±ya nicca½, thiraµµhena vik±r±bh±vena dhuva½. “Yath±h±”ti-±din± yath±vuttamattha½ niddesapaµisambhid±p±¼²hi vibh±veti. Ayañca attho “r³pa½ attato samanupassati, vedana½, sañña½, saªkh±re, viññ±ºa½ attato samanupassat²”ti imiss± pañcavidh±ya sakk±yadiµµhiy± vasena vutto. “R³pavanta½ att±nan”ti-±dik±ya pana pañcadasavidh±ya sakk±yadiµµhiy± vasena catt±ro catt±ro khandhe “att±”ti gahetv± tadañña½ “loko”ti paññapent²ti ayampi attho labbhati. Tath± eka½ khandha½ att±”ti gahetv± tadaññe attano upabhogabh³to lokoti, sasantatipatite v± khandhe “att±”ti gahetv± tadaññe “loko”ti paññapent²ti evampettha attho daµµhabbo. Etth±ha– sassato v±do etesanti kasm± vutta½, nanu tesa½ att± loko ca sassatoti adhippeto, na v±do ti? Saccameta½, sassatasahacaritat±ya pana “v±do sassato”ti vutta½ yath± “kunt± pacarant²”ti. Sassato iti v±do etesanti v± iti-saddalopo daµµhabbo. Atha v± sassata½ vadanti “idameva saccan”ti abhinivissa voharant²ti sassatav±d±, sassatadiµµhinoti evampettha attho daµµhabbo.