Saraºagamanakath±

Id±ni tesu saraºagamanesu kosallattha½ saraºa½, saraºagamana½, yo ca saraºa½ gacchati, saraºagamanappabhedo, saraºagamanaphala½, saªkileso, bhedoti, aya½ vidhi veditabbo. Seyyathida½– saraºatthato t±va hi½sat²ti saraºa½. Saraºagat±na½ teneva saraºagamanena bhaya½ sant±sa½ dukkha½ duggatiparikilesa½ hanati vin±set²ti attho, ratanattayasseveta½ adhivacana½.
Atha v± hite pavattanena ahit± ca nivattanena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sati buddho. Bhavakant±r± utt±raºena ass±sad±nena ca dhammo; appak±nampi k±r±na½ vipulaphalapaµil±bhakaraºena saªgho Tasm± imin±pi pariy±yena ratanattaya½ saraºa½. Tappas±dataggarut±hi vihatakileso tappar±yaºat±k±rappavatto cittupp±do saraºagamana½. Ta½ samaªg²satto saraºa½ gacchati. Vuttappak±rena cittupp±dena et±ni me t²ºi ratan±ni saraºa½, et±ni par±yaºanti eva½ upet²ti attho. Eva½ t±va saraºa½, saraºagamana½, yo ca saraºa½ gacchati, ida½ taya½ veditabba½.
Saraºagamanappabhede pana duvidha½ saraºagamana½– lokuttara½ lokiyañca. Tattha lokuttara½ diµµhasacc±na½ maggakkhaºe saraºagamanupakkilesasamucchedena ±rammaºato nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv± kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhati. Lokiya½ puthujjan±na½ saraºagamanupakkilesavikkhambhanena ±rammaºato buddh±diguº±rammaºa½ hutv± ijjhati. Ta½ atthato buddh±d²su vatth³su saddh±paµil±bho saddh±m³lik± ca samm±diµµhi dasasu puññakiriyavatth³su diµµhijukammanti vuccati. Tayida½ catudh± vattati– attasanniyy±tanena, tappar±yaºat±ya, sissabh±v³pagamanena, paºip±ten±ti.
Tattha attasanniyy±tana½ n±ma– “ajj±di½ katv± aha½ att±na½ buddhassa niyy±temi, dhammassa, saªghass±”ti eva½ buddh±d²na½ attapariccajana½. Tappar±yaºat± n±ma “ajj±di½ katv± ‘aha½ buddhapar±yaºo, dhammapar±yaºo, saªghapar±yaºo’ti. Ma½ dh±reth±”ti eva½ tappar±yaºabh±vo. Sissabh±v³pagamana½ n±ma– “ajj±di½ katv±– ‘aha½ buddhassa antev±siko, dhammassa, saªghassa antev±siko’ti ma½ dh±reth±”ti eva½ sissabh±v³pagamo. Paºip±to n±ma– “ajj±di½ katv± aha½ abhiv±danapaccuµµh±na-añjalikammas±m²cikamma½ buddh±d²na½yeva tiººa½ vatth³na½ karom²’ti ma½ dh±reth±”ti eva½ buddh±d²su paramanipacc±k±ro. Imesañhi catunna½ ±k±r±na½ aññatarampi karontena gahita½yeva hoti saraºa½.
Api ca bhagavato att±na½ pariccaj±mi, dhammassa, saªghassa, att±na½ pariccaj±mi, j²vita½ pariccaj±mi, pariccattoyeva me att±, pariccatta½yeva j²vita½, j²vitapariyantika½ buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±mi, buddho me saraºa½ leºa½ t±ºanti evampi attasanniyy±tana½ veditabba½. “Satth±rañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyya½, sugatañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyya½, samm±sambuddhañca vat±ha½ passeyya½, bhagavantameva passeyyan”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154). Evampi mah±kassapassa saraºagamana½ viya sissabh±v³pagamana½ veditabba½.
“So aha½ vicariss±mi, g±m± g±ma½ pur± pura½;
namassam±no sambuddha½, dhammassa ca sudhammatan”ti. (Su. ni. 194).
Evampi ±¼avak±d²na½ saraºagamana½ viya tappar±yaºat± veditabb±. Atha kho brahm±yu br±hmaºo uµµh±y±san± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± bhagavato p±desu siras± nipatitv± bhagavato p±d±ni mukhena ca paricumbati, p±º²hi ca parisamb±hati, n±mañca s±veti– “brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama br±hmaºo, brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama br±hmaºo”ti (ma. ni. 2.394) evampi paºip±to daµµhabbo.
So panesa ñ±tibhay±cariyadakkhiºeyyavasena catubbidho hoti. Tattha dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tena saraºagamana½ hoti, na itarehi. Seµµhavaseneva hi saraºa½ gaºh±ti, seµµhavasena ca bhijjati. Tasm± yo s±kiyo v± koliyo v±– “buddho amh±ka½ ñ±tako”ti vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraºa½. Yo v±– “samaºo gotamo r±jap³jito mah±nubh±vo avand²yam±no anatthampi kareyy±”ti bhayena vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraºa½. Yo v± bodhisattak±le bhagavato santike kiñci uggahita½ saram±no buddhak±le v±–
“Catudh± vibhaje bhoge, paº¹ito gharam±vasa½;
ekena bhoga½ bhuñjeyya, dv²hi kamma½ payojaye;
catutthañca nidh±peyya, ±pad±su bhavissat²”ti. (D². ni. 3.265).
Evar³pa½ anus±sani½ uggahetv±– “±cariyo me”ti vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraºa½. Yo pana– “aya½ loke aggadakkhiºeyyo”ti vandati, teneva gahita½ hoti saraºa½.
Eva½ gahitasaraºassa ca up±sakassa v± up±sik±ya v± aññatitthiyesu pabbajitampi ñ±ti½– “ñ±tako me ayan”ti vandato saraºagamana½ na bhijjati, pageva apabbajita½. Tath± r±j±na½ bhayavasena vandato. So hi raµµhap³jitatt± avand²yam±no anatthampi kareyy±ti. Tath± ya½ kiñci sippa½ sikkh±paka½ titthiyampi– “±cariyo me ayan”ti vandatopi na bhijjati, eva½ saraºagamanappabhedo veditabbo.
Ettha ca lokuttarassa saraºagamanassa catt±ri s±maññaphal±ni vip±kaphala½, sabbadukkhakkhayo ±nisa½saphala½. Vuttañheta½–
“Yo ca buddhañca dhammañca, saªghañca saraºa½ gato;
catt±ri ariyasacc±ni, sammappaññ±ya passati.
Dukkha½ dukkhasamupp±da½, dukkhassa ca atikkama½;
ariya½ aµµhaªgika½ magga½, dukkh³pasamag±mina½.
Eta½ kho saraºa½ khema½, eta½ saraºamuttama½;
eta½ saraºam±gamma, sabbadukkh± pamuccat²”ti. (Dha. pa. 192).
Api ca nicc±dito anupagaman±divasena petassa ±nisa½saphala½ veditabba½. Vuttañheta½– “aµµh±nameta½ anavak±so, ya½ diµµhisampanno puggalo kañci saªkh±ra½ niccato upagaccheyya…pe… kañci saªkh±ra½ sukhato…pe… kañci dhamma½ attato upagaccheyya…pe… m±tara½ j²vit± voropeyya…pe… pitara½…pe… arahanta½…pe… paduµµhacitto tath±gatassa lohita½ upp±deyya…pe…. saªgha½ bhindeyya…pe… añña½ satth±ra½ uddiseyya, neta½ µh±na½ vijjat²”ti (a. ni. 1.290). Lokiyassa pana saraºagamanassa bhavasampad±pi bhogasampad±pi phalameva. Vuttañheta½–
“Ye keci buddha½ saraºa½ gat±se, na te gamissanti ap±yabh³mi½;
pah±ya m±nusa½ deha½, devak±ya½ parip³ressant²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.37).
Aparampi vutta½– “atha kho sakko dev±namindo as²tiy± devat±sahassehi saddhi½ yen±yasm± mah±moggall±no tenupasaªkami…pe… ekamanta½ µhita½ kho sakka½ dev±naminda½ ±yasm± mah±moggall±no etadavoca– “s±dhu kho, dev±naminda, buddha½ saraºagamana½ hoti. Buddha½ saraºagamanahetu kho, dev±naminda, evamidhekacce satt± k±yassa bhed± para½ maraº± sugati½ sagga½ loka½ upapajjanti…pe… te aññe deve dasahi µh±nehi adhigaºhanti– dibbena ±yun±, dibbena vaººena, dibbena sukhena, dibbena yasena, dibbena ±dhipateyyena, dibbehi r³pehi saddehi gandhehi rasehi phoµµhabbeh²”ti (sa½. ni. 4.341). Esa nayo dhamme ca saªghe ca. Api ca vel±masutt±d²na½ vasen±pi saraºagamanassa phalaviseso veditabbo. Eva½ saraºagamanassa phala½ veditabba½.
Tattha ca lokiyasaraºagamana½ t²su vatth³su aññ±ºasa½sayamicch±ñ±º±d²hi sa½kilissati, na mah±jutika½ hoti, na mah±vipph±ra½. Lokuttarassa natthi sa½kileso. Lokiyassa ca saraºagamanassa duvidho bhedo– s±vajjo ca anavajjo ca. Tattha s±vajjo aññasatth±r±d²su attasanniyy±tan±d²hi hoti, so ca aniµµhaphalo hoti. Anavajjo k±lakiriy±ya hoti, so avip±katt± aphalo. Lokuttarassa pana nevatthi bhedo. Bhavantarepi hi ariyas±vako añña½ satth±ra½ na uddisat²ti. Eva½ saraºagamanassa sa½kileso ca bhedo ca veditabboti.
Up±saka½ ma½ bhante bhagav± dh±ret³ti ma½ bhagav± “up±sako ayan”ti eva½ dh±retu, j±n±t³ti attho. Up±sakavidhikosallattha½ panettha– ko up±sako? Kasm± up±sakoti vuccati Kimassa s²la½? Ko ±j²vo? K± vipatti? K± sampatt²ti? Ida½ pakiººaka½ veditabba½.
Tattha ko up±sakoti yo koci saraºagato gahaµµho. Vuttañheta½– “yato kho, mah±n±ma, buddha½ saraºa½ gato hoti, dhamma½ saraºa½ gato hoti, saªgha½ saraºa½ gato hoti. Ett±vat± kho, mah±n±ma, up±sako hot²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1033).
Kasm± up±sakoti ratanattaya½ up±sanato. So hi buddha½ up±sat²ti up±sako, tath± dhamma½ sa½gha½.
Kimassa s²lanti pañca veramaºiyo. Yath±ha– “yato kho, mah±n±ma, up±sako p±º±tip±t± paµivirato hoti, adinn±d±n±… k±mesumicch±c±r±… mus±v±d±… sur±merayamajjapam±daµµh±n± paµivirato hoti, ett±vat± kho, mah±n±ma, up±sako s²lav± hot²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1033).
Ko ±j²voti pañca micch±vaºijj± pah±ya dhammena samena j²vitakappana½. Vuttañheta½– “pañcim±, bhikkhave, vaºijj± up±sakena akaraº²y±. Katam± pañca? Satthavaºijj±, sattavaºijj±, ma½savaºijj±, majjavaºijj±, visavaºijj±. Im± kho, bhikkhave, pañca vaºijj± up±sakena akaraº²y±”ti (a. ni. 5.177).
K± vipatt²ti y± tasseva s²lassa ca ±j²vassa ca vipatti, ayamassa vipatti. Api ca y±ya esa caº¹±lo ceva hoti, malañca patikuµµho ca, s±pissa vipatt²ti veditabb±. Te ca atthato assaddhiy±dayo pañca dhamm± honti. Yath±ha– “pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samann±gato up±sako up±sakacaº¹±lo ca hoti, up±sakamalañca, up±sakapatikuµµho ca. Katamehi pañcahi? Assaddho hoti, duss²lo hoti, kot³halamaªgaliko hoti, maªgala½ pacceti, no kamma½, ito ca bahiddh± dakkhiºeyya½ pariyesati, tattha ca pubbak±ra½ karot²”ti (a. ni. 5.175).
K± sampatt²ti y± cassa s²lasampad± ceva ±j²vasampad± ca, s± sampatti; ye cassa ratanabh±v±dikar± saddh±dayo pañca dhamm±. Yath±ha– “pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samann±gato up±sako up±sakaratanañca hoti, up±sakapadumañca, up±sakapuº¹ar²kañca. Katamehi pañcahi? Saddho hoti, s²lav± hoti, na kot³halamaªgaliko hoti, kamma½ pacceti, no maªgala½, na ito bahiddh± dakkhiºeyya½ gavesati, idha ca pubbak±ra½ karot²”ti (a. ni. 5.175).
Ajjataggeti etth±ya½ aggasaddo ±dikoµikoµµh±saseµµhesu dissati. “Ajjatagge, samma dov±rika, ±var±mi dv±ra½ nigaºµh±na½ nigaºµh²nan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 2.70) hi ±dimhi dissati. “Teneva aªgulaggena ta½ aªgulagga½ par±maseyya Ucchagga½ ve¼aggan”ti-±d²su (kath±. 281) koµiya½. “Ambilagga½ v± madhuragga½ v± tittakagga½ v± vih±raggena v± pariveºaggena v± bh±jetun”ti-±d²su (c³¼ava. 317) koµµh±se. “Y±vat±, bhikkhave, satt± apad± v±…pe… tath±gato tesa½ aggamakkh±yat²”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.34) seµµhe. Idha pan±ya½ ±dimhi daµµhabbo. Tasm± ajjataggeti ajjata½ ±di½ katv±ti evametthattho veditabbo. Ajjatanti ajjabh±va½. Ajjadaggeti v± p±µho, dak±ro padasandhikaro. Ajja agganti attho.
P±ºupetanti p±ºehi upeta½. Y±va me j²vita½ pavattati, t±va upeta½ anaññasatthuka½ t²hi saraºagamanehi saraºa½ gata½ up±saka½ kappiyak±raka½ ma½ bhagav± dh±retu j±n±tu. Ahañhi sacepi me tikhiºena asin± s²sa½ chindeyya, neva buddha½ “na buddho”ti v±, dhamma½ “na dhammo”ti v±, saªgha½ “na saªgho”ti v± vadeyyanti.
Eva½ attasanniyy±tanena saraºa½ gantv± attan± kata½ apar±dha½ pak±sento accayo ma½, bhanteti-±dim±ha. Tattha accayoti apar±dho. Ma½ accagam±ti ma½ atikkamma abhibhavitv± pavatto. Dhammika½ dhammar±j±nanti ettha dhamma½ carat²ti dhammiko. Dhammeneva r±j± j±to, na pitugh±tan±din± adhammen±ti dhammar±j±. J²vit± voropesinti j²vit± viyojesi½. Paµiggaºh±t³ti khamatu. ¾yati½ sa½var±y±ti an±gate sa½varatth±ya. Puna evar³passa apar±dhassa dosassa khalitassa akaraºatth±ya.
251. Taggh±ti eka½se nip±to. Yath± dhamma½ paµikaros²ti yath± dhammo µhito tatheva karosi, kham±pes²ti vutta½ hoti. Ta½ te maya½ paµiggaºh±m±ti ta½ tava apar±dha½ maya½ kham±ma. Vu¹¹hihes±, mah±r±ja ariyassa vinayeti es±, mah±r±ja, ariyassa vinaye buddhassa bhagavato s±sane vu¹¹hi n±ma. Katam±? Y±ya½ accaya½ accayato disv± yath±dhamma½ paµikaritv± ±yati½ sa½var±pajjan±, desana½ pana puggal±dhiµµh±na½ karonto– “yo accaya½ accayato disv± yath±dhamma½ paµikaroti, ±yati½ sa½vara½ ±pajjat²”ti ±ha.
252. Eva½ vutteti eva½ bhagavat± vutte. Handa ca d±ni maya½ bhanteti ettha hand±ti vacas±yatthe nip±to. So hi gamanavacas±ya½ katv± evam±ha. Bahukicc±ti balavakicc±. Bahukaraº²y±ti tasseva vevacana½. Yassad±ni tvanti yassa id±ni tva½ mah±r±ja gamanassa k±la½ maññasi j±n±si, tassa k±la½ tvameva j±n±s²ti vutta½ hoti. Padakkhiºa½ katv± pakk±m²ti tikkhattu½ padakkhiºa½ katv± dasanakhasamodh±nasamujjala½ añjali½ sirasi patiµµhapetv± y±va dassanavisaya½ bhagavato abhimukhova paµikkamitv± dassanavijahanaµµh±nabh³miya½ pañcapatiµµhitena vanditv± pakk±mi.
253. Khat±ya½, bhikkhave, r±j±ti khato aya½, bhikkhave, r±j±. Upahat±yanti upahato aya½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– aya½, bhikkhave, r±j± khato upahato bhinnapatiµµho j±to, tath±nena attan±va att± khato, yath± attano patiµµh± na j±t±ti. Virajanti r±garaj±divirahita½. R±gamal±d²na½yeva vigatatt± v²tamala½. Dhammacakkhunti dhammesu v± cakkhu½, dhammamaya½ v± cakkhu½, aññesu µh±nesu tiººa½ magg±nameta½ adhivacana½. Idha pana sot±pattimaggasseva. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– sace imin± pit± gh±tito n±bhavissa, id±ni idhev±sane nisinno sot±pattimagga½ patto abhavissa, p±pamittasa½saggena panassa antar±yo j±to. Eva½ santepi yasm± aya½ tath±gata½ upasaªkamitv± ratanattaya½ saraºa½ gato, tasm± mama s±sanamahantat±ya yath± n±ma koci purisassa vadha½ katv± pupphamuµµhimattena daº¹ena mucceyya, evameva lohakumbhiya½ nibbattitv± ti½savassasahass±ni adho patanto heµµhimatala½ patv± ti½savassasahass±ni uddha½ gacchanto punapi uparimatala½ p±puºitv± muccissat²ti idampi kira bhagavat± vuttameva, p±¼iya½ pana na ±r³¼ha½.
Ida½ pana sutta½ sutv± raññ± koci ±nisa½so laddhoti? Mah±-±nisa½so laddho. Ayañhi pitu m±ritak±lato paµµh±ya neva ratti½ na div± nidda½ labhati, satth±ra½ pana upasaªkamitv± im±ya madhur±ya ojavantiy± dhammadesan±ya sutak±lato paµµh±ya nidda½ labhi. Tiººa½ ratan±na½ mah±sakk±ra½ ak±si. Pothujjanik±ya saddh±ya samann±gato n±ma imin± raññ± sadiso n±hosi. An±gate pana vijit±v² n±ma paccekabuddho hutv± parinibb±yissat²ti Idamavoca bhagav±. Attaman± te bhikkh³ bhagavato bh±sita½ abhinandunti.

Iti sumaªgalavil±siniy± d²ghanik±yaµµhakath±ya½

S±maññaphalasuttavaººan± niµµhit±.